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Internist, Preventive Medicine / Wellness
34 years of experience

Credentials

Education ?

Medical School Score
Loma Linda University (1978)
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Awards & Distinctions ?

Associations
American Board of Internal Medicine
American Board of Preventive Medicine

Publications & Research

Dr. Nelson has contributed to 176 publications.
Title Hla-drb1 Reduces the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Increased Insulin Secretion.
Date October 2011
Journal Diabetologia
Excerpt

We sought to identify the physiological implications of genetic variation at the HLA-DRB1 region in full-heritage Pima Indians in Arizona.

Title Association of Variants in the Carnosine Peptidase 1 Gene (cndp1) with Diabetic Nephropathy in American Indians.
Date September 2011
Journal Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Excerpt

CNDP1 is located on 18q22.3, where linkage with diabetic nephropathy has been observed in several populations, including Pima Indians. However, evidence for association between CNDP1 alleles and diabetic nephropathy is equivocal and population-dependent. This study investigated CNDP1 as a candidate for diabetic kidney disease in Pima Indians. Nineteen tag single nucleotide polymorphisms spanning the CNDP1 locus were selected using genotype data from Chinese individuals in the HapMap resource along with 2 variants previously associated with diabetic nephropathy. All variants were genotyped in 3 different samples including a diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) case-control study, a family-based study of diabetic individuals who participated in the linkage study for nephropathy, and a cohort of diabetic individuals in whom longitudinal measures of glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were performed. There was no statistically significant evidence for association with diabetic ESRD. However, nominal evidence for association was found in the family study, where markers rs12957330 (Odds ratio [OR]=0.29 per copy of G allele; p=0.04) and rs17817077 (OR=0.46 per copy of G allele; p=0.05) were associated with diabetic nephropathy. In addition, markers rs12964454, rs7244647, and rs7229005 were associated with changes in GFR (-8.5ml/min per copy of the G allele; p=0.04; 18.8ml/min per copy of the C allele; p=0.03; and -13.4ml/min per copy of the C allele; p=0.001, respectively). These findings provide nominal evidence supporting a role between CNDP1 variants and diabetic kidney disease.

Title Lower Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Higher Albuminuria Are Associated with All-cause and Cardiovascular Mortality. A Collaborative Meta-analysis of High-risk Population Cohorts.
Date September 2011
Journal Kidney International
Excerpt

Screening for chronic kidney disease is recommended in people at high risk, but data on the independent and combined associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality are limited. To clarify this, we performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 10 cohorts with 266,975 patients selected because of increased risk for chronic kidney disease, defined as a history of hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. Risk for all-cause mortality was not associated with eGFR between 60-105 ml/min per 1.73 m², but increased at lower levels. Hazard ratios at eGFRs of 60, 45, and 15 ml/min per 1.73 m² were 1.03, 1.38 and 3.11, respectively, compared to an eGFR of 95, after adjustment for albuminuria and cardiovascular risk factors. Log albuminuria was linearly associated with log risk for all-cause mortality without thresholds. Adjusted hazard ratios at albumin-to-creatinine ratios of 10, 30 and 300 mg/g were 1.08, 1.38, and 2.16, respectively compared to a ratio of five. Albuminuria and eGFR were multiplicatively associated with all-cause mortality, without evidence for interaction. Similar associations were observed for cardiovascular mortality. Findings in cohorts with dipstick data were generally comparable to those in cohorts measuring albumin-to-creatinine ratios. Thus, lower eGFR and higher albuminuria are risk factors for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in high-risk populations, independent of each other and of cardiovascular risk factors.

Title Genomewide Linkage Scan for Diabetic Renal Failure and Albuminuria: the Find Study.
Date September 2011
Journal American Journal of Nephrology
Excerpt

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The multicenter FIND consortium aims to identify genes for DN and its associated quantitative traits, e.g. the urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR). Herein, the results of whole-genome linkage analysis and a sparse association scan for ACR and a dichotomous DN phenotype are reported in diabetic individuals.

Title Higher Energy Expenditure in Humans Predicts Natural Mortality.
Date August 2011
Journal The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Excerpt

Higher metabolic rates increase free radical formation, which may accelerate aging and lead to early mortality.

Title The Impact of Disadvantage on the Development and Progression of Diabetic Kidney Disease.
Date March 2011
Journal Clinical Nephrology
Excerpt

Disadvantaged people include those experiencing economic, social or educational deprivation and, in some cases, those undergoing rapid transition from subsistence to industrial economies. Disadvantaged people worldwide are affected disproportionately by the global epidemic of diabetes. They are also at increased risk of kidney disease attributable to diabetes, and for many, the cost of managing their kidney disease far exceeds their available resources.

Title Effect of Intrauterine Diabetes Exposure on the Incidence of End-stage Renal Disease in Young Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.
Date February 2011
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

We examined the effect of intrauterine diabetes exposure (IDE) on the incidence of diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes.

Title Cropland Carbon Fluxes in the United States: Increasing Geospatial Resolution of Inventory-based Carbon Accounting.
Date August 2010
Journal Ecological Applications : a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Excerpt

Net annual soil carbon change, fossil fuel emissions from cropland production, and cropland net primary production were estimated and spatially distributed using land cover defined by NASA's moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and by the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) cropland data layer (CDL). Spatially resolved estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) were developed. The purpose of generating spatial estimates of carbon fluxes, and the primary objective of this research, was to develop a method of carbon accounting that is consistent from field to national scales. NEE represents net on-site vertical fluxes of carbon. NECB represents all on-site and off-site carbon fluxes associated with crop production. Estimates of cropland NEE using moderate resolution (approximately 1 km2) land cover data were generated for the conterminous United States and compared with higher resolution (30-m) estimates of NEE and with direct measurements of CO2 flux from croplands in Illinois and Nebraska, USA. Estimates of NEE using the CDL (30-m resolution) had a higher correlation with eddy covariance flux tower estimates compared with estimates of NEE using MODIS. Estimates of NECB are primarily driven by net soil carbon change, fossil fuel emissions associated with crop production, and CO2 emissions from the application of agricultural lime. NEE and NECB for U.S. croplands were -274 and 7 Tg C/yr for 2004, respectively. Use of moderate- to high-resolution satellite-based land cover data enables improved estimates of cropland carbon dynamics.

Title The Separate and Joint Effects of Prolonged Qt Interval and Heart Rate on Mortality.
Date June 2010
Journal Atherosclerosis
Excerpt

Understanding why prolonged Bazett-corrected QT interval (QTc) is a risk factor for mortality is difficult, because QTc is positively correlated with heart rate. To optimally distinguish the effects of QT interval and heart rate on mortality, QT interval and heart rate were modeled separately and jointly in Pima Indians.

Title Predictive Value of Albuminuria in American Indian Youth with or Without Type 2 Diabetes.
Date April 2010
Journal Pediatrics
Excerpt

To examine the prognostic significance of elevated albuminuria in youth with type 2 diabetes.

Title Genome-wide Linkage Scans for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Four Ethnically Diverse Populations-significant Evidence for Linkage on Chromosome 4q in African Americans: the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes Research Group.
Date January 2010
Journal Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Excerpt

Previous studies have shown that in addition to environmental influences, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a strong genetic component. The goal of the current study is to identify regions of linkage for T2DM in ethnically diverse populations.

Title Change in the Distribution of Albuminuria According to Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Pima Indians with Type 2 Diabetes.
Date December 2009
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

We examined secular trends in the frequency distribution of albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in subjects with type 2 diabetes in 1982-1988 and 2001-2006, two periods associated with major changes in the management of diabetes.

Title Enhanced Expression of Janus Kinase-signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription Pathway Members in Human Diabetic Nephropathy.
Date March 2009
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

Glomerular mesangial expansion and podocyte loss are important early features of diabetic nephropathy, whereas tubulointerstitial injury and fibrosis are critical for progression of diabetic nephropathy to kidney failure. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of genes in glomeruli and tubulointerstitium in kidney biopsies from diabetic nephropathy patients to identify pathways that may be activated in humans but not in murine models of diabetic nephropathy that fail to progress to glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and kidney failure.

Title The Mif Receptor Cd74 in Diabetic Podocyte Injury.
Date February 2009
Journal Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : Jasn
Excerpt

Although metabolic derangement plays a central role in diabetic nephropathy, a better understanding of secondary mediators of injury may lead to new therapeutic strategies. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is increased in experimental diabetic nephropathy, and increased tubulointerstitial mRNA expression of its receptor, CD74, has been observed in human diabetic nephropathy. Whether CD74 transduces MIF signals in podocytes, however, is unknown. Here, we found glomerular and tubulointerstitial CD74 mRNA expression to be increased in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the increased glomerular and tubular expression of CD74 in clinical and experimental diabetic nephropathy and localized glomerular CD74 to podocytes. In cultured human podocytes, CD74 was expressed at the cell surface, was upregulated by high concentrations of glucose and TNF-alpha, and was activated by MIF, leading to phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38. High glucose also induced CD74 expression in a human proximal tubule cell line (HK2). In addition, MIF induced the expression of the inflammatory mediators TRAIL and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in podocytes and HK2 cells in a p38-dependent manner. These data suggest that CD74 acts as a receptor for MIF in podocytes and may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

Title Changing Course of Diabetic Nephropathy in the Pima Indians.
Date January 2009
Journal Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Excerpt

Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona have a high incidence rate of type 2 diabetes, and kidney disease attributable to diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. Since 1965, each member of the population at least 5 years of age is invited to participate in a research examination every other year. During the past 43 years, the overall incidence of diabetes in the Pima Indians has not changed, but the incidence of diabetes among those less than 15 years of age has increased nearly 6-fold, as an increasing prevalence and degree of obesity in the youth have shifted the onset of diabetes to younger ages. The rising frequency of diabetes in the youth has led, in turn, to the emergence in mid-life of the major complications of diabetes, including kidney disease. On the other hand, the introduction and widespread use of medicines to control blood pressure, reduce hyperglycemia, and block the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have lead to improvements in the average blood pressure and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in the diabetic population. These countervailing forces have influenced the course of diabetic nephropathy in a generally favorable direction in the past few years, as evidenced by the decline in the overall incidence of end-stage kidney disease since 1990. A continued increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes in youth, however, threatens to reverse this trend.

Title Heritability of the Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy: the Find-eye Study.
Date October 2008
Journal Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Excerpt

PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) are serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Correlations between severity of DR and DN and computed heritability estimates for DR were determined in a large, multiethnic sample of diabetic families. The hypothesis was that (1) the severity of DR correlates with the presence and severity of nephropathy in individuals with diabetes mellitus, and (2) the severity of DR is under significant familial influence in members of multiplex diabetic families. METHODS: The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) was designed to evaluate the genetic basis of DN in American Indians, European Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans. FIND enrolled probands with advanced DN, along with their diabetic siblings who were concordant and discordant for nephropathy. These diabetic family members were invited to participate in the FIND-Eye study to determine whether inherited factors underlie susceptibility to DR and its severity. FIND-Eye participants underwent eye examinations and had fundus photographs taken. The severity of DR was graded by using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Classification (ETDRS). Sib-sib correlations were calculated with the SAGE 5.0 program FCOR, to estimate heritability of retinopathy severity. RESULTS: This report summarizes the results for the first 2368 diabetic subjects from 767 families enrolled in FIND-Eye; nearly 50% were Mexican American, the largest single ethnicity within FIND. The overall prevalence of DR was high; 33.4% had proliferative DR; 7.5%, 22.8%, and 9.5% had severe, moderate, and mild nonproliferative DR, respectively; 26.6% had no DR. The severity of DR was significantly associated with severity of DN, both by phenotypic category and by increasing serum creatinine concentration (chi(2) = 658.14, df = 20; P < 0.0001). The sib-sib correlation for DR severity was 0.1358 in the total sample and 0.1224 when limited to the Mexican-American sample. Broad sense heritabilities for DR were 27% overall and 24% in Mexican-American families. The polygenic heritability of liability for proliferative DR approximated 25% in this FIND-Eye sample. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm that the severity of DR parallels the presence and severity of nephropathy in individuals with diabetes mellitus. The severity of DR in members of multiplex diabetic families appears to have a significant familial connection.

Title Kidney Disease in Childhood-onset Diabetes.
Date September 2008
Journal American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Title Periodontal Disease and Diabetes.
Date June 2008
Journal Oral Diseases
Title Plasma Glucose Regulation and Mortality in Pima Indians.
Date June 2008
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are associated with increased risk of mortality and prevalent ischemic heart disease (IHD) and to analyze if the increased risk of death is dependent on subsequent development of diabetes in Pima Indians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 2,993 Pima Indians aged >or=35 years were included. Prevalent IHD, defined by major ischemic electrocardiogram changes, was evaluated according to the following glucose/diabetes categories: normal glucose regulation (NGR), IFG and/or IGT, and diabetic groups by duration. During a median follow-up of 10.4 years, 780 subjects died from natural causes and 156 of these died from IHD. Mortality was analyzed according to the same glucose/diabetes categories at baseline and then as time-dependent variables. RESULTS: Only subjects with diabetes >or=15 years of duration have a higher prevalence of IHD (odds ratio 1.9 [95% CI 1.4-2.5]) relative to NGR. In baseline and time-dependent models, age- and sex-adjusted death rates from natural causes and from IHD were similar among the nondiabetic groups. Among diabetic subjects, natural mortality was higher in those with >or=15 years diabetes duration (death rate ratio [DRR] relative to NGR = 2.6 [95% CI 2.1-3.3]). IHD mortality was higher in subjects with long diabetes duration (DRR for diabetes 10-15 years = 3.8 [1.5-9.5]; DRR for diabetes >or=15 years = 8.6 [3.8-19.4]) in the time-dependent model. CONCLUSIONS: Natural and IHD mortality are not increased in Pima Indians with IFG and/or IGT. Only after the onset of diabetes do the rates of these events increase relative to NGR.

Title Predictive Power of Sequential Measures of Albuminuria for Progression to Esrd or Death in Pima Indians with Type 2 Diabetes.
Date May 2008
Journal American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: To determine whether historic albuminuria measurements provide additional predictive value for diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and natural mortality over the most recent measurement, ie, whether "regression" from high albuminuria has a different prognosis than stability at the lower level. STUDY DESIGN: Observational longitudinal study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Pima Indians 15 years or older with type 2 diabetes and at least 2 consecutive measurements of urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) within 6 years. PREDICTORS: Sequential measurements of urinary ACR. OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS: Proportional hazards analyses were used to estimate the risk of ESRD and natural death associated with the first and second ACR measurement. The ability of these highly correlated variables to predict outcome was compared with receiver operating characteristic curves calculated by means of the generalized c statistic. RESULTS: In 983 subjects, 136 developed ESRD and 180 died of natural causes during a maximum follow-up of 12.6 years. Each doubling in the second ACR was associated with a 1.71-fold greater incidence of ESRD (95% confidence interval, 1.54 to 1.89) and 1.16-fold greater natural mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.27) adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, and antihypertensive medication. The addition of the first ACR measurement to the model did not add to the predictive value for ESRD or mortality. In pairwise comparisons of c statistics, the second ACR was a significantly better predictor of ESRD than the first ACR. LIMITATIONS: The predictive value of ACR measurements is decreased to the extent that its precision is based on a single measure. CONCLUSION: The predictive power of the latest ACR for ESRD and natural mortality in patients with diabetes is not enhanced by knowledge of the preceding ACR. Therefore, ACR changes over time, ie, regression or progression, add minimal predictive value beyond the latest measurement in the series.

Title Evaluation of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Equation in a Large Diverse Population.
Date February 2008
Journal Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : Jasn
Excerpt

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimates facilitate detection of chronic kidney disease. Performance of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation varies substantially among populations. To describe the performance of the equation in a large, diverse population, estimated GFR (eGFR) was compared to measured GFR (mGFR) in a cross-sectional analysis of 5504 participants in 10 studies that included measurements of standardized serum creatinine and urinary clearance of iothalamate. At eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), the MDRD Study equation had lower bias and higher precision than at eGFR > or =60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). The accuracy of the equation, measured by the percent of estimates that fell within 30% of mGFR, was similar for eGFR values above or below 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (82% and 84%, respectively). Differences in performance among subgroups defined by age, sex, race, diabetes, transplant status, and body mass index were small when eGFR was <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). The MDRD Study equation therefore provides unbiased and reasonably accurate estimates across a wide range of subgroups when eGFR is <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). In individual patients, interpretation of GFR estimates near 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) should be interpreted with caution to avoid misclassification of chronic kidney disease in the context of the clinical setting.

