Surgeons
4 years of experience

Central Bench
6140 W Curtisian Ave
Ste 400
Boise, ID 83704
208-367-3500
Locations and availability (2)

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Columbia University (2006)
  • Currently 4 of 4 apples
Top 25%

Publications & Research

Dr. Lochhead has contributed to 4 publications.
Title A History of the Barrow Neurological Institute.
Date March 2011
Journal World Neurosurgery
Excerpt

The Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI), founded in 1961, is in partnership with St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center and part of the Catholic Healthcare West system. The BNI is a relative newcomer to academic neuroscience. However, since its inception it has grown to become an international destination for neurologic disease. This article describes the history of the institute as it has grown over the years in its commitment to excellence in patient care, education, and research.

Title Identification of A2b5+cd133- Tumor-initiating Cells in Adult Human Gliomas.
Date June 2008
Journal Neurosurgery
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown that human gliomas contain a small population of cells with stem cell-like features. It has been proposed that these "cancer stem cells" may be uniquely responsible for glioma formation and recurrence. However, human gliomas also contain an abundance of cells that closely resemble more differentiated glial progenitors. Animal model studies have shown that these cells also possess the capacity to form malignant gliomas. METHODS: To investigate the contributions of stem-like and progenitor-like cells in human gliomas, we used flow cytometry to characterize the expression of a cancer stem cell marker (CD133) and a glial progenitor marker (A2B5) in 25 tumors. We found that human gliomas consistently express A2B5 in a large percentage of cells (61.7 +/- 3.8%, standard error of the mean). In contrast, CD133 expression was less abundant and less consistent (14.8 +/- 3.6%, standard error of the mean), with several glioblastomas containing very few or no detectable CD133+ cells. When present, the CD133+ population was almost entirely contained within the A2B5+ population. Thus, most gliomas could be divided into three distinct populations on the basis of these markers (A2B5+CD133+, A2B5+CD133-, and A2B5-CD133-). To test the tumorigenic potential of these populations, we separated cells from six tumors by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and reinjected them into nude rats. RESULTS: We found that the capacity for these different populations to form tumors varied depending on the human tumor specimen from which they were isolated. Of the six human gliomas tested, four contained A2B5+/CD133- cells that formed tumors when transplanted into nude rats, three contained A2B5+/CD133+ cells that formed tumors, and only one glioma contained A2B5-/CD133- cells with the capacity to form tumors. CONCLUSION: Together, these results demonstrate that human gliomas contain multiple populations of cells with the capacity to form tumors and specifically identify a population of tumorigenic A2B5+ cells that are phenotypically distinct from CD133+ cells.

Title Regional Brain Gray Matter Volume Differences in Patients with Bipolar Disorder As Assessed by Optimized Voxel-based Morphometry.
Date July 2004
Journal Biological Psychiatry
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of regions of interest in brain have been inconsistent in demonstrating volumetric differences in subjects with bipolar disorder (BD). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) provides an unbiased survey of the brain, can identify novel brain areas, and validates previously hypothesized regions. We conducted both optimized VBM, comparing MRI gray matter volume, and traditional VBM, comparing MRI gray matter density, in 11 BD subjects and 31 healthy volunteers. To our knowledge, these are the first VBM analyses of BD. METHODS: Segmented MRI gray matter images were normalized into standardized stereotactic space, modulated to allow volumetric analysis (optimized only), smoothed, and compared at the voxel level with statistical parametric mapping. RESULTS: Optimized VBM showed that BD subjects had smaller volume in left ventromedial temporal cortex and bilateral cingulate cortex and larger volume in left insular/frontoparietal operculum cortex and left ventral occipitotemporal cortex. Traditional VBM showed that BD subjects had less gray matter density in left ventromedial temporal cortex and greater gray matter density in left insular/frontoparietal operculum cortex and bilateral thalamic cortex. Exploratory analyses suggest that these abnormalities might differ according to gender. CONCLUSIONS: Bipolar disorder is associated with volumetric and gray matter density changes that involve brain regions hypothesized to influence mood.

Title Disease Management Program Improves Asthma Outcomes.
Date August 2000
Journal The American Journal of Managed Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To show that a disease management program that empowers patients with asthma to participate in the management of their condition can improve quality of life and reduce the use of medical services. STUDY DESIGN: Utilization and quality-of-life data were tracked to identify outcome changes in patients with moderate to severe asthma. Baseline measures were used as a control and were compared with measures taken at 6 and 12 months after enrollment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Study participants were from a single Medicaid managed care plan in western Pennsylvania. Patients' quality of life during their participation in the program was tracked through an outside pharmacoepidemiologic research firm. Utilization data were updated with every interaction between a patient and case management nurse. RESULTS: Both quality-of-life and utilization data show statistically significant improvements at 6 months. Further, 12-month data show improvement that is statistically significant in all measures with the exception of the adult quality-of-life measure, where a small sample size limited the statistical results. CONCLUSIONS: A collaborative, proactive approach to asthma management improves patients' quality of life and reduces use of costly medical services.


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