Title Genome-wide Scan for Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Multi-ethnic Diabetic Populations: the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (find).
Date January 2008
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic nephropathy, the most common cause of end-stage renal disease, aggregates in families and specific ethnic groups. Deconstructing diabetic nephropathy into intermediate, quantitative phenotypes may increase feasibility of detecting susceptibility loci by genetic screens. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which characterizes diabetic nephropathy, was employed as a quantitative trait in a preliminary whole-genome scan. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated for 882 diabetic sibpairs (mean age 57 years) of African-American (25.6% of total), American Indian (8.6%), European-American (14.2%), and Mexican-American (51.6%) descent enrolled in the initial phase of the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND). A whole-genome scan was performed using 404 microsatellite markers (average spacing 9 cM) and model-free linkage analysis. RESULTS: For all ethnicities combined, strong evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 1q43 (P = 3.6 x 10(-3)), 7q36.1 (P = 2.1 x 10(-4)), 8q13.3 (P = 4.6 x 10(-4)), and 18q23.3 (P = 2.7 x 10(-3)). Mexican-American families, who comprised the major ethnic subpopulation in FIND, contributed to linkage on chromosomes 1q43, 2p13.3, 7q36.1, 8q13.3, and 18q23.3, whereas African-American and American-Indian families displayed linkage peaks on chromosomes 11p15.1 and 15q22.3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated multiple chromosomal regions linked to eGFR in a multi-ethnic collection of families ascertained by a proband with diabetic nephropathy. Identification of genetic variants within these loci that are responsible for the linkage signals could lead to predictive tests or novel therapies for subsets of patients at risk for diabetic nephropathy.

Title Correlations of Random Binary Sequences with Pre-stated Operator Intention: a Review of a 12-year Program.
Date September 2007
Journal Explore (new York, N.y.)
Excerpt

Strong correlations between output distribution means of a variety of random binary processes and pre-stated intentions of some 100 individual human operators have been established over a 12-year experimental program. More than 1000 experimental series, employing four different categories of random devices and several distinctive protocols, show comparable magnitudes of anomalous mean shifts from chance expectation, with similar distribution structures. Although the absolute effect sizes are quite small, of the order of 10(-4) bits deviation per bit processed, over the huge databases accumulated, the composite effect exceeds 7sigma (p approximately 3.5 x 10(-13)). These data display significant disparities between female and male operator performances, and consistent serial position effects in individual and collective results. Data generated by operators far removed from the machines and exerting their efforts at times other than those of machine operation show similar effect sizes and structural details to those of the local, on-time experiments. Most other secondary parameters tested are found to have little effect on the scale and character of the results, with one important exception: studies performed using fully deterministic pseudorandom sources, either hard-wired or algorithmic, yield null overall mean shifts, and display no other anomalous features.

Title Identification of Pvt1 As a Candidate Gene for End-stage Renal Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Using a Pooling-based Genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Association Study.
Date July 2007
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

To identify genetic variants contributing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in type 2 diabetes, we performed a genome-wide analysis of 115,352 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pools of 105 unrelated case subjects with ESRD and 102 unrelated control subjects who have had type 2 diabetes for > or =10 years without macroalbuminuria. Using a sliding window statistic of ranked SNPs, we identified a 200-kb region on 8q24 harboring three SNPs showing substantial differences in allelic frequency between case and control pools. These SNPs were genotyped in individuals comprising each pool, and strong evidence for association was found with rs2720709 (P = 0.000021; odds ratio 2.57 [95% CI 1.66-3.96]), which is located in the plasmacytoma variant translocation gene PVT1. We sequenced all exons, exon-intron boundaries, and the promoter of PVT1 and identified 47 variants, 11 of which represented nonredundant markers with minor allele frequency > or =0.05. We subsequently genotyped these 11 variants and an additional 87 SNPs identified through public databases in 319-kb flanking rs2720709 ( approximately 1 SNP/3.5 kb); 23 markers were associated with ESRD at P < 0.01. The strongest evidence for association was found for rs2648875 (P = 0.0000018; 2.97 [1.90-4.65]), which maps to intron 8 of PVT1. Together, these results suggest that PVT1 may contribute to ESRD susceptibility in diabetes.

Title Genome-wide Linkage Analyses to Identify Loci for Diabetic Retinopathy.
Date July 2007
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

Hyperglycemia and long duration of diabetes are widely recognized risk factors for diabetic retinopathy, but inherited susceptibility may also play a role because retinopathy aggregates in families. A genome-wide linkage analysis was conducted in 211 sibships in which > or =2 siblings had diabetes and retinal photographs were available from a longitudinal study. These sibships were a subset of 322 sibships who had participated in a previous linkage study of diabetes and related traits; they comprised 607 diabetic individuals in 725 sibpairs. Retinal photographs were graded for presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy according to a modification of the Airlie House classification system. The grade for the worse eye was adjusted for age, sex, and diabetes duration and analyzed as a quantitative trait. Heritability of diabetic retinopathy in this group was 18% (95% CI 2-36). A genome-wide linkage analysis using variance components modeling found evidence of linkage on chromosome 1p. Using single-point analysis, the peak logarithm of odds (LOD) was 3.1 for marker D1S3669 (34.2 cM), whereas with multipoint analysis the peak LOD was 2.58 at 35 cM. No other areas of suggestive linkage were found. We propose that an area on chromosome 1 may harbor a gene or genes conferring susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy.

Title Changing Patterns of Type 2 Diabetes Incidence Among Pima Indians.
Date July 2007
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: The rising prevalence of obesity and high prevalence of diabetes among Pima Indians suggest that the incidence of diabetes has risen over time. We examined trends in the incidence rate of type 2 diabetes among Pima Indians between 1965 and 2003. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Incidence rates were computed independently in three 13-year time periods in Pima Indians aged > or = 5 years. Diabetes was defined by the presence of at least one of two criteria: 1) 2-h plasma glucose concentration > or = 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) or 2) hypoglycemic treatment. RESULTS: Among 8,236 subjects without diabetes at baseline, 1,005 incident cases occurred during follow-up. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates of diabetes were 25.3 cases/1,000 patient-years (95% CI 22.5-28.0) in 1965-1977, 22.9 cases/1,000 patient years (20.0-25.8) in 1978-1990, and 23.5 cases/1,000 patient years (20.5-26.5) in 1991-2003 (P = 0.3). The incidence rate in subjects aged 5-14 years was 5.7 (1.9-17.4) times as high in the last as in the first period, but the rate declined in those aged 25-34 years (incidence rate ratio 0.6 [0.4-0.8]). Sex-adjusted prevalence increased significantly over time only in those aged 5-24 years (P(trend) < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of diabetes among Pima Indians remained stable over the past four decades, with a significant rise occurring only in the youth.

Title Effect of Periodontitis on Overt Nephropathy and End-stage Renal Disease in Type 2 Diabetes.
Date June 2007
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of periodontitis on development of overt nephropathy, defined as macroalbuminuria, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Individuals residing in the Gila River Indian Community aged > or =25 years with type 2 diabetes, one or more periodontal examination, estimated glomerular filtration rate > or =60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and no macroalbuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio > or =300 mg/g) were identified. Periodontitis was classified as none/mild, moderate, severe, or edentulous using number of teeth and alveolar bone score. Subjects were followed to development of macroalbuminuria or ESRD, defined as onset of renal replacement therapy or death attributed to diabetic nephropathy. RESULTS: Of the 529 individuals, 107 (20%) had none/mild periodontitis, 200 (38%) had moderate periodontitis, 117 (22%) had severe periodontitis, and 105 (20%) were edentulous at baseline. During follow-up of up to 22 years, 193 individuals developed macroalbuminuria and 68 developed ESRD. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence of macroalbuminuria and ESRD increased with severity of periodontitis. After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, BMI, and smoking in a proportional hazards model, the incidences of macroalbuminuria were 2.0, 2.1, and 2.6 times as high in individuals with moderate or severe periodontitis or those who were edentulous, respectively, compared with those with none/mild periodontitis (P = 0.01). Incidences of ESRD in individuals with moderate or severe periodontitis or in those who were edentulous were 2.3, 3.5, and 4.9 times as high, respectively, compared with those with none/mild periodontitis (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis predicts development of overt nephropathy and ESRD in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Whether treatment of periodontitis will reduce the risk of diabetic kidney disease remains to be determined.

Title Genome-wide Scans for Diabetic Nephropathy and Albuminuria in Multiethnic Populations: the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (find).
Date June 2007
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) was initiated to map genes underlying susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy. A total of 11 centers participated under a single collection protocol to recruit large numbers of diabetic sibling pairs concordant and discordant for diabetic nephropathy. We report the findings from the first-phase genetic analyses in 1,227 participants from 378 pedigrees of European-American, African-American, Mexican-American, and American Indian descent recruited from eight centers. Model-free linkage analyses, using a dichotomous definition for diabetic nephropathy in 397 sibling pairs, as well as the quantitative trait urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), were performed using the Haseman-Elston linkage test on 404 microsatellite markers. The strongest evidence of linkage to the diabetic nephropathy trait was on chromosomes 7q21.3, 10p15.3, 14q23.1, and 18q22.3. In ACR (883 diabetic sibling pairs), the strongest linkage signals were on chromosomes 2q14.1, 7q21.1, and 15q26.3. These results confirm regions of linkage to diabetic nephropathy on chromosomes 7q, 10p, and 18q from prior reports, making it important that genes underlying these peaks be evaluated for their contribution to nephropathy susceptibility. Large family collections consisting of multiple members with diabetes and advanced nephropathy are likely to accelerate the identification of genes causing diabetic nephropathy, a life-threatening complication of diabetes.

Title Prediction of Diabetic Nephropathy Using Urine Proteomic Profiling 10 Years Prior to Development of Nephropathy.
Date April 2007
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: We examined whether proteomic technologies identify novel urine proteins associated with subsequent development of diabetic nephropathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes before evidence of microalbuminuria. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a nested case-control study of Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes, baseline (serum creatinine <1.2 mg/dl and urine albumin excretion <30 mg/g) and 10-year urine samples were examined. Case subjects (n = 31) developed diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio >300 mg/g) over 10 years. Control subjects (n = 31) were matched to case subjects (1:1) according to diabetes duration, age, sex, and BMI but remained normoalbuminuric (albumin-to-creatinine ratio <30 mg/g) over the same 10 years. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) was performed on baseline urine samples, and training (14 cases:14 controls) and validation (17:17) sets were tested. RESULTS: At baseline, A1C levels differed between case and control subjects. SELDI-TOF MS detected 714 unique urine protein peaks. Of these, a 12-peak proteomic signature correctly predicted 89% of cases of diabetic nephropathy (93% sensitivity, 86% specificity) in the training set. Applying this same signature to the independent validation set yielded an accuracy rate of 74% (71% sensitivity, 76% specificity). In multivariate analyses, the 12-peak signature was independently associated with subsequent diabetic nephropathy when applied to the validation set (odds ratio [OR] 7.9 [95% CI 1.5-43.5], P = 0.017) and the entire dataset (14.5 [3.7-55.6], P = 0.001), and A1C levels were no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: Urine proteomic profiling identifies normoalbuminuric subjects with type 2 diabetes who subsequently develop diabetic nephropathy. Further studies are needed to characterize the specific proteins involved in this early prediction.

Title Advances and Emerging Opportunities in Type 1 Diabetes: a Strategic Plan.
Date April 2007
Journal Nephrology News & Issues
Title Homocysteine and Vitamin B(12) Concentrations and Mortality Rates in Type 2 Diabetes.
Date April 2007
Journal Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of homocysteine as a risk factor for mortality in diabetic subjects. METHODS: Homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and folate concentrations were measured in stored sera of 396 diabetic Pima Indians aged > or = 40 years when examined between 1982 and 1985. Vital status was assessed through 2001. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Over a median follow-up of 15.7 years, there were 221 deaths-76 were due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), 36 to diabetes/nephropathy and 34 to infections. Homocysteine was positively associated with mortality from all causes (hazard rate ratio (HRR) for highest versus lowest tertile of homocysteine = 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.46), from diabetes/nephropathy (HRR = 2.39, 95% CI 0.94-6.11) and from infectious diseases (HRR = 3.39, 95% CI 1.19-9.70), but not from CVD (HRR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.62-2.17) after adjustment for age, sex and diabetes duration. Homocysteine correlated with serum creatinine (r = 0.50), and the relationships with mortality rates were not significant after adjustment for creatinine. Vitamin B(12) was positively associated with all-cause mortality (HRR for 100 pg/mL difference adjusted for age, sex and diabetes duration = 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22) and death from diabetes/nephropathy (HRR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.10-1.46). The association between homocysteine and mortality in type 2 diabetes is not causal, but is confounded by renal disease in Pima Indians.

Title The New Kdoqi Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for Diabetes and Ckd.
Date February 2007
Journal Blood Purification
Excerpt

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) recently published new guidelines and clinical practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Guidelines were developed using an evidence-based approach. When sufficient evidence was lacking, recommendations were developed that reflect expert opinion. RESULTS: Guidelines describe the process for screening and diagnosis of kidney disease in the setting of diabetes and the management of hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and nutrition. Recommendations describe the management of albuminuria in the normotensive diabetic patient and the potential value of albuminuria as a marker of treatment efficacy; the impact of diabetes and CKD in special populations; the importance of behavioral self-management; and the value of intensive multifaceted intervention in these high risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: The new guidelines and recommendations update and extend the scope of the NKF's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI(TM)).

Title Increasing Incidence of Proteinuria and Declining Incidence of End-stage Renal Disease in Diabetic Pima Indians.
Date January 2007
Journal Kidney International
Excerpt

The introduction of more efficacious treatments for diabetic kidney disease may slow its progression, but evidence for their effectiveness in populations is sparse. We examined trends in the incidence of clinical proteinuria, defined as a urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio >0.5 g/g, and diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD), defined as death from diabetic nephropathy or onset of dialysis, in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes between 1967 and 2002. The study included 2189 diabetic subjects >/=25 years old. During follow-up, 366 incident cases of proteinuria occurred in the subset of 1715 subjects without proteinuria at baseline. The age-sex-adjusted incidence rate of proteinuria increased from 24.3 cases/1000 person-years (pyrs) (95% confidence interval (CI) 18.7-30.0) in 1967-1978 to 35.4 cases/1000 pyrs (95% CI 28.1-42.8) in 1979-1990 and 38.9 cases/1000 pyrs (95% CI 31.2-46.5) in 1991-2002 (P(trend)<0.0002). In each period, the age-sex-adjusted incidence of proteinuria increased with diabetes duration, but diabetes duration-specific incidence was stable throughout the study period (P=0.8). The age-sex-adjusted incidence of ESRD increased between 1967 and 1990 and declined thereafter. The incidence of proteinuria increased over 36 years in Pima Indians as the proportion of people with diabetes of long duration increased. On the other hand, the incidence of ESRD declined after 1990, coinciding with improved control of blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and perhaps other risk factors.

Title Economic Feasibility of No-tillage and Manure for Soil Carbon Sequestration in Corn Production in Northeastern Kansas.
Date December 2006
Journal Journal of Environmental Quality
Excerpt

This study examined the economic potential of no-tillage versus conventional tillage to sequester soil carbon by using two rates of commercial N fertilizer or beef cattle manure for continuous corn (Zea mays L.) production. Yields, input rates, field operations, and prices from an experiment were used to simulate a distribution of net returns for eight production systems. Carbon release values from direct, embodied, and feedstock energies were estimated for each system, and were used with soil carbon sequestration rates from soil tests to determine the amount of net carbon sequestered by each system. The values of carbon credits that provide an incentive for managers to adopt production systems that sequester carbon at greater rates were derived. No-till systems had greater annual soil carbon gains, net carbon gains, and net returns than conventional tillage systems. Systems that used beef cattle manure had greater soil carbon gains and net carbon gains, but lower net returns, than systems that used commercial N fertilizer. Carbon credits would be needed to encourage the use of manure-fertilized cropping systems.

Title Environmental and Economic Analysis of Switchgrass Production for Water Quality Improvement in Northeast Kansas.
Date November 2006
Journal Journal of Environmental Management
Excerpt

The primary objectives of this research were to determine SWAT model predicted reductions in four water quality indicators (sediment yield, surface runoff, nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) in surface runoff, and edge-of-field erosion) associated with producing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on cropland in the Delaware basin in northeast Kansas, and evaluate switchgrass break-even prices. The magnitude of potential switchgrass water quality payments based on using switchgrass as an alternative energy source was also estimated. SWAT model simulations showed that between 527,000 and 1.27 million metric tons (Mg) of switchgrass could be produced annually across the basin depending upon nitrogen (N) fertilizer application levels (0-224 kg N ha(-1)). The predicted reductions in sediment yield, surface runoff, NO(3)-N in surface runoff, and edge-of-field erosion as a result of switchgrass plantings were 99, 55, 34, and 98%, respectively. The average annual cost per hectare for switchgrass ranged from about 190 US dollars with no N applied to around 345 US dollars at 224 kg N ha(-1) applied. Edge-of-field break-even price per Mg ranged from around 41 US dollars with no N applied to slightly less than 25 US dollars at 224 kg N ha(-1) applied. A majority of the switchgrass produced had an edge-of-field break-even price of 30 Mg(-1) US dollars or less. Savings of at least 50% in each of the four water quality indicators could be attained for an edge-of-field break-even price of 22-27.49 US dollars Mg(-1).

Title Variants in the Gene Encoding Aldose Reductase (akr1b1) and Diabetic Nephropathy in American Indians.
Date August 2006
Journal Diabetic Medicine : a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Excerpt

AIMS: The aldose reductase gene (AKR1B1) is a strong candidate for diabetic nephropathy, and the T allele at rs759853 and the Z-2 allele at an [AC]n microsatellite are associated with diabetic kidney disease in some populations. As AKR1B1 is located on 7q35, where we have previously reported linkage to diabetic nephropathy in Pima Indians, this study examined the association of AKR1B1 variants with diabetic nephropathy in this population. METHODS: AKR1B1 variants were identified by sequencing and genotyped using allelic discrimination and pyrosequencing. Genotype distributions were compared between 107 cases with diabetic end-stage renal disease and 108 control subjects with diabetes for > or = 10 years and no evidence of nephropathy, and between 141 individuals with nephropathy and 416 individuals without heavy proteinuria in a family study of 257 sibships. RESULTS: We identified 11 AKR1B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the [AC]n microsatellite polymorphism. Three SNPs were rare and two were in 100% genotypic concordance; thus, eight polymorphisms were genotyped. No variant was associated with diabetic kidney disease in the case-control or family-based study. For example, the T allele at rs759853 had an allele frequency of 0.165 in cases and 0.171 in control subjects (OR = 0.96, 95% CI, 0.57-1.59, P = 0.86); in the family study its frequency was 0.140 and 0.169 in affected and unaffected individuals, respectively (OR = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.53-1.54 P = 0.71). Corresponding values for the Z-2 allele at the [AC]n microsatellite were OR = 1.09 (95% CI 0.72-1.66, P = 0.67) and OR = 1.25 (95% CI 0.81-1.95, P = 0.31) in the case-control and family studies, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Common AKR1B1 polymorphisms are unlikely to be major determinants of diabetic nephropathy in this population.

Title Nkf Releases New Kdoqi Guidelines for Diabetes and Ckd.
Date August 2006
Journal Nephrology News & Issues
Title Effect of Youth-onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Incidence of End-stage Renal Disease and Mortality in Young and Middle-aged Pima Indians.
Date July 2006
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Excerpt

CONTEXT: The long-term outcome of persons with youth-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been well described. OBJECTIVE: To compare incidence of diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality in Pima Indians with youth- and older-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Longitudinal population-based study conducted between 1965 and 2002 in Pima Indians from the state of Arizona. Participants were divided into 2 groups: (1) youth-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (onset <20 years of age) and (2) older-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (onset > or =20 - <55 years of age). Events and person-years of follow-up were stratified in a time-dependent fashion by decades of age. End-stage renal disease was defined as dialysis attributed to diabetic nephropathy or death from diabetic nephropathy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence rate of diabetic ESRD and mortality between 25 and 55 years of age, according to age at onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Among the 1856 diabetic participants, 96 had youth-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. The age-sex-adjusted incidence of diabetic ESRD was 25.0 cases per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.7-43.1) in youth-onset diabetes mellitus and 5.4 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 4.4-6.4) in older-onset diabetes mellitus (incidence rate ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.2-9.8). Age-specific incidence rates were higher in participants with youth-onset diabetes mellitus at all ages. Between 25 and 55 years of age, the age-sex-adjusted death rate from natural causes was 15.4 deaths per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 0.2-30.5) in participants with youth-onset diabetes mellitus and 7.3 deaths per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 5.9-8.7) in individuals with older-onset diabetes mellitus (death rate ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.8-5.7). Compared with nondiabetic participants, the death rate was 3.0 times as high in individuals with youth-onset diabetes mellitus (95% CI, 1.1-8.0) and 1.4 times as high in individuals with older-onset diabetes mellitus (95% CI, 1.1-1.8). In a subset of 1386 participants with complete data for all covariates who were observed from the onset of diabetes mellitus, the age at onset of diabetes mellitus was not associated with the incidence of ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.9-1.2) after adjusting for sex, mean arterial pressure, body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), plasma glucose concentration, smoking, hypoglycemic medicines, and blood pressure medicines in a Cox proportional-hazards model. CONCLUSIONS: Early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with substantially increased incidence of ESRD and mortality in middle age. The longer duration of diabetes mellitus by middle age in individuals diagnosed younger than age 20 years largely accounts for these outcomes.

Title Kidney Disease Among the Indigenous Peoples of Oceania.
Date July 2006
Journal Ethnicity & Disease
Excerpt

The prevalence of kidney disease is increasing among the indigenous peoples of Oceania--the region of the world that includes Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and thousands of smaller islands. The number of indigenous people with early kidney disease is hard to quantify, but risk factors, including hypertension and diabetes, are widespread. The incidence of kidney failure is known in major population centers, where dialysis treatments are available, but few data are available elsewhere in Oceania. Nevertheless, the incidence of end-stage renal disease among Aborigines, Torres Straits Islanders, Pacific Islanders and Maori is considerably higher than in the surrounding non-indigenous populations, and most of the kidney failure is attributed to diabetes. Despite the high incidence of kidney failure among indigenous people, few receive kidney transplants, and geographic and economic constraints limit the availability of dialysis treatment. Consequently, clinical management should emphasize prevention, screening, and early intervention.

Title Electrocardiographic Abnormalities Predict Deaths from Cardiovascular Disease and Ischemic Heart Disease in Pima Indians with Type 2 Diabetes.
Date May 2006
Journal American Heart Journal
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: The association between electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities and deaths from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) has been reported in the general population, but there is little information regarding persons with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Minor and major ECG abnormalities were identified and classified according to the Minnesota Code in a longitudinal study of 1605 Pima Indians aged > or =35 years with type 2 diabetes. Underlying causes of death were determined by review of all available clinical records, autopsy reports, medical examiners' findings, and death certificates. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 14.1 years (range 0.1 to 33.8 years), there were 190 CVD deaths, 135 (71.1%) of which were attributable to IHD. The age-adjusted CVD death rates in men with none, minor, and major ischemic ECG abnormalities were 7.3, 12.2 and 27.8, and in women, 4.3, 4.8 and 12.5 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for other co-variables in a multiple proportional hazards model, subjects with minor and major ischemic abnormalities on ECG had 1.22 (95% CI, 0.76-1.97) and 1.83 (95% CI, 1.21-2.76) times the CVD death rate, and 1.32 (95% CI, 0.70-2.50) and 2.12 (95% CI, 1.26-3.57) times the IHD death rate of those with no ischemic ECG abnormalities, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The CVD and IHD death rates were higher in men and in subjects with major ischemic ECG abnormalities. Major ischemic abnormalities on ECG predicted death after accounting for other cardiovascular risk factors, including proteinuria.

Title Trends in Heart Disease Death Rates in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Pima Indians.
Date May 2006
Journal Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Secular trends over 34 years (1965-1998) in overall and cause-specific mortality were examined in 4,623 Pima Indians >or=35 years old. METHODS: The underlying and contributing causes of the 1,363 deaths were determined from a review of all available clinical records; 540 of the deaths occurred in the 2,528 nondiabetic participants and 823 in the 2,095 participants who had diabetes during all or part of the study period. Age/sex-adjusted death rates were calculated across four 8.5-year time intervals. RESULTS: In the nondiabetic participants, the rate of death from natural causes declined gradually over time (20.4, 17.3, 17.3, and 16.0 deaths per 1,000 persons/year; P=.11); deaths from ischemic heart disease (IHD) were uncommon (n=22), and the rate did not change appreciably, remaining as the fifth leading natural cause of death. In the diabetic participants, the rate of death from natural causes was unchanged over time, but the rate of death from IHD (n=141) increased nearly twofold (3.3, 4.2, 6.4, and 6.4 deaths per 1,000 persons/year; P<.01), becoming the leading cause of death in the third and fourth time intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of death from IHD remained stable in nondiabetic Pima Indians but increased among those with diabetes. This finding suggests that, in the absence of diabetes, the underlying susceptibility to IHD in this population has not changed.

Title Susceptibility to Diabetic Nephropathy is Related to Dicarbonyl and Oxidative Stress.
Date January 2006
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

Dicarbonyl and oxidative stress may play important roles in the development of diabetes complications, and their response to hyperglycemia could determine individual susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy. This study examines the relationship of methylglyoxal, 3-deoxyglucosone (3DG), and oxidative stress levels to diabetic nephropathy risk in three populations with diabetes. All subjects in the Overt Nephropathy Progressor/Nonprogressor (ONPN) cohort (n = 14), the Natural History of Diabetic Nephropathy study (NHS) cohort (n = 110), and the Pima Indian cohort (n = 45) were evaluated for clinical nephropathy, while renal structural measures of fractional mesangial volume [Vv(Mes/glom)] and glomerular basement membrane (GBM) width were determined by electron microscopy morphometry in the NHS and Pima Indian cohorts. Methylglyoxal and 3DG levels reflected dicarbonyl stress, while reduced glutathione (GSH) and urine 8-isoprostane (8-IP) measured oxidative stress. Cross-sectional measures of methylglyoxal production by red blood cells incubated in 30 mmol/l glucose were increased in nephropathy progressors relative to nonprogressors in the ONPN (P = 0.027) and also reflected 5-year GBM thickening in the NHS cohort (P = 0.04). As nephropathy progressed in the NHS cohort, in vivo levels of methylglyoxal (P = 0.036), 3DG (P = 0.004), and oxidative stress (8-IP, P = 0.007 and GSH, P = 0.005) were seen, while increased methylglyoxal levels occurred as nephropathy progressed (P = 0.0016) in the type 2 Pima Indian cohort. Decreased glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity also correlated with increased methylglyoxal levels (P = 0.003) in the NHS cohort. In conclusion, progression of diabetic nephropathy is significantly related to elevated dicarbonyl stress and possibly related to oxidative stress in three separate populations, suggesting that these factors play a role in determining individual susceptibility.

Title Predominant Effect of Kidney Disease on Mortality in Pima Indians with or Without Type 2 Diabetes.
Date January 2006
Journal Kidney International
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: We examined the effect of kidney disease (KD) on mortality in nondiabetic and diabetic Pima Indians aged > or = 45 years old. METHODS: Deaths and person-years of follow-up were stratified in a time-dependent fashion into categories of (1) no proteinuria and normal serum creatinine (SCr); (2) proteinuria and normal SCr; (3) high SCr [SCr > or = 133 micromol/L (1.5 mg/dL) in men, > or = 124 micromol/L (1.4 mg/dL) in women] but not on renal replacement therapy (RRT); or (4) RRT. RESULTS: Among 1993 subjects, 55.8% had type 2 diabetes at baseline. Overall death rates increased with declining kidney function in both the nondiabetic and diabetic subjects (P < 0.0001). Death rates were similar in nondiabetic and diabetic subjects with comparable levels of kidney function, although the number of deaths among nondiabetic subjects with advanced KD was small. Infections and malignancy were the leading causes of death in nondiabetic subjects with KD. Among diabetic subjects, overall mortality increased with diabetes duration (P = 0.0001) and was highest in those on RRT (P < 0.0001). High SCr was associated with higher death rates from cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetic nephropathy (DN), infections, and malignancy. CONCLUSION: Death rates increased comparably with worsening kidney function in both nondiabetic and diabetic subjects and were similar in nondiabetic and diabetic subjects without KD. KD was associated with excess mortality from DN, CVD, infections, and malignancy in diabetic subjects, and from infections in those without diabetes.

Title Impact of Lifestyle on Prevalence of Kidney Disease in Pima Indians in Mexico and the United States.
Date November 2005
Journal Kidney International. Supplement
Excerpt

Pima Indians in the United States and Mexico share a common genetic background but have very different lifestyles. Comparisons were made of the frequency of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and kidney disease in these geographically separated but susceptible populations. Mexican Pimas had higher levels of physical activity, less obesity, and a lower prevalence of diabetes than their US Pima counterparts. Mean blood pressure rose with worsening glucose tolerance, and the prevalence of elevated urinary albumin excretion was higher in patients with diabetes than in those without, regardless of whether they lived in the United States or Mexico. These findings illustrate the importance of lifestyle in the development of diabetes and in the subsequent occurrence of diabetic kidney disease.

Title Modeling Gfr Trajectories in Diabetic Nephropathy.
Date October 2005
Journal American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Excerpt

In an 8-year longitudinal study of Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy, we used statistical techniques that are novel and depend on minimal assumptions to compare longitudinal measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Individuals enrolled with new-onset microalbuminuria either progressed to macroalbuminuria (progressors, n = 13) or did not progress (nonprogressors, n = 13) during follow-up. Subjects with new-onset macroalbuminuria at screening were also followed (n = 22). Patients had their GFR determined serially by urinary iothalamate clearances (average 11 clearances; range 6-19). GFR courses of individuals were modeled using an adaptation of smoothing and regression cubic B-splines. Group comparisons were based on five-component vectors of fitted GFR values using a permutation approach to a Hotelling's T(2) statistic. GFR profiles of initially microalbuminuric progressors differed significantly from those of nonprogressors (P = 0.003). There were no significant baseline differences between progressors and nonprogressors with respect to any measured clinical parameters. The course of GFR in the first 4 yr following progression to macroalbuminuria in initially microalbuminuric subjects did not differ from that in newly screened macroalbuinuric subjects (P = 0.27). Without imposing simplifying models on the data, the statistical techniques used demonstrate that the courses of decline of GFR in definable subgroups of initially microalbuminuric diabetic Pima Indians, although generally progressive, follow distinct trajectories that are related to the extent of glomerular barrier dysfunction, as reflected by the evolution from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria.

Title Detection of Renal Function Decline in Patients with Diabetes and Normal or Elevated Gfr by Serial Measurements of Serum Cystatin C Concentration: Results of a 4-year Follow-up Study.
Date August 2005
Journal Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : Jasn
Excerpt

Research on early renal function decline in diabetes is hampered by lack of simple tools for detecting trends (particularly systematic decreases) in renal function over time when GFR is normal or elevated. This study sought to assess how well serum cystatin C meets that need. Thirty participants with type 2 diabetes in the Diabetic Renal Disease Study met these three eligibility criteria: GFR >20 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at baseline (based on cold iothalamate clearance), 4 yr of follow-up, and yearly measurements of iothalamate clearance and serum cystatin C. With the use of linear regression, each individual's trend in renal function over time, expressed as annual percentage change in iothalamate clearance, was determined. Serum cystatin C in mg/L was transformed to its reciprocal (100/cystatin C), and linear regression was used to determine each individual's trend over time, expressed as annual percentage change. In paired comparisons of 100/cystatin C with iothalamate clearance at each examination, the two measures were numerically similar. More important, the trends in 100/cystatin C and iothalamate clearance were strongly correlated (Spearman r = 0.77). All 20 participants with negative trends in iothalamate clearance (declining renal function) also had negative trends for 100/cystatin C. Results were discordant for only three participants. In contrast, the trends for three commonly used creatinine-based estimates of GFR compared poorly with trends in iothalamate clearance (Spearman r < 0.35). Serial measures of serum cystatin C accurately detect trends in renal function in patients with normal or elevated GFR and provide means for studying early renal function decline in diabetes.

Title Cystatin C and the Risk of Death.
Date August 2005
Journal The New England Journal of Medicine
Title Diabetic End-stage Renal Disease in the Indigenous Population of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
Date August 2005
Journal Nephrology (carlton, Vic.)
Excerpt

The number of cases of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) attributable to type 2 diabetes and survival after the onset of renal replacement therapy was examined in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). All Chamorros and Carolinians to receive renal replacement therapy for ESRD between January 1982 and December 2002 were identified. Changes in survival over time were examined by dividing the study into three equal periods. Of 180 new cases of ESRD, 137 (76%; 101 Chamorros, 36 Carolinians) were attributed to diabetes. Ninety-nine subjects, 80% of whom had diabetic ESRD, began renal replacement therapy in the last 7 years of the study compared with 81 (72% with diabetic ESRD) in the previous 14 years. All 137 of the diabetic subjects received haemodialysis. During the 21-year study period, 79 of the diabetic subjects receiving dialysis died. The median survival after the onset of haemodialysis was 37 months in the first time period (1982-1988), 47 months in the second period (1989-1995) and 67 months in the third period (1996-2002). The death rate in the first period was 4.3 times (95% CI, 2.1-8.9) as high and the second period was 2.9 times (95% CI, 1.5-5.8) as high as the most recent period, after adjustment for age, sex and ethnicity in a proportional-hazards analysis. The number of diabetic patients in CNMI who are receiving renal replacement therapy is rising rapidly. Considerable improvement in survival after the onset of haemodialysis has occurred over the past 21 years.

Title Periodontal Disease and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes.
Date May 2005
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: Periodontal disease may contribute to the increased mortality associated with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a prospective longitudinal study of 628 subjects aged > or =35 years, we examined the effect of periodontal disease on overall and cardiovascular disease mortality in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes. Periodontal abnormality was classified as no or mild, moderate, and severe, based on panoramic radiographs and clinical dental examinations. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11 years (range 0.3-16), 204 subjects died. The age- and sex-adjusted death rates for all natural causes expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 person-years of follow-up were 3.7 (95% CI 0.7-6.6) for no or mild periodontal disease, 19.6 (10.7-28.5) for moderate periodontal disease, and 28.4 (22.3-34.6) for severe periodontal disease. Periodontal disease predicted deaths from ischemic heart disease (IHD) (P trend = 0.04) and diabetic nephropathy (P trend < 0.01). Death rates from other causes were not associated with periodontal disease. After adjustment for age, sex, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, macroalbuminuria, BMI, serum cholesterol concentration, hypertension, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and current smoking in a proportional hazards model, subjects with severe periodontal disease had 3.2 times the risk (95% CI 1.1-9.3) of cardiorenal mortality (IHD and diabetic nephropathy combined) compared with the reference group (no or mild periodontal disease and moderate periodontal disease combined). CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal disease is a strong predictor of mortality from IHD and diabetic nephropathy in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes. The effect of periodontal disease is in addition to the effects of traditional risk factors for these diseases.

Title An Explanation for the Increase in Heart Disease Mortality Rates in Diabetic Pima Indians: Effect of Renal Replacement Therapy.
Date November 2004
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) became the leading cause of death in diabetic Pima Indians in the 1970s, but was superseded by ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the 1980s. This study tests the hypothesis that the rise in the IHD death rate between 1965 and 1998 is attributable to access to renal replacement therapy (RRT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Underlying causes of death were determined among 2,095 diabetic Pima Indians > or = 35 years old during four 8.5-year time intervals. To assess the effect of access to RRT on IHD death rates, trends were reexamined after subjects receiving RRT were classified as if they had died of DN. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11.1 years (range 0.01-34), 818 subjects died. The age- and sex-adjusted DN death rate decreased over the 34-year study (P = 0.05), whereas the IHD death rate increased from 3.3 deaths/1,000 person-years (95% CI 1.4-5.2) to 6.3 deaths/1,000 person-years (95% CI 4.5-8.0; P = 0.03). After 151 subjects on RRT were reclassified as if they had died of DN, the death rate for DN increased from 4.8 deaths/1,000 person-years (95% CI 2.6-7) to 11.3 deaths/1,000 person-years (95% CI 9-13.6; P = 0.0007), whereas the increase in the IHD death rate disappeared (P = 0.57). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of renal failure attributable to diabetes has increased rapidly over the past 34 years in Pima Indians. IHD has emerged as the leading cause of death due largely to the availability of RRT and to changes in the pattern of death among those with DN.

Title Adiponectin Concentrations Are Influenced by Renal Function and Diabetes Duration in Pima Indians with Type 2 Diabetes.
Date September 2004
Journal The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Excerpt

Adiponectin is produced exclusively by adipocytes, and its serum concentration is inversely associated with adiposity. This study examines the relationship among diabetes, renal function, and serum adiponectin in Pima Indians. Serum adiponectin was measured in 1069 people in whom glycemia and renal function had been measured. Serum adiponectin, adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index, was lowest in those with impaired glucose regulation or diabetes of less than 10 yr duration and highest in those with normal glucose tolerance or diabetes of duration of at least 10 yr. Both urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and serum creatinine were positively correlated with adiponectin (Spearman's r = 0.43; P < 0.0001, and r = 0.37; P < 0.0001, respectively) in diabetic subjects. After stratification by albuminuria (normoalbuminuria ACR < 30 mg/g, microalbuminuria ACR = 30-299 mg/g, and macroalbuminuria ACR >or= 300 mg/g), the highest adiponectin concentration was in the macroalbuminuria group (geometric mean = 9.6 microg/ml) and the lowest was in the normoalbuminuric group (geometric mean = 5.6 microg/ml). After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and diabetes duration, the serum adiponectin concentration in the macroalbuminuria group was significantly higher than in both other groups (P < 0.0001). Serum adiponectin is lowest in the presence of impaired glucose regulation and early diabetes. In the presence of diabetes, serum adiponectin is positively associated with abnormal renal function and diabetes duration.

Title Alpha-oxoaldehyde Metabolism and Diabetic Complications.
Date August 2004
Journal Biochemical Society Transactions
Excerpt

The factors responsible for variable susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy are not clear. According to the non-enzymatic glycation hypothesis, diabetes-related tissue damage occurs due to a complex mixture of toxic products, including alpha-oxoaldehydes, which are inherently toxic as well as serving as precursors for advanced glycation end-products. Protective mechanisms exist to control this unavoidable glycation, and these are determined by genetic or environmental factors that can regulate the concentrations of the reactive sugars or end-products. In diabetes these protective mechanisms become more important, since glycation stress increases, and less efficient defence systems against this stress could lead to diabetic complications. Some of these enzymatic control mechanisms, including those that regulate alpha-oxoaldehydes, have been identified. We have observed significant increases in production of the alpha-oxoaldehydes methylglyoxal and 3-deoxyglucosone in three human populations with biopsy-proven progression of nephropathy. The increase in methylglyoxal could be secondary to defects in downstream glycolytic enzymes (such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) that regulate its production, or in detoxification mechanisms such as glyoxalase. Other mechanisms, however, appear to be responsible for the observed increase in 3-deoxyglucosone levels. We present results of our studies on the mechanisms responsible for variable production of alpha-oxoaldehydes by measuring the activity and characteristics of these enzymes in cells from complication-prone and -resistant diabetic patients. New therapeutic interventions designed to control these endogenous mechanisms could potentially enhance protection against excessive glycation and prevent or reverse complications of long-term diabetes.

Title Methodology for Estimating Removable Quantities of Agricultural Residues for Bioenergy and Bioproduct Use.
Date July 2004
Journal Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Excerpt

A methodology was developed to estimate quantities of crop residues that can be removed while maintaining rain or wind erosion at less than or equal to the tolerable soil-loss level. Six corn and wheat rotations in the 10 largest corn-producing states were analyzed. Residue removal rates for each rotation were evaluated for conventional, mulch/reduced, and no-till field operations. The analyses indicated that potential removable maximum quantities range from nearly 5.5 million dry metric t/yr for a continuous corn rotation using conventional till in Kansas to more than 97 million dry metric t/yr for a corn-wheat rotation using no-till in Illinois.

Title Intrauterine Determinants of Diabetic Kidney Disease in Disadvantaged Populations.
Date February 2004
Journal Kidney International. Supplement
Excerpt

Disadvantaged populations worldwide are experiencing an increasing incidence of kidney disease, much of which is attributable to diabetes. This report reviews the evidence that intrauterine exposure to growth retardation, diabetes, and vitamin A deficiency contribute disproportionately to the rising incidence of kidney disease in disadvantaged people, because they encounter these exposures more frequently than people from developed countries. These abnormal intrauterine exposures reduce nephron mass by impairing nephrogenesis, thereby increasing the susceptibility to kidney damage from diseases such as hypertension and diabetes that commonly affect disadvantaged people.

Title Testing for Microalbuminuria in 2002: Barriers to Implementing Current Guidelines.
Date January 2004
Journal American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Testing for microalbuminuria is recommended to detect early kidney damage in patients with diabetes or other diseases. However, few studies have examined laboratory practices for microalbuminuria testing in the general community. METHODS: In 2002, all laboratories in Montana and reference laboratories used by Montana laboratories for microalbuminuria measurement were surveyed by mail to ascertain if they provided testing for microalbuminuria, specific tests performed, and units and cutoff values used to report microalbuminuria results. RESULTS: One hundred three of 126 laboratories (82%) responded to the survey. Overall, 79% of laboratories offered quantitative testing for microalbuminuria, either on site or through a reference laboratory. Twenty-five laboratories (24%) surveyed provided quantitative testing for microalbuminuria on site. Only 14 of 23 laboratories offering albumin-creatinine ratios on site reported results in units and cutoff values consistent with current recommendations. Fewer laboratories provided 24-hour (6 of 17 laboratories) or other timed (2 of 7 laboratories) testing, and many of these laboratories did not report results using recommended units and cutoff values. Overall, only 11 of 25 laboratories (44%) with on-site testing reported microalbuminuria values from 1 or more types of specimens exclusively using recommended units and cutoff values. CONCLUSION: Quantitative testing for microalbuminuria is not offered universally, and results often are reported in units and cutoff values that differ from current clinical recommendations.

Title Parasitic Infection and the Polarized Th2 Immune Response Can Alter a Vaccine-induced Immune Response.
Date August 2003
Journal Dna and Cell Biology
Excerpt

The AIDS epidemic in the Developing World represents a major global crisis. It is imperative that we develop an effective vaccine. Vaccines are economically the most efficient means of controlling viral infections. However, the development of a vaccine against HIV-1 has been a formidable task, and in developing countries chronic parasitic infection adds another level of complexity to AIDS vaccine development. Helminthic and protozoan infections, common in developing countries, can result in a constant state of immune activation that is characterized by a dominant Th2 type of cytokine profile, high IgE levels, and eosinophilia. Such an immune profile may have an adverse impact on the efficacy of vaccines, in particular, an HIV-1 vaccine. Indeed, the CD8 cellular immune response and the corresponding Th1 type cytokines that enhance the CD8 cellular immune response are important for clearing many viral infections. It is believed that an antigen specific CD8 cellular immune response will be an important component of an HIV-1 vaccine.

Title Incidence of Retinopathy and Nephropathy in Youth-onset Compared with Adult-onset Type 2 Diabetes.
Date June 2003
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of retinopathy and nephropathy in participants in whom type 2 diabetes was diagnosed in youth (before 20 years of age) compared with those in whom type 2 diabetes was diagnosed at older ages. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects in whom youth-onset or adult-onset diabetes was diagnosed in the longitudinal study of health in the Pima Indians of Arizona were followed for microvascular complications. Diabetes was diagnosed in 178 subjects before 20 years of age (youth), in 1,359 subjects at 20-39 years of age (younger adults), and in 971 subjects at 40-59 years of age (older adults). Incidence rates of diabetic retinopathy diagnosed by direct ophthalmoscopy through dilated pupils and nephropathy (protein-to-creatinine ratio > or =0.5 g/g) were calculated by age at diagnosis. RESULTS: Over 25 years, nephropathy developed in 35 of the participants with youth-onset type 2 diabetes; this incidence rate was not significantly different from that in patients with adult-onset diabetes (P = 0.77). Incidence rates of retinopathy, however, were significantly lower for the youth-onset group (P = 0.007). Adjusted for sex, glycemia, and blood pressure, risk of retinopathy was lower in patients with youth-onset diabetes than in those with adult-onset diabetes (hazard rate ratio [HRR] 0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.74, P = 0.003), but risk of nephropathy was not different (HRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.77-1.3, P = 0.38). CONCLUSIONS: In Pima Indians, the risk of nephropathy as a function of duration of diabetes is similar in all age groups. By contrast, the risk of retinopathy is lower in patients with youth-onset type 2 diabetes.

Title Genetics of Diabetic Nephropathy in the Pima Indians.
Date April 2003
Journal Current Diabetes Reports
Excerpt

Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of renal failure in industrialized countries. There is strong evidence that diabetic nephropathy is influenced by genetic factors. Studies in the Pima Indians as well as in other populations demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy aggregates in families. The hypothesis that the familial aggregation reflects the effect of a major gene was formally tested by segregation analysis of diabetic nephropathy in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes. The segregation analysis provided strong evidence for a major genetic effect on the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy; this suggests that some of the genetic determinants of diabetic nephropathy may have effects of sufficient magnitude to be detected by linkage analysis. Therefore, we analyzed data from a genome-wide scan to identify susceptibility loci for nephropathy in diabetic Pima Indians. Analyses conducted by both parametric (model-based) and nonparametric methods revealed tentative evidence for nephropathy susceptibility loci on chromosomes 3q, 7q, 18q, and 20p.

Title Analysis of Sequence Diversity at the Highly Polymorphic Cpgp40/15 Locus Among Cryptosporidium Isolates from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Children in South Africa.
Date July 2002
Journal Infection and Immunity
Excerpt

Cryptosporidium sp. is a significant cause of diarrheal disease, particularly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in developing countries. We recently cloned and sequenced several alleles of the highly polymorphic single-copy Cryptosporidium parvum gene Cpgp40/15. This gene encodes a precursor protein that is proteolytically cleaved to yield mature cell surface glycoproteins gp40 and gp15, which are implicated in zoite attachment to and invasion of enterocytes. The most-striking feature of the Cpgp40/15 alleles and proteins is their unprecedented degree of sequence polymorphism, which is far greater than that observed for any other gene or protein studied in C. parvum to date. In this study we analyzed nucleic acid and amino acid sequence polymorphism at the Cpgp40/15 locus of 20 C. parvum isolates from HIV-infected South African children. Fifteen isolates exhibited one of four previously identified genotype I alleles at the Cpgp40/15 locus (Ia, Ib, Ic, and Id), while five displayed a novel set of polymorphisms that defined a new Cpgp40/15 genotype I allele, designated genotype Ie. Surprisingly, only 15 of these isolates exhibited concordant type I alleles at the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein loci, while five isolates (all of which displayed Cpgp40/15 genotype Ic alleles) displayed genotype II alleles at these loci. Furthermore, the last five isolates also manifested chimeric genotype Ic/Ib or Ic/II alleles at the Cpgp40/15 locus, raising the possibility of sexual recombination within and between prototypical parasite genotypes. Lastly, children infected with isolates having genotype Ic alleles were significantly older than those infected with isolates displaying other genotype I alleles.

Title Dicyclic and Tricyclic Diaminopyrimidine Derivatives As Potent Inhibitors of Cryptosporidium Parvum Dihydrofolate Reductase: Structure-activity and Structure-selectivity Correlations.
Date February 2002
Journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Excerpt

A structurally diverse library of 93 lipophilic di- and tricyclic diaminopyrimidine derivatives was tested for the ability to inhibit recombinant dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) cloned from human and bovine isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum (J. R. Vásquez et al., Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 79:153-165, 1996). In parallel, the library was also tested against human DHFR and, for comparison, the enzyme from Escherichia coli. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) were determined by means of a standard spectrophotometric assay of DHFR activity with dihydrofolate and NADPH as the cosubstrates. Of the compounds tested, 25 had IC(50)s in the 1 to 10 microM range against one or both C. parvum enzymes and thus were not substantially different from trimethoprim (IC(50)s, ca. 4 microM). Another 25 compounds had IC(50)s of <1.0 microM, and 9 of these had IC(50)s of <0.1 microM and thus were at least 40 times more potent than trimethoprim. The remaining 42 compounds were weak inhibitors (IC(50)s, >10 microM) and thus were not considered to be of interest as drugs useful against this organism. A good correlation was generally obtained between the results of the spectrophotometric enzyme inhibition assays and those obtained recently in a yeast complementation assay (V. H. Brophy et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:1019-1028, 2000; H. Lau et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:187-195, 2001). Although many of the compounds in the library were more potent than trimethoprim, none had the degree of selectivity of trimethoprim for C. parvum versus human DHFR. Collectively, the results of these assays comprise the largest available database of lipophilic antifolates as potential anticryptosporidial agents. The compounds in the library were also tested as inhibitors of the proliferation of intracellular C. parvum oocysts in canine kidney epithelial cells cultured in folate-free medium containing thymidine (10 microM) and hypoxanthine (100 microM). After 72 h of drug exposure, the number of parasites inside the cells was quantitated by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Sixteen compounds had IC(50)s of <3 microM, and five of these had IC(50)s of <0.3 microM and thus were comparable in potency to trimetrexate. The finding that submicromolar concentrations of several of the compounds in the library could inhibit in vitro growth of C. parvum in host cells in the presence of thymidine (dThd) and hypoxanthine (Hx) suggests that lipophilic DHFR inhibitors, in combination with leucovorin, may find use in the treatment of intractable C. parvum infections.

Title Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody Reacting with Antigen-4 Domain of Gp900 in Cryptosporidium Parvum Invasive Stages.
Date January 2002
Journal Parasitology Research
Excerpt

Cryptosporidium parvum (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) infects the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells, where it grows and divides within a membrane-bound parasitophorous vacuole. gp900, an abundant glycoprotein of C. parvum merozoites and sporozoites, is localized in micronemes and at the surface of invasive stages and participates in the invasion process. Here, we describe a new monoclonal antibody (mAb) against gp900. As shown by immunofluorescence of excysted parasites and immunoelectron microscopy of infected tissues, the mAb reacted with micronemes present in the apical pole of invasive stages. In immunoprecipitation experiments, the mAb was shown to react with a high molecular weight antigen co-migrating with gp900. Finally, three reactive clones were selected upon screening of a C. parvum genomic expression library with the mAb; and sequencing of the insert from one of them showed a 596 bp sequence identical to the DNA region encoding a domain of gp900 identified as antigen 4.

Title The Effect of Indian or Anglo Dietary Preference on the Incidence of Diabetes in Pima Indians.
Date September 2001
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: In short-term studies, adoption of a traditional diet is associated with reduction in metabolic abnormalities often found in populations experiencing rapid lifestyle changes. We examined the long-term effects of a self-assessed traditional or nontraditional dietary pattern on the development of type 2 diabetes in 165 nondiabetic Pima Indians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed in 1988 by a quantitative food frequency method, and subjects were asked to classify their diet as "Indian," "Anglo," or "mixed." The Indian diet reflects a preference for Sonoran-style and traditional desert foods. The Anglo diet reflects a preference for non-Sonoran-style foods typical of the remaining regions of the U.S. RESULTS: In women, the intake of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, insoluble fiber, vegetable proteins, and the proportion of total calories from complex carbohydrate and vegetable proteins were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the Indian than in the Anglo diet. The mixed diet was intermediate in of all these constituents. In men, the intake for these nutrients was also higher in the Indian than in the Anglo group, but not significantly. Diabetes developed in 36 subjects (8 men and 28 women) during 6.2 years of follow-up (range 0.9-10.9). The crude incidence rates of diabetes were 23. 35, and 63 cases per 1,000 person-years in the Indian. mixed, and Anglo groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and total energy intake in a proportional hazards model, the risk of developing diabetes in the Anglo-diet group was 2.5 times as high (95%) CI 0.9-7.2) and the rate in the mixed-diet group was 1.3 times as high (0.6-3.3) as in the Indian-diet group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the adoption of an Anglo diet may increase the risk of developing diabetes in Pima Indians, but it does not provide unequivocal evidence for or against this hypothesis.

Title Gene Discovery in Cryptosporidium Parvum: Expressed Sequence Tags and Genome Survey Sequences.
Date January 2001
Journal Contributions to Microbiology
Title Diabetes Duration and Cause-specific Mortality in the Verona Diabetes Study.
Date December 2000
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To examine the 10-year mortality and effect of diabetes duration on overall and cause-specific mortality in diabetic subjects in the Verona Diabetes Study (VDS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Records from diabetes clinics, family physicians, and a drug consumption database were used to identify 5,818 subjects > or =45 years of age with type 2 diabetes who were alive and residing in Verona, Italy on 31 December 1986. Vital status of each subject was ascertained on 31 December 1996. Underlying causes of death were determined from death certificates. Death rates and death rate ratios (DRRs) were computed and standardized to the population of Verona in 1991. RESULTS: During the study, 2,328 subjects died; 974 deaths were attributable to cardiovascular disease, 517 to neoplasms, 324 to diabetes-related diseases, 134 to digestive diseases, 250 to other natural causes, and 48 to external causes. There were 81 subjects who died of unknown causes. Death rates from natural causes were higher in men than in women (DRR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.5) and rose in both sexes with increasing duration of diabetes (P = 0.001). Among the natural causes of death, those for diabetes-related diseases were strongly related to diabetes duration (P = 0.001). a modest relationship with duration was also found for ischemic heart disease in men (P = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular disease was the principal cause of death among people with type 2 diabetes in the VDS. Rates for natural causes of death rose with increasing duration of diabetes. Deaths from diabetes-related diseases in both sexes and from ischemic heart disease in men were largely responsible for this increase.

Title Glomerular Permselectivity at the Onset of Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Date November 2000
Journal Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : Jasn
Excerpt

The development of microalbuminuria in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a 10-fold increase in the risk of progression to overt nephropathy and eventual end-stage renal failure. The present study reports long-term (up to 8 yr) follow-up of 43 Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes detected on screening to have microalbuminuria. The natural history of albuminuria in these individuals included progression to overt proteinuria (urinary albumin excretion > or = 300 mg/d) in half of the participants by 7 yr of follow-up. The size selectivity of the glomerular barrier was also investigated using dextran sieving and pore theory. Whereas a comparison group of macroalbuminuric Pima Indians had an excess of large pores that served as a macromolecular "shunt," individuals with microalbuminuria had a shunt size no different from long-term diabetic, normoalbuminuric control subjects. An abrupt transition from little or no relationship to a highly significant and positive relationship between increasing albuminuria and shunt size occurred at an albumin-to-creatinine ratio of approximately 3000 mg/g. Shunt size in macroalbuminuric individuals correlated with the extent of foot process broadening. Podocyte foot processes in microalbuminuric participants were not different from those in control subjects. In conclusion, although microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic Pima Indians often heralds progressive glomerular injury, it is not the result of defects in the size permselectivity of the glomerular barrier but rather of changes in either glomerular charge selectivity or tubular handling of filtered proteins or of a combination of these two factors.

Title Evolution of Incipient Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Date October 2000
Journal Kidney International
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: We examined the course of glomerular injury in 12 Pima Indians with long-standing (>8 years) type 2 diabetes mellitus, normal serum creatinine, and microalbuminuria. They were compared with a group of 10 Pima Indians in Arizona with new-onset (<5 years) type 2 diabetes, normal renal function, and normoalbuminuria (<30 mg albumin/g creatinine on random urine specimens). METHODS: A combination of physiological and morphological techniques was used to evaluate glomerular function and structure serially on two occasions separated by a 48-month interval. Clearances of iothalamate and p-aminohippuric acid were used to determine glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow, respectively. Afferent oncotic pressure was determined by membrane osmometry. The single nephron ultrafiltration coefficient (Kf) was determined by morphometric analysis of glomeruli and mathematical modeling. RESULTS: The urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (median + range) increased from 84 (28 to 415) to 260 (31 to 2232) mg/g between the two examinations (P = 0.01), and 6 of 12 patients advanced from incipient (ratio = 30 to 299 mg/g) to overt nephropathy (>/=300 mg/g). A 17% decline in GFR between the two examinations from 186 +/- 41 to 155 +/- 50 mL/min (mean +/- SD; P = 0.06) was accompanied by a 17% decline in renal plasma flow (P = 0.003) and a 6% increase in plasma oncotic pressure (P = 0.02). Computed glomerular hydraulic permeability was depressed by 13% below control values at both examinations, a result of a widened basement membrane and a reduction in frequency of epithelial filtration slits. The filtration surface area declined significantly, however, from 6.96 +/- 2.53 to 5.51 +/- 1.62 x 105 mm2 (P = 0.01), a change that was accompanied by a significant decline in the number of mesangial cells (P = 0.001), endothelial cells (P = 0.038), and podocytes (P = 0.0005). These changes lowered single nephron Kf by 20% from 16.5 +/- 6.0 to 13.2 +/- 3.6 nL/(minutes + mm Hg) between the two examinations (P = 0.02). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that among the determinants of GFR, only the change in single nephron Kf was related to the corresponding change in GFR. CONCLUSION: We conclude that a reduction in Kf is the major determinant of a decline in GFR from an elevated toward a normal range as nephropathy in type 2 diabetes advances from an incipient to an overt stage.

Title Do Foot Examinations Reduce the Risk of Diabetic Amputation?
Date September 2000
Journal The Journal of Family Practice
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Foot examinations are widely recommended as a means to reduce amputation risk, but no investigators have studied their independent effect on this outcome. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of primary care provided to Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community. Sixty-one Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes and a first lower-extremity amputation between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1992, were compared with 183 people who had no amputation by December 31, 1992. The type of foot examination conducted, comorbid conditions, and foot risk factors present in the 36 months before the pivotal event were abstracted from medical records. All ulcer care was excluded. The independent effect of foot examinations on the risk of amputation was assessed by logistic regression. RESULTS: During the 36 study months, 1857 foot examinations were performed on 244 subjects. The median number of preventive foot examinations was 7 for case patients and 3 for control patients. After controlling for differences in comorbid conditions and foot risk conditions, the risk of amputation for persons with 1 or more foot examinations was an odds ratio (OR) of 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.7; P=.31). The risk of amputation associated with written comments of nonadherence with therapeutic foot care recommendations or diabetic medication was an OR of 1.9 (95% CI, 0.9-4.3; P=.10). CONCLUSIONS: Our study failed to demonstrate that foot examinations decrease the risk of amputation in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes. However, foot examinations detect high-risk conditions for which specific interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing amputation risk.

Title Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Highly Polymorphic Cryptosporidium Parvum Gene Encoding a 60-kilodalton Glycoprotein and Characterization of Its 15- and 45-kilodalton Zoite Surface Antigen Products.
Date July 2000
Journal Infection and Immunity
Excerpt

The apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of serious diarrheal disease in both humans and animals. No efficacious chemo- or immunotherapies have been identified for cryptosporidiosis, but certain antibodies directed against zoite surface antigens and/or proteins shed by gliding zoites have been shown to neutralize infectivity in vitro and/or to passively protect against, or ameliorate, disease in vivo. We previously used monoclonal antibody 11A5 to identify a 15-kDa surface glycoprotein that was shed behind motile sporozoites and was recognized by several lectins that neutralized parasite infectivity for cultured epithelial cells. Here we report the cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding this 11A5 antigen. Surprisingly, the gene encoded a 330-amino-acid, mucin-like glycoprotein that was predicted to contain an N-terminal signal peptide, a homopolymeric tract of serine residues, 36 sites of O-linked glycosylation, and a hydrophobic C-terminal peptide specifying attachment of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. The single-copy gene lacked introns and was expressed during merogony to produce a 60-kDa precursor which was proteolytically cleaved to 15- and 45-kDa glycoprotein products that both localized to the surface of sporozoites and merozoites. The gp15/45/60 gene displayed a very high degree of sequence diversity among C. parvum isolates, and the numerous single-nucleotide and single-amino-acid polymorphisms defined five to six allelic classes, each characterized by additional intra-allelic sequence variation. The gp15/45/60 single-nucleotide polymorphisms will prove useful for haplotyping and fingerprinting isolates and for establishing meaningful relationships between C. parvum genotype and phenotype.

Title Preliminary Profile of the Cryptosporidium Parvum Genome: an Expressed Sequence Tag and Genome Survey Sequence Analysis.
Date June 2000
Journal Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Excerpt

Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan enteropathogen that infects humans and animals and causes a pronounced diarrheal disease that can be life-threatening in immunocompromised hosts. No specific chemo- or immunotherapies exist to treat cryptosporidiosis and little molecular information is available to guide development of such therapies. To accelerate gene discovery and identify genes encoding potential drug and vaccine targets we constructed sporozoite cDNA and genomic DNA sequencing libraries from the Iowa isolate of C. parvum and determined approximately 2000 sequence tags by single-pass sequencing of random clones. Together, the 567 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 1507 genome survey sequences (GSSs) totaled one megabase (1 mb) of unique genomic sequence indicating that approximately 10% of the 10.4 mb C. parvum genome has been sequence tagged in this gene discovery expedition. The tags were used to search the public nucleic acid and protein databases via BLAST analyses, and 180 ESTs (32%) and 277 GSSs (18%) exhibited similarity with database sequences at smallest sum probabilities P(N)< or =10(-8). Some tags encoded proteins with clear therapeutic potential including S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, histone deacetylase, polyketide/fatty-acid synthases, various cyclophilins, thrombospondin-related cysteine-rich protein and ATP-binding-cassette transporters. Several anonymous ESTs encoded proteins predicted to contain signal peptides or multiple transmembrane spanning segments suggesting they were destined for membrane-bound compartments, the cell surface or extracellular secretion. One-hundred four simple sequence repeats were identified within the nonredundant sequence tag collection with (TAA)(> or =6)/(TTA)(> or =6) and (TA)(> or = 10)/(AT)(> or =10 ) being the most prevalent, occurring 40 and 15 times, respectively. Various cellular RNAs and their genes were also identified including the small and large ribosomal RNAs, five tRNAs, the U2 small nuclear RNA, and the small and large virus-like, double-stranded RNAs. This investigation has demonstrated that survey sequencing is an efficient procedure for gene discovery and genome characterization and has identified and sequence tagged many C. parvum genes encoding potential therapeutic targets.

Title Identification of Cryptosporidium Parvum Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors by Complementation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.
Date April 2000
Journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Excerpt

There is a pressing need for drugs effective against the opportunistic protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum. Folate metabolic enzymes and enzymes of the thymidylate cycle, particularly dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), have been widely exploited as chemotherapeutic targets. Although many DHFR inhibitors have been synthesized, only a few have been tested against C. parvum. To expedite and facilitate the discovery of effective anti-Cryptosporidium antifolates, we have developed a rapid and facile method to screen potential inhibitors of C. parvum DHFR using the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We expressed the DHFR genes of C. parvum, Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocystis carinii, and humans in the same DHFR-deficient yeast strain and observed that each heterologous enzyme complemented the yeast DHFR deficiency. In this work we describe our use of the complementation system to screen known DHFR inhibitors and our discovery of several compounds that inhibited the growth of yeast reliant on the C. parvum enzyme. These same compounds were also potent or selective inhibitors of the purified recombinant C. parvum DHFR enzyme. Six novel lipophilic DHFR inhibitors potently inhibited the growth of yeast expressing C. parvum DHFR. However, the inhibition was nonselective, as these compounds also strongly inhibited the growth of yeast dependent on the human enzyme. Conversely, the antibacterial DHFR inhibitor trimethoprim and two close structural analogs were highly selective, but weak, inhibitors of yeast complemented by the C. parvum enzyme. Future chemical refinement of the potent and selective lead compounds identified in this study may allow the design of an efficacious antifolate drug for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis.

Title Cryptosporidium Parvum: Lectins Mediate Irreversible Inhibition of Sporozoite Infectivity in Vitro.
Date December 1999
Journal The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Title Cryptosporidium Parvum: Synchronized Excystation in Vitro and Evaluation of Sporozoite Infectivity with a New Lectin-based Assay.
Date December 1999
Journal The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Title Podocyte Number Predicts Long-term Urinary Albumin Excretion in Pima Indians with Type Ii Diabetes and Microalbuminuria.
Date December 1999
Journal Diabetologia
Excerpt

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The predictive value of glomerular structure on progression of renal disease was examined in patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes and microalbuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio = 30-299 mg/g). METHODS: Kidney biopsy specimens were obtained from 16 diabetic Pima Indians (6 men, 10 women). Progression of renal disease was assessed by measuring urinary albumin excretion 4 years after the biopsy (UAE(4 years)) and by computing the change in urinary albumin excretion during the study (Delta UAE). RESULTS: At baseline, the duration of diabetes averaged 13.3 years (range = 4.0-23.8 years) and the mean glomerular filtration rate was 159 ml x min(-1) x 1.73 m(-2) (range = 98 - 239 ml x min(-1) x 1.73 m(-2)). Median urinary albumin excretion was 67 mg/g (range = 25-136 mg/g) and it increased to 625 mg/g (range = 9-13471 mg/g) after 4 years; 10 subjects (63 %; 4 men, 6 women) developed macroalbuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio >/= 300 mg/g). Neither mean arterial pressure nor HbA(1 c) changed substantially during follow-up. Among the glomerular morphologic characteristics, the number of visceral epithelial cells, or podocytes, per glomerulus was the strongest predictor of renal disease progression (UAE(4 years), r = -0.49, p = 0.05; DeltaUAE, r = -0.57, p = 0.02), with fewer cells predicting more rapid progression. Glomerular basement membrane thickness did not predict progression (UAE(4 years), r = 0.11, p = 0.67; DeltaUAE, r = 0.09, p = 0.73) and mesangial volume fraction had only a modest effect (UAE(4 years,) r = 0.42, p = 0.11; DeltaUAE, r = 0.48, p = 0.06). CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Whether lower epithelial cell number per glomerulus among those that progressed was due to cellular destruction, a reduced complement of epithelial cells, or both is uncertain. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that podocytes play an important part in the development and progression of diabetic renal disease. [Diabetologia (1999) 42: 1341-1344]

Title Effect of Hypertension on Mortality in Pima Indians.
Date July 1999
Journal Circulation
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: The effect of hypertension on mortality was examined in 5284 Pima Indians, 1698 of whom had type 2 diabetes at baseline or developed it during follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 12.2 years (range, 0.01 to 24.8 years), 470 nondiabetic subjects and 488 diabetic subjects died. In the nondiabetic subjects, 45 of the deaths were due to cardiovascular disease, 208 to other natural causes, and 217 to external causes; in the diabetic subjects, 106 of the deaths were due to cardiovascular disease, 85 to diabetic nephropathy, 226 to other natural causes, and 71 to external causes. In the nondiabetic subjects, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and serum cholesterol concentration in a proportional hazards model, hypertension predicted death from cardiovascular disease (death rate ratio [DRR]=2.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5. 6; P=0.003). In the diabetic subjects, after additional adjustment for duration of diabetes, plasma glucose concentration, and proteinuria, hypertension strongly predicted deaths from diabetic nephropathy (DRR=3.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 7.2; P<0.001), but it had little effect on deaths from cardiovascular disease (DRR=1.4; 95% CI, 0.88 to 2.3; P=0.15). CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the weak relationship between hypertension and cardiovascular disease in diabetic Pima Indians is not because of a diminished effect of hypertension on cardiovascular disease in diabetes, but because of a relatively greater effect of hypertension on the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Factors that may account for this finding in Pima Indians include a younger age at onset of type 2 diabetes, a low frequency of heavy smoking, favorable lipoprotein profiles and, possibly, enhanced susceptibility to renal disease.

Title Changing Glomerular Filtration with Progression from Impaired Glucose Tolerance to Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus.
Date April 1999
Journal Diabetologia
Excerpt

Glomerular filtration rate (iothalamate clearance) was measured serially for 48 months in 26 Pima Indians with impaired glucose tolerance and 27 with normal glucose tolerance. At baseline, the mean glomerular filtration rate (SEM) was 133+/-8 ml/min in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and 123+/-5 ml/min in those with normal glucose tolerance (p = 0.12). In the 12 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who progressed to Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes during follow-up, mean glomerular filtration rate increased by 30% (p = 0.011). Among the remaining 14 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, 12 reverted to normoglycaemia. The glomerular filtration rate both at baseline and after 48 months in this subgroup exceeded the values of subjects with normal glucose tolerance by 20 % (p = 0.008) and 14% (p=0.013), respectively. A pronounced rise in the glomerular filtration rate occurs at the onset of Type II diabetes but a trend to hyperfiltration is also present in those with impaired glucose tolerance.

Title Effect of Glycemia on Mortality in Pima Indians with Type 2 Diabetes.
Date April 1999
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

The effect of plasma glucose concentration on overall and cause-specific mortality was examined in 1,745 Pima Indians (725 men, 1,020 women) > or = 15 years old with type 2 diabetes. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years (range 0.1-24.8), 533 subjects (275 men, 258 women) died; 113 of the deaths were attributable to cardiovascular disease, 96 to diabetes-related diseases (diabetic nephropathy for 92 of these), 249 to other natural causes, and 75 to external causes. After adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and BMI in a generalized additive proportional hazards model, higher baseline 2-h postload plasma glucose concentration predicted deaths from cardiovascular disease (P = 0.007) and diabetes-related diseases (P = 0.003), but not from other natural causes (P = 0.73). An increment of 5.6 mmol/l (100 mg/dl) in the 2-h plasma glucose concentration was associated with 1.2 times (95% CI 1.1-1.4) the death rate from cardiovascular disease, 1.3 times (95% CI 1.1-1.5) the death rate from diabetes-related diseases, and almost no change in the death rate from other natural causes (rate ratio = 1.0; 95% CI 0.94-1.1). In Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes, higher plasma glucose concentration predicts deaths from cardiovascular and diabetes-related diseases but has little or no effect on deaths from other natural or external causes.

Title An Epidemic of Proteinuria in Pima Indians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Date February 1999
Journal Kidney International
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: The risk of proteinuria in Type 1 diabetes declined > or = 30% over the past 50 years, and improvements in metabolic control are believed to be largely responsible. Little is known about secular changes in the risk of proteinuria in Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We examined trends in the incidence rate of proteinuria in Pima Indians > or = 20 years of age with diabetes diagnosed between January 1, 1955 and December 31, 1994. RESULTS: Among 1305 initially non-proteinuric diabetic subjects, 433 developed proteinuria during a median follow-up of 8.0 years (range 0.8 to 30.2 years). With subjects with diabetes diagnosed between 1955 and 1964 serving as the reference group, the rate of proteinuria was similar (rate ratio 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 1.3) in the cohort diagnosed between 1965 and 1974, 1.5 times as high (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.0) in the cohort diagnosed between 1975 and 1984, and 1.9 times as high (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 3.0) in the cohort diagnosed between 1985 and 1994, after adjusting for potential confounders in a generalized additive proportional hazards model. Between the first and last cohorts, plasma glucose concentration declined, on average, by 17% (P = 0.0001) and the mean arterial pressure declined by 11% (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of proteinuria in Pima Indians with Type 2 diabetes increased nearly twofold in the last 40 years, despite improvements in plasma glucose and blood pressure. Rapidly changing environmental or behavioral factors must play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic renal disease in this population.

Title Plasma Lipoproteins and the Incidence of Abnormal Excretion of Albumin in Diabetic American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.
Date December 1998
Journal Diabetologia
Excerpt

Animal studies suggest that lipids are risk factors for kidney diseases. Some prospective studies and clinical trials have reported predictive effects of lipoproteins on different stages of diabetic nephropathy in humans. We examined lipoprotein abnormalities to determine if they predict abnormal urinary excretion of albumin (> or = 30 mg albumin/g creatinine), using logistic regression. We followed 671 American Indians (211 men, 460 women) with Type II diabetes for a mean of 3.9 years (range 1.7-6.2). Participants were aged 45-74 years. They had normal excretion of albumin and normal serum creatinine at baseline. 67 men and 144 women developed abnormal excretion of albumin. In models controlled for age, treatment with oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin, HbA1c, study site, degree of Indian heritage, mean arterial blood pressure, albumin excretion at baseline and duration of diabetes, a high HDL cholesterol was a protector for abnormal excretion of albumin in women [odds ratio (OR) comparing the 90th with the 10th percentile = 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.32-0.98], but not in men (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.66-3.4). Further adjustment for obesity, insulin concentration, alcohol consumption or physical activity did not change the results. There was a tendency for high values of VLDL and total triglyceride and small LDL size to predict abnormal excretion of albumin in women only. We conclude that low HDL cholesterol was a risk factor for abnormal excretion of albumin in women, but not in men. Sex hormones may be responsible for sex differences in the association between HDL cholesterol and abnormal excretion of albumin.

Title Birth Weight and Renal Disease in Pima Indians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Date October 1998
Journal American Journal of Epidemiology
Excerpt

Congenital retardation of renal development may increase the risk of renal disease, and this risk may be enhanced by diseases, such as diabetes, that damage the kidney. In this study, the prevalence of urinary albumin excretion, determined in 308 Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes, was 63% in subjects with low birth weight (<2,500 g), 41% in those with normal birth weight (2,500-4,499 g), and 64% in those with high birth weight (> or =4,500 g). When examined as a continuous variable by generalized additive logistic regression, birth weight had a U-shaped association with the prevalence of elevated urinary albuminuria (p = 0.04) after adjustment for age, sex, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin, and blood pressure. The odds of elevated albuminuria in subjects of low birth weight was 2.3 times (95% confidence interval 0.72-7.2) that in subjects of normal birth weight, and the odds in subjects of high birth weight was 3.2 times (95% confidence interval 0.75-13.4) as high. Sixty-four percent of the subjects with high birth weight and none of those with low birth weight were offspring of diabetic mothers. After maternal diabetes during pregnancy was controlled for, the odds of elevated albuminuria in subjects of high birth weight was no longer higher (odds ratio = 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.22-4.9). The higher prevalence of elevated albuminuria in diabetic Pima Indians with high birth weight may be due to intrauterine diabetes exposure, whereas the higher prevalence in those with low birth weight may be due to the effects of intrauterine growth retardation.

Title Intrauterine Diabetes Exposure and the Risk of Renal Disease in Diabetic Pima Indians.
Date September 1998
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

The association between the diabetic intrauterine environment and renal disease was examined cross-sectionally in 503 Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes. Subjects were selected from participants in an ongoing study of diabetes and its complications in the Gila River Indian Community of Arizona. Subjects' exposure to diabetes in utero was established from periodic examinations conducted as part of the study. The prevalence of elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) (albumin-to-creatinine ratio > or = 30 mg/g) was 40% (83 of 207) in the offspring of nondiabetic mothers, 43% (105 of 246) in the offspring of prediabetic mothers (i.e., women who were not diabetic at the time of the pregnancy but who developed diabetes after the pregnancy), and 58% (29 of 50) in the offspring of mothers who had diabetes during pregnancy. After controlling for age, sex, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, and mean arterial pressure in the offspring in a logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equations, maternal diabetes during pregnancy was strongly associated with elevated UAE. The odds of elevated UAE in the offspring of mothers who had diabetes during pregnancy was 3.8 times (95% CI 1.7-8.4) that of the offspring of prediabetic mothers; the odds of elevated UAE in the offspring of nondiabetic and prediabetic mothers were similar (odds ratio of 0.94; 95% CI 0.59-1.5). We concluded that exposure to a diabetic intrauterine environment increases the risk of elevated UAE in diabetic Pima Indians. The effect of this exposure appears to be independent of other susceptibility factors that lead to nephropathy in diabetes.

Title Dietary Calcium and Blood Pressure in a Native American Population.
Date April 1998
Journal Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between dietary calcium and blood pressure. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 404 adult Pima Indians of Arizona. Dietary variables were assessed by the 24-hour recall. Hypertension (HTN) was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mmHg or drug treatment. RESULTS: Controlled for age and sex, dietary calcium intake was higher in subjects with HTN than in those without (p < 0.01), and higher dietary calcium was associated with a higher prevalence of HTN (odds ratio comparing highest with lowest tertile group of calcium = 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-4.8). Age-sex-adjusted men DBP in low, middle and high tertiles of calcium was 74, 76, and 79 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.001). SBP was not significantly different in the three tertiles (p = 0.07). Multiple regression analyses that controlled for age, sex, body mass index, sodium, potassium and alcohol also suggested a positive association between DBP and dietary calcium (p < 0.01), an association which was stronger at higher glucose concentrations (p < 0.01 for the calcium-glucose interaction). CONCLUSION: In Pima Indians, a population with a high incidence of diabetes, the inverse association between dietary calcium and blood pressure reported in other populations was not found.

Title Course of Renal Disease in Pima Indians with Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
Date February 1998
Journal Kidney International. Supplement
Excerpt

The course of renal disease attributable to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) has been characterized extensively in the Pima Indians of Arizona. Studies in this population indicate that the glomerular filtration rate often increases at the onset of NIDDM and remains elevated as long as normal urinary albumin excretion (< 30 mg albumin/g creatinine) or microalbuminuria (30-299 mg albumin/g creatinine) persist. After the development of macroalbuminuria (> or = 300 mg albumin/g creatinine), the glomerular filtration rate declines at least as rapidly as reported in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes. Morphologic examination of kidney tissue reveals extensive glomerular sclerosis, mesangial expansion, and widening of epithelial cell foot processes and the glomerular basement membrane in the subjects with macroalbuminuria, but not in those with normo- or microalbuminuria. These findings suggest that substantial structural damage to the kidney occurs at or about the time that macroalbuminuria develops, and the decline in glomerular function in those with macroalbuminuria is due to a loss of ultrafiltration surface area and a reduction in glomerular hydraulic permeability.

Title Serum Cholesterol and Mortality Rates in a Native American Population with Low Cholesterol Concentrations: a U-shaped Association.
Date October 1997
Journal Circulation
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Low serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with high death rates from cancer, trauma, and infectious diseases, but the meaning of these associations remains controversial. The present report evaluates whether low cholesterol is likely to be a causal factor for mortality from all causes or from specific causes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 4553 Pima Indians > or =20 years old, a population with low serum cholesterol (median, 4.50 mmol/L), 1077 deaths occurred during a mean follow-up of 12.8 years. Trauma was the most common cause. The relationship between serum cholesterol measured at 2-year intervals and age- and sex-standardized mortality rates was U-shaped. Cholesterol was related positively to mortality from cardiovascular diseases and diabetes (including nephropathy) and negatively to mortality from cancer and alcohol-related diseases. The relationship was U-shaped for mortality from infectious diseases, and cholesterol was not related to mortality from trauma. Change in cholesterol from one examination to the next was positively related to mortality from diabetes. In proportional-hazards models adjusted for potential confounders, the relationship between baseline cholesterol and mortality was U-shaped for all causes and diabetes and positive for cardiovascular diseases. Other relationships were nonsignificant. Among 3358 subjects followed > or =5 years, the relationship was significant and positive only for mortality from cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high exposure risk for Pima Indians, if low cholesterol level is a causal factor, the relationships between low serum cholesterol and high mortality rates probably result from diseases lowering cholesterol rather than from a low cholesterol causing the diseases.

Title Plasma Lipoproteins and Incidence of Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus in Pima Indians: Protective Effect of Hdl Cholesterol in Women.
Date July 1997
Journal Atherosclerosis
Excerpt

The role of plasma lipoproteins in the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was studied in 787 non-diabetic (2-h glucose < 11.1 mmol/l) Pima Indians (265 men and 522 women). Subjects were followed for a mean of 9.8 (range: 1.8-16.4) years, during which 261 (76 men and 185 women) developed NIDDM. In men and women, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, VLDL triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein triglyceride and total triglyceride, controlled for age, predicted NIDDM (P < 0.01 for each). These effects diminished when controlled for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and 2-h glucose. However, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, controlled for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and 2-h glucose, was a significant protective factor for NIDDM in women (hazard rate ratio (HRR) = 0.35, 95% CI (0.23-0.54), P < 0.001, 90th compared with 10th percentile) but not in men (HRR = 1.04, 95% CI (0.53-2.05), P = 0.915). This association remained significant in women when controlled for fasting or 2-h plasma insulin concentrations, other estimates of insulin resistance or alcohol consumption. The protective effect of HDL cholesterol was similar among women with normal (2-h glucose < 7.8 mmol/1) or impaired (7.8 mmol/l < or = 2-h glucose < 11.1 mmol/l) glucose tolerance at baseline. These results indicate that lipoprotein disorders are an early accompaniment of the abnormalities that lead to NIDDM.

Title Clinical and Pathological Course of Renal Disease in Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: the Pima Indian Experience.
Date May 1997
Journal Seminars in Nephrology
Excerpt

Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and the renal disease attributable to it have been characterized extensively in the Pima Indians, a group of American Indians who form the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona. Both of these diseases are common in this community, and their onset and duration are known with greater certainty than in other populations because research examinations, which include oral glucose tolerance tests and measures of urinary protein excretion, have been performed frequently on most members of the population for the past 30 years. Studies of glomerular structure and hemodynamic function in diabetic Pima Indians indicate that glomerular hyperfiltration often develops at the onset of NIDDM and remains elevated until after overt nephropathy appears. Structurally, the glomeruli in subjects with microalbuminuria are not clearly distinguishable from those in subjects with normoalbuminuria, but macroalbuminuria is characterized by extensive glomerular sclerosis, mesangial expansion, and widening of epithelial cell foot processes that together lead to a rapid decline in the glomerular filtration rate. The decline in glomerular function in subjects with macroalbuminuria is due both to a loss of ultrafiltration surface area and to reduction in glomerular hydraulic permeability.

Title A Foot Risk Classification System to Predict Diabetic Amputation in Pima Indians.
Date March 1997
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the contribution of various risk factors to the risk of amputation in diabetic patients and to develop a foot risk scoring system based on clinical data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A population case-control study was undertaken. Eligible subjects were 1) 25-85 years of age, 2) diabetic, 3) 50% or more Pima or Tohono O'odham Indian, 4) lived in the Gila River Indian Community, and 5) had had at least one National Institutes of Health research examination. Case patients had had an incident lower extremity amputation between 1983 and 1992; control subjects had no amputation by 1992. Medical records were reviewed to determine risk conditions and health status before the pivotal event that led to the amputation. RESULTS: Sixty-one people with amputations were identified and compared with 183 control subjects. Men were more likely to suffer amputation than women (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% CI 2.6-15), and people with diabetic eye, renal, or cardiovascular disease were more likely to undergo amputation than those without (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.7-12). The risk of amputation was almost equally associated with these foot risk factors: peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, bony deformities, and a history of foot ulcers. After controlling for demographic differences and diabetes severity, the ORs for amputation with one foot risk factor was 2.1 (95% CI 1.4-3.3), with two risk factors, 4.5 (95% CI 2.9-6.9), and with three or four risk factors, 9.7 (95% CI 6.3-14.8). CONCLUSIONS: Male Sex, end-organ complications of eye, heart, and kidney, and poor glucose control were associated with a higher amputation rate. Peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, deformity, and a prior ulcer were similarly equally associated with an increased risk of lower extremity amputation.

Title Decrease in Mortality from Diabetic Nephropathy in Pima Indians.
Date March 1997
Journal Diabetes Care
Title Survival During Renal Replacement Therapy for Diabetic End-stage Renal Disease in Pima Indians.
Date March 1997
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To examine survival in Pima Indians receiving renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease attributed to NIDDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Vital status through 1994 was determined for 136 diabetic Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community who began renal replacement therapy between 1973 and 1990. RESULTS: Median survival from the onset of renal replacement therapy was 39 months (95% Ci, 31-54), 31 months (95% Ci, 11-48) in those who began treatment between 1973 and 1981, and 44 months (95% Ci, 32-56) in those who began treatment between 1982 and 1990 (P = 0.020). During these periods, mean age at onset of treatment increased from 53.3 to 56.1 years (P = 0.166), and mean duration of diabetes at the onset of treatment increased from 16.5 to 20.2 years (P = 0.003). After adjustment for sex, duration of diabetes, initial dialysis type, and kidney transplantation by an age-stratified proportional-hazards analysis, the death rate after starting renal replacement therapy in the second half of the study was 0.54 times (95% CI, 0.33-0.88) that in the first half. If this analysis was restricted to those who survived at least 90 days of therapy, the difference between the time periods was diminished (death rate ratio = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.43-1.32). CONCLUSIONS: Survival in Pima Indians receiving renal replacement therapy improved significantly over the study despite an increase in the average age and diabetes duration of those beginning dialysis. Much of the improvement in survival is attributable to a reduction in the number of deaths within the first 90 days of therapy. The median survival of 47 months in Pima Indians < 65 years old at the initiation of therapy is substantially longer than the 30 months reported in blacks and 16 months reported in whites of similar age with NIDDM.

Title Podocyte Loss and Progressive Glomerular Injury in Type Ii Diabetes.
Date February 1997
Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
Excerpt

Kidney biopsies from Pima Indians with type II diabetes were analyzed. Subjects were classified clinically as having early diabetes (n = 10), microalbuminuria (n = 17), normoalbuminuria, despite a duration of diabetes equal to that of the subjects with microalbuminuria (n = 12), or clinical nephropathy (n = 12). Subjects with microalbuminuria exhibited moderate increases in glomerular and mesangial volume when compared with those with early diabetes, but could not be distinguished from subjects who remained normoalbuminuric after an equal duration of diabetes. Subjects with clinical nephropathy exhibited global glomerular sclerosis and more prominent structural abnormalities in nonsclerosed glomeruli. Marked mesangial expansion was accompanied by a further increase in total glomerular volume. Glomerular capillary surface area remained stable, but the glomerular basement membrane thickness was increased and podocyte foot processes were broadened. Broadening of podocyte foot processes was associated with a reduction in the number of podocytes per glomerulus and an increase in the surface area covered by remaining podocytes. These findings suggest that podocyte loss contributes to the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

Title Potential Antifolate Resistance Determinants and Genotypic Variation in the Bifunctional Dihydrofolate Reductase-thymidylate Synthase Gene from Human and Bovine Isolates of Cryptosporidium Parvum.
Date January 1997
Journal Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Excerpt

We have determined the nucleic acid sequences of a gene encoding the bifunctional enzyme dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) from bovine and human AIDS isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum. THe DHFR-TS gene was isolated from genomic DNA libraries by hybridization with a probe amplified from C. parvum genomic DNA using generic TS primers in the polymerase chain reaction. Genomic Southern and electrophoretic karyotype analyses reveal C. parvum DHFR-TS is a single-copy gene on a 1200-kb chromosome. The DHFR-TS nucleic acid sequence contains no introns and the single 1563-bp open reading frame encodes a 179 residue N-terminal DHFR domain connected by a 55 amino acid junction peptide to a 287 residue C-terminal TS domain. The sequences of the DHFR-TS gene from the bovine and human C. parvum isolates differ at two positions in the 5'-flanking sequence and at 38 positions in the encoding sequence. These DNA sequence polymorphisms will provide a powerful probe to examine the genotypic diversity and genetic population structure of C. parvum. The two sequences encode identical TS domains which share all except one of the phylogenetically conserved amino acid residues identified among reported TS sequences. The predicted DHFR domain sequences contain nine amino acid differences; these polymorphisms all map to non-active site, surface locations in known DHFR structures. The C. parvum DHFR active site contains novel residues at several positions analogous to those at which point mutations have been shown to produce antifolate resistance in other DHFRs. Thus C. parvum DHFR may be intrinsically resistant ti inhibition by some antifolate DHFR inhibitors which may explain why cryptosporidiosis is refractory to treatment with the clinically common antibacterial and antiprotozoal antifolates.

Title Genotyping Human and Bovine Isolates of Cryptosporidium Parvum by Polymerase Chain Reaction-restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of a Repetitive Dna Sequence.
Date January 1997
Journal Fems Microbiology Letters
Excerpt

In order to define transmission routes of cryptosporidiosis and develop markers that distinguish Cryptosporidium parvum isolates, we have identified 2 polymorphic restriction enzyme sites in a C. parvum repetitive DNA sequence. The target sequence was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from 100 to 500 oocysts and the amplified product was subjected to restriction enzyme digestion. Typing of 23 isolates showed that 10/10 calf isolates had the same profile. In contrast, 2 patterns were observed among human isolates: 7/13 displayed the calf profile, and 6/13 presented another pattern. The PCR-RFLP assay described here is a sensitive tool to distinguish C. parvum isolates.

Title Hla*a2 Confers Mortality Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Pimans.
Date January 1997
Journal Tissue Antigens
Excerpt

A sample of 1465 full heritage Piman Indians from Arizona were typed for the serological antigens of the HLA class I loci and then incorporated into a survival study that ended December 31, 1991. The total follow-up time was 11,749 person-years with an average of 8.0 years per person. During the study 298 persons died, 54 from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Allele HLA*A2 conferred a 4.94 fold rate for death from CVD (95% C.I. 1.91-12.77). When controlled for the potential confounding variables, cholesterol, mean blood pressure, smoking, body mass index, rheumatoid factor titer, and nephropathy, the mortality rate ratio (MRR) was 5.42 (95% C.I. 1.98-14.82). There was no statistically significant association of mortality with other HLA-A or HLA-B alleles, or for causes of death not related to cardiovascular disease.

Title Development and Progression of Renal Disease in Pima Indians with Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetic Renal Disease Study Group.
Date December 1996
Journal The New England Journal of Medicine
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. However, the course and determinants of renal failure in this type of diabetes have not been clearly defined. METHODS: We studied glomerular function at intervals of 6 to 12 months for 4 years in 194 Pima Indians selected to represent different stages in the development and progression of diabetic renal disease. Initially, 31 subjects had normal glucose tolerance, 29 had impaired glucose tolerance, 30 had newly diagnosed diabetes, and 104 had had diabetes for five years or more; of these 104, 20 had normal albumin excretion, 50 had microalbuminuria, and 34 had macroalbuminuria. The glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, urinary albumin excretion, and blood pressure were measured at each examination. RESULTS: Initially, the mean (+/-SE) glomerular filtration rate was 143+/-7 ml per minute in subjects with newly diagnosed diabetes, 155+/-7 ml per minute in those with microalbuminuria, and 124+/-7 ml per minute in those with macroalbuminuria; these values were 16 percent, 26 percent, and 1 percent higher, respectively, than in the subjects with normal glucose tolerance (123+/-4 ml per minute). During four years of follow-up, the glomerular filtration rate increased by 18 percent in the subjects who initially had newly diagnosed diabetes (P=0.008); the rate declined by 3 percent in those with microalbuminuria at base line (P=0.29) and by 35 percent in those with macroalbuminuria (P<0.001). Higher base-line blood pressure predicted increasing urinary albumin excretion (P=0.006), and higher base-line urinary albumin excretion predicted a decline in the glomerular filtration rate (P<0.001). The initial glomerular filtration rate did not predict worsening albuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: The glomerular filtration rate is elevated at the onset of NIDDM and remains so while normal albumin excretion or microalbuminuria persists. It declines progressively after the development of macroalbuminuria.

Title Sequential Trends in Overall and Cause-specific Mortality in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Pima Indians.
Date October 1996
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To compare sequential trends in overall and cause-specific death rates for diabetic and nondiabetic Pima Indians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Underlying causes of death in Pimas aged > or = 15 years old were determined for the years 1975-1989 from review of death certificates and medical records. Overall and cause-specific death rates were compared for consecutive intervals. RESULTS: The all-causes death rate, age- and sex-adjusted, did not change significantly between the first and second halves of the study for diabetic (death rate ratio [DRR] = 0.99, 95% CI 0.70-1.4) or nondiabetic Pimas (DRR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.74-1.1). Among diabetic Pimas, however, the death rate for diabetic nephropathy declined from 2.7 to 1.5/1,000 person-years (DRR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.33-0.93), with ischemic heart disease (IHD) replacing diabetic nephropathy as the leading cause in the second half (DRR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.91-2.6). For diabetic and nondiabetic Pimas combined, the death rate in three consecutive 5-year periods declined progressively for alcoholic liver disease (P = 0.024) and external causes of death (P = 0.016), the largest component of which was automobile accidents. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in death rate for diabetic nephropathy may be a result of greater access to and improvements in renal replacement therapy. Because of shared risk factors, however, the IHD death rate increased and largely offset the decrease in diabetic nephropathy deaths. The decline in deaths from alcoholic liver disease and from automobile accidents parallels the national trend.

Title Parental Hypertension and Proteinuria in Pima Indians with Niddm.
Date September 1996
Journal Diabetologia
Excerpt

To determine if parental hypertension is associated with proteinuria in offspring with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), 438 diabetic Pima Indians (172 men, 266 women) aged 20 years or more and both of their parents were examined. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or more, diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg or more, or treatment with antihypertensive medicine. Sixty-three percent of the fathers and 80% of the mothers had diabetes at the time their blood pressure was measured. Families in which either parent had proteinuria, defined as a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio > or = 0.5 g/g were excluded; 73 (16.7%) of the offspring had proteinuria. The prevalence rates of proteinuria in the offspring were similar if neither parent or only one parent had hypertension (8.9 and 9.4%, respectively), but was significantly higher if both parents had hypertension (18.8%), after adjustment for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and 2-h post-load plasma glucose concentration in the offspring and diabetes in the parents by logistic regression. The odds for proteinuria being present in the offspring if both parents had hypertension was 2.2 times (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 4.2) that if only one parent had hypertension. When mean arterial pressure and blood pressure treatment in the offspring were added to the model the relationship remained (odds ratio = 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 4.3). Hypertension in both parents is associated with the development of proteinuria in offspring with NIDDM. This relationship was present even when controlled for the effects of blood pressure and its treatment in the offspring.

Title Survey of the Diet of Pima Indians Using Quantitative Food Frequency Assessment and 24-hour Recall. Diabetic Renal Disease Study.
Date August 1996
Journal Journal of the American Dietetic Association
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: A dietary survey was conducted in the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona using two methods of dietary assessment--24-hour recall and quantitative food frequency (QFF) assessment--to determine the usual intake of the population. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted by Pima women who were trained and monitored by a research dietitian. Energy and nutrient intake were calculated using a computerized dietary database that included specific Pima foods. SUBJECTS: An age- and sex-stratified sample of 575 Pima Indians (273 men, 302 women) aged 18 to 74 years participated in the study. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Spearman correlations were used to compare the results of the two survey methods for energy and each nutrient. Intraclass correlations were used to measure reproducibility. RESULTS: According to the 24-hour recall, mean reported energy intakes within decades of age were 95% to 112% of those in the US population for Pima women, and 76% to 94% of those in the US population for Pima men. Total energy intake assessed using QFF was 30% higher in men and 33% higher in women than the intake assessed using the 24-hour recall method. CONCLUSIONS: A large dietary survey conducted using lay interviewers in a Native-American community was as reproducible as studies conducted in the general US population. The Pima diet was distributed among the major nutrients in a proportion similar to the US diet.

Title Prediabetic Blood Pressure and Familial Predisposition to Renal Disease in Pima Indians with Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
Date March 1996
Journal Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications
Excerpt

Renal disease is a frequent complication of non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona. This review describes the relationship between prediabetic blood pressure and the subsequent development of renal disease, and characterizes the familial aggregation of diabetic renal disease in this population.

Title The Natural History of Renal Disease in Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Lessons from the Pima Indians.
Date November 1995
Journal Advances in Nephrology from the Necker Hospital
Title Progression of Overt Nephropathy in Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes.
Date September 1995
Journal Kidney International
Excerpt

The detection of overt albuminuria (> 300 mg/g creatinine) in the absence of azotemia was used to diagnose early nephropathy in 34 Pima Indians with NIDDM of 16 +/- 1 years duration. Differential solute clearances were performed serially to define the course of the glomerular injury over 48 months. At baseline, the GFR (107 +/- 5 ml/min), filtration fraction and sieving coefficients of relatively permeant dextrans (< 52 A) were all depressed below corresponding values in 20 normoalbuminuric Pima Indians with a similar duration of NIDDM. Over the ensuing 48 months the GFR (-34%) and filtration fraction (-13%) in the nephropathic patients declined further. The sieving coefficients of large, nearly impermeant dextrans (> 56 A radius) increased selectively and fractional clearances of albumin and IgG increased correspondingly by > 10-fold. Analysis of the findings with pore theory revealed: (1) a progressive decline in pore density and the ultrafiltration coefficient (Kf); and (2) broadening of glomerular pore-size distribution that resulted in greater prominence of large pores (> 70 A radius). We conclude that increasing loss of intrinsic ultrafiltration capacity is the predominant cause of the early and progressive decline in GFR that follows the development of nephropathy in NIDDM. We speculate that progressive impairment of barrier size-selectivity contributes to but does not fully account for the increasingly heavy proteinuria that is observed early in the course of this disorder.

Title Plasmodium Falciparum: D260, an Intraerythrocytic Parasite Protein, is a Member of the Glutamic Acid Dipeptide-repeat Family of Proteins.
Date September 1995
Journal Experimental Parasitology
Excerpt

Members of a serologically cross-reacting family of proteins including Ag332 and Pf11.1, megadalton proteins of schizont-infected red blood cells, and gametocytes, respectively, and Pf155-RESA, a 155-kDa protein of ring-infected red blood cells, have been reported to share amino acid repeat sequences. These repeats are rich in glutamic acid dipeptides postulated to be involved in generating serologic cross-reactivity. We report the identification and characterization of another member of this cross-reacting family, a 260-kDa glutamic acid-rich intraerythrocytic protein. Human antibodies affinity purified on the 260-kDa region of Western boots of trophozoite proteins of Plasmodium falciparum were used to screen a trophozoite-stage lambda gt11 cDNA library. A 1.8-kb clone was identified and human antibodies were affinity purified on the expressing clone. Using this affinity-purified antibody and the 1.8-kb clone, the corresponding protein, its gene, and its chromosomal location were investigated. The 260-kDa corresponding protein serologically cross-reacts with Pf155-RESA, but is the product of a different gene. The 260-kDa protein is Triton X-100 soluble and is variable in molecular weight in different isolates. Immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled infected red blood cells indicates that the protein is synthesized throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle but is most prominent in schizonts. The protein, as has been shown previously, is not immunoprecipitated from 125I surface-labeled infected red blood cells and is thus not PfEMP1, the antigen associated with cytoadherence. Indirect fluorescent antibody studies using fixed infected red blood cells suggest that the protein is localized to the periphery of the intraerythrocytic parasite.

Title Monoclonal Antibodies Identify a Subset of Dense Granules in Cryptosporidium Parvum Zoites and Gamonts.
Date August 1995
Journal The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Excerpt

Two monoclonal antibodies raised against purified oocysts and excysted sporozoites of Cryptosporidium parvum identified antigens located in the anterior half of sporozoites by indirect immunofluorescence microscopic assay. The monoclonal antibodies also reacted with Triton-X-100-insoluble antigens of asexual and sexual stage parasites developing in epithelial cells in vitro and identified a 110 kilodalton antigen on immunoblots of sodium dodecyl sulfate-extracted oocysts. Immunoblotting reactivity was abolished by prior treatment of blotted antigen with periodic acid suggesting that the monoclonal antibodies recognize a carbohydrate or carbohydrate-dependent epitope(s). By immunoelectron microscopy, the antibodies reacted with a family of small, electron-dense granules located predominantly in the central region of merozoites and also with a population of cytoplasmic inclusions in macrogamonts. In addition, the monoclonal antibodies prominently labeled the parasitophorous vacuole membrane of all intracellular stages examined suggesting that the corresponding antigen(s) may be exocytosed from the granules to become associated with Triton X-100-insoluble components of the vacuolar membrane or cytoskeleton.

Title The U-shaped Association Between Body Mass Index and Mortality: Relationship with Weight Gain in a Native American Population.
Date July 1995
Journal Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Excerpt

In order to determine whether weight loss explains high mortality rates in those with a low body mass index (BMI), the relationships between BMI, rate of weight gain and mortality were examined in Pima Indians. Subjects were 814 diabetic and 1814 nondiabetic participants in a longitudinal survey who had at least two examinations after age 20. Median duration of follow-up was 8.1 (range 0.03-25.1) years. BMI showed a U-shaped relationship with mortality rates in men with the lowest rates in the 30-35 kg/m2 category; an inverse relationship was seen in women. Subjects who were losing weight had higher mortality rates than those who were gaining. However, excess mortality among the lightest subjects was present among those who were gaining weight. Among nondiabetic subjects, the mortality ratio (MR) for BMI < 25 kg/m2 compared with 30-35 kg/m2 was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-2.2] unadjusted for weight gain, while the adjusted MR was 1.3 [95% CI 0.9-1.9]. Weight loss, which may reflect underlying illness, is associated with high mortality rates in Pima Indians but does not fully account for the high mortality in the lightest individuals.

Title Preventing Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes.
Date May 1995
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

Many risk factors for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), such as obesity, physical inactivity, and high-fat diet, can potentially be modified. Furthermore, some of the metabolic abnormalities, such as insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, that predict diabetes can be improved by behavior modification and drug treatment. Thus, at least to some extent, NIDDM may be preventable. Several small clinical trials have addressed the hypothesis that NIDDM can be prevented by dietary modification, physical activity, or drug treatment. Some studies suggest a preventive effect, but the conclusions are limited by considerations of sample size, randomization, or intensity of the interventions. Consequently, the hypothesis that NIDDM is preventable requires further testing.

Title Incidence and Determinants of Elevated Urinary Albumin Excretion in Pima Indians with Niddm.
Date May 1995
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE--To examine the incidence and determinants of elevated urinary albumin excretion in Pima Indians with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--The incidence of elevated urinary albumin excretion (> or = 30 mg albumin/g creatinine) and its relationship with baseline characteristics was determined in 456 Pima Indians > or = 15 years old with NIDDM who were followed for up to 11.6 years (median 4.7 years). RESULTS--Of these 456 subjects, 192 (42%; 58 men, 134 women) developed elevated urinary albumin excretion, 172 of whom (90%) were within the microalbuminuric range (30-299 mg/g). The incidence of elevated urinary albumin excretion was related to retinopathy, type, of diabetes treatment, longer duration of diabetes, lower body mass index, and higher values of mean arterial pressure, HbA1, and fasting and 2-h postload plasma glucose concentration at the baseline examination, but not to sex. A relationship with cholesterol was found in durations of diabetes of > or = 10 years. The cumulative incidence of elevated albumin excretion was 17% after 5 years of NIDDM. CONCLUSIONS--The incidence of elevated urinary albumin excretion in Pima Indians with NIDDM is at least as high as that reported previously in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and its major determinants are the same as those shown previously to predict the development of more advanced renal disease in this population.

Title Cryptosporidium Parvum Sporozoites Deposit Trails of 11a5 Antigen During Gliding Locomotion and Shed 11a5 Antigen During Invasion of Mdck Cells in Vitro.
Date January 1995
Journal The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Title Determinants of End-stage Renal Disease in Pima Indians with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) Diabetes Mellitus and Proteinuria.
Date December 1993
Journal Diabetologia
Excerpt

To identify factors related to the development of end-stage renal disease after the onset of proteinuria, its incidence was determined in 364 Pima Indians aged 35 years or older with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and proteinuria (protein-to-creatinine ratio > or = 0.5 g/g). Of these 364 subjects, 95 (36 men, 59 women) developed end-stage renal disease. The cumulative incidence was 40% 10 years after and 61% 15 years after the onset of proteinuria. The incidence of end-stage renal disease was significantly related to the duration of diabetes, the duration of proteinuria, higher 2-h plasma glucose concentration, type of diabetes treatment, and the presence of retinopathy at the time of recognition of the proteinuria, but not to age, sex, or blood pressure. Duration of proteinuria influenced the risk of end-stage renal disease, contingent, however, upon the duration of diabetes at the onset of proteinuria. The higher cumulative incidence of end-stage renal disease 15 years after the onset of proteinuria in Pima Indians (61%) than in Caucasians from Rochester, Minnesota (17%) may be attributable, in part, to the younger age of onset of Type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, to ethnic differences in susceptibility to renal disease, or to lower death rates among the Pima Indians from competing causes of death, such as coronary heart disease.

Title Pre-diabetic Blood Pressure Predicts Urinary Albumin Excretion After the Onset of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) Diabetes Mellitus in Pima Indians.
Date December 1993
Journal Diabetologia
Excerpt

Blood pressure was measured in 490 non-proteinuric Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona at least 1 year before the diagnosis of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Urine albumin concentration was measured in the same subjects 0-24 years (mean 5 years) after diabetes was diagnosed. Prevalence rates of abnormal albumin excretion (albumin-to-creatinine ratio > or = 100 mg/g) after the onset of Type 2 diabetes were 9%, 16%, and 23%, respectively, for the lowest to highest tertiles of pre-diabetic mean blood pressure. When controlled for age, sex, duration of diabetes and pre-diabetic 2-h post-load plasma glucose concentration, higher pre-diabetic mean blood pressure predicted abnormal urinary excretion of albumin after the onset of diabetes. This finding suggests that the higher blood pressure seen in diabetic nephropathy is not entirely a result of the renal disease, but may precede and contribute to it.

Title The Association of Physical Activity with Obesity, Fat Distribution and Glucose Intolerance in Pima Indians.
Date November 1993
Journal Diabetologia
Excerpt

The relationships between physical activity, obesity, fat distribution and glucose tolerance were examined in the Pima Indians who have the highest documented incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Fasting and 2-h post-load plasma glucose concentrations, body mass index, and waist-to-thigh circumference ratios were determined in 1054 subjects aged 15-59 years. Current (during the most recent calendar year) and historical (over a lifetime) leisure and occupational physical activity were determined by questionnaire. Current physical activity was inversely correlated with fasting and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations, body mass index and waist-to-thigh ratios for most sex-age groups even when diabetic subjects were excluded. Controlled for age, obesity and fat distribution, activity remained significantly associated with 2-h plasma glucose concentrations in males. In subjects aged 37-59 years, individuals with diabetes compared to those without reported significantly less leisure physical activity during the teenage years (median hours per week of activity, 9.1 vs 13.2 for men; 1.0 vs 2.2 for women). Controlled for body mass index, sex, age and waist-to-thigh ratio, subjects who reported low levels of historical leisure physical activity had a higher rate of diabetes than those who were more active. In conclusion, current physical activity was inversely related to glucose intolerance, obesity and central distribution of fat, particularly in males. Subjects with diabetes were currently less active and reported less historical physical activity than non-diabetic subjects. These findings suggest that activity may protect against the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes both directly and through an influence on obesity and fat distribution.

Title Comparison of Screening Tests for Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
Date October 1993
Journal Archives of Internal Medicine
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Screening for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) can be useful in clinical practice and in epidemiologic and genetic studies, but the available information for choosing between screening methods is limited. In this study, characteristics of several screening tests for NIDDM were compared. METHODS: Among Pima Indians participating in an epidemiologic study, the sensitivity and specificity for detecting NIDDM of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and two measures of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1 or HbA1c) were compared in 2092 fasting subjects. Glycated hemoglobin, quantitative glycosuria, and dipstick glycosuria were compared in 237 nonfasting subjects. Diabetes was diagnosed using an oral glucose tolerance test if the 2-hour postload venous plasma glucose concentration was 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) or greater. The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was used to compare tests. RESULTS: In fasting subjects, the sensitivity for detecting diabetes with 98% specificity was 78.8% for HbA1 level of 7.5% or greater, 80.3% for HbA1c level of 6.3% or greater, and 88.0% for FPG level of 6.83 mmol/L (123 mg/dL) or greater. By relative operating characteristic analysis, there were no significant differences between FPG and HbA1c, but FPG was significantly more sensitive than HbA1. In nonfasting subjects the sensitivity at 98% specificity was 92.9% for HbA1 level of 7.3% or greater, 80.6% for quantitative urine glucose level of 1.94 mmol/L (35 mg/dL) or greater, and 64.3% for trace or greater of dipstick glycosuria. The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was significantly greater for glycated hemoglobin than for either measure of glycosuria. CONCLUSIONS: Although FPG has the best screening properties, HbA1c, HbA1, and quantitative urine glucose also provide high specificity and approximately 80% sensitivity in detecting NIDDM. The choice of a particular method could depend on cost, convenience, and availability.

Title Rheumatoid Arthritis and Mortality. A Longitudinal Study in Pima Indians.
Date August 1993
Journal Arthritis and Rheumatism
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE. To determine the effect of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on mortality rates. METHODS. Longitudinal analyses of data from a cohort of Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona, who were followed up during the period February 1965 through December 1989. RESULTS. Among 2,979 study subjects aged > or = 25 years, there were 858 deaths, 79 of which occurred in subjects with RA (36 men, 43 women). Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates were slightly higher in subjects with RA than in those without (mortality rate ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.01-1.62). Among those with RA, mortality rates were higher in older subjects (mortality rate ratio 1.51 per 10-year increase in age, 95% CI 1.22-1.88), in male subjects (mortality rate ratio 2.23, 95% CI 1.44-3.45, adjusted for age), and in subjects with proteinuria (mortality rate ratio 1.88, 95% CI 1.02-3.46, adjusted for age and sex). Mortality rate ratios for these risk factors were similar in subjects without RA. In addition, among subjects with RA, rheumatoid factor (RF) positivity was predictive of death (mortality rate ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.10-3.43), and the excess mortality was found primarily among subjects who were seropositive. The death rate from cardiovascular disease (mortality rate ratio 1.77, 95% CI 1.10-2.84) and from liver cirrhosis or other alcohol-related disease (mortality rate ratio 2.52, 95% CI 1.06-6.01) was increased in persons with RA. CONCLUSION. The results of this population-based study suggest that although the risk of mortality in subjects with RA is significantly higher than in those without RA, the risk ratio is in the lower range of that described previously in studies of clinic-based cohorts. RF positivity as a predictor of early death among subjects with RA indicates that the immunologic processes in seropositive RA may contribute to the events that eventually lead to early death.

Title Development of Impaired Glucose Tolerance with or Without Weight Gain.
Date May 1993
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate whether risk factors and changes in insulin concentrations differ in subjects who develop impaired glucose tolerance with or without weight gain. Hyperinsulinemia is a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin concentrations increase further with the development of impaired glucose tolerance. Its development, however, often is accompanied by weight gain, which, by itself, is associated with high insulin concentrations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Participants for this study were adult Pima Indians involved in an ongoing epidemiological study. Initially, all had normal glucose tolerance. During follow-up, 80 of 387 who did not gain weight developed impaired glucose tolerance, as did 295 of 1026 who gained weight. Risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance and the relationships between changes in weight and glucose and changes in insulin were evaluated by multivariate analyses. RESULTS--High baseline fasting insulin predicted impaired glucose tolerance regardless of weight after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and glucose. The development of impaired glucose tolerance was accompanied by a further increase in fasting and 2-h insulin, whether or not subjects gained weight. In both weight-change groups, impaired glucose tolerance was associated with more centralized fat distribution. CONCLUSIONS--Fasting hyperinsulinemia, a reflection of insulin resistance, is associated with the risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance whether or not weight is gained. Impaired glucose tolerance occurs when insulin resistance increases further. Weight gain is the most common precipitating factor. Aging and physical inactivity are other possible precipitating factors.

Title Insulinemia in Children at Low and High Risk of Niddm.
Date May 1993
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE--Fasting hyperinsulinemia in the presence of normoglycemia usually indicates insulin resistance and is characteristic of populations at high risk for developing NIDDM. Hyperinsulinemia predicts the development of impaired glucose tolerance and NIDDM in Pima Indians, a population with a high incidence of NIDDM. Insulin concentrations in population-based samples of children who have different risks of developing NIDDM later in life have not been reported previously. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--We compared fasting insulin concentrations in two populations of nondiabetic children, 6-19 yr of age: Pima Indians from southern Arizona and Caucasians from Minnesota. RESULTS--Insulin concentration varied with age, sex, glucose concentration, and relative weight. Mean fasting insulin concentration was 140.3 pM in Pima Indian males, 94.4 pM in Caucasian males, 171.5 pM in Pima Indian females, and 107.1 pM in Caucasian females. For each sex, the mean fasting insulin concentration, controlled for age, glucose, and relative weight, was significantly higher in the Pima Indians than in the Caucasians (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS--From a young age, Pima Indian children have higher fasting insulin concentrations than Caucasian children. As hyperinsulinemia predicts subsequent NIDDM, these data suggest that the susceptibility to NIDDM is manifest at a young age as fasting hyperinsulinemia.

Title Determinants of Diabetes Mellitus in the Pima Indians.
Date February 1993
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE--To review the research findings on the determinants of diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Pima Indians in Arizona have participated in a longitudinal diabetes study that has provided data on and hypotheses about the development of NIDDM. Findings from this study are reviewed and updated. RESULTS--Frequency distributions of plasma glucose and HbA1 are bimodal in Pima adults, and substantial risk of the specific vascular complications of diabetes is confined to those in the higher components of these distributions. These findings contributed to the adoption of internationally recognized criteria for classification of glucose tolerance. Diabetes in the Pimas is strongly familial, and probably of genetic origin, although the precise nature of the gene or genes involved remains unknown. Obesity, which is at least in part environmentally determined, is a major factor interacting with the presumed genetic susceptibility to result in diabetes. The incidence of diabetes in the Pimas has increased during the last several decades, providing further evidence for environmental-genetic interaction. Longitudinal studies suggest that the progression from normal to diabetes can be considered to involve two stages. The first, primarily attributable to insulin resistance, leads to impaired glucose tolerance, and the second, which depends on insulin secretory failure, leads to worsening hyperglycemia and overt diabetes. CONCLUSIONS--The Pimas and many other American Indian populations suffer from a high incidence of diabetes and its characteristic disabling or fatal complications, and would benefit from continued research on the pathogenesis and prevention of the disease.

Title Diabetes and Obesity in the Offspring of Pima Indian Women with Diabetes During Pregnancy.
Date February 1993
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE--To review the long-term effects of the diabetic pregnancy on the offspring among the Pima Indians of Arizona. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Studies published by the Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research branch of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, since the inception of the longitudinal diabetes studies in 1965 were reviewed. In addition, pertinent studies from other centers, mentioned as references in these publications, were reviewed. As far as possible, all original articles and abstracts on this aspect of the Pima Indian studies were discussed. RESULTS--The offspring of women who had diabetes during pregnancy, on average, were more obese and had higher glucose concentrations and more diabetes than the offspring of women who developed diabetes after pregnancy or who remained nondiabetic. Although no new analyses were attempted, several of the older publications were updated by repeating the analyses on later, expanded data sets. CONCLUSIONS--The diabetic pregnancy, in addition to its effects on the newborn, has effects on the subsequent growth and glucose metabolism of the offspring. These effects are in addition to genetically determined traits.

Title Diabetic Kidney Disease in Pima Indians.
Date February 1993
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE--To describe the natural history of kidney disease in Pima Indians with NIDDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Review of previous studies describing diabetic kidney disease in this Native-American population and in other populations. RESULTS--NIDDM is the leading cause of renal failure in Pima Indians, among whom the incidence of ESRD is 23 times that of the general U.S. population. The high incidence of NIDDM and its early onset in the Pima undoubtedly contribute to this difference. The incidence of overt nephropathy and ESRD, as a function of diabetes duration, is at least as high in Pima Indians with NIDDM as that reported in other populations with IDDM. Furthermore, nearly all of the excess mortality associated with NIDDM is found in individuals with overt nephropathy. Mild elevations of UAE, which may be present even shortly after the onset of diabetes, predict the development of overt nephropathy in diabetic Pimas. Additional predictors include high blood pressure, level of glycemia, duration of diabetes, family history of diabetic nephropathy, and type of diabetes treatment. CONCLUSIONS--Diabetic kidney disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Pima Indians. The natural history of diabetic kidney disease in this population is similar, in many ways, to the natural history described in individuals with IDDM.

Title Impact of Niddm on Mortality and Causes of Death in Pima Indians.
Date January 1993
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE--To compare overall and cause-specific death rates for diabetic and nondiabetic Pima Indians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--This community-based study determined overall and cause-specific death rates in persons with and without NIDDM in the Pima population. Underlying causes of death for the 10-yr period from 1975 to 1984 were derived from review of death certificates and medical records. Diabetes diagnoses were based on an ongoing diabetes study initiated by the National Institutes of Health in 1965. RESULTS--Of the 512 deaths, 241 were in Pima Indians with NIDDM; 203 (84%) of the deaths in diabetic subjects were attributed to natural causes (46 diabetic nephropathy, 35 IHD, 29 infections, 20 malignant neoplasms, 20 alcoholic liver disease, 18 stroke, 35 other causes). For natural causes, the overall age-sex-adjusted death rate in diabetic subjects was 1.7 times (95% CI 1.4-2.2) that in nondiabetic subjects. Longer duration of diabetes was significantly related to mortality, an association that was stronger in women than in men. Rates of death from diabetic nephropathy, IHD, and infections (but not stroke) were each significantly related to longer diabetes duration. Together, diabetic nephropathy and IHD accounted for 90% of the excess death rate among diabetic, compared with nondiabetic, Pimas. CONCLUSIONS--In Pima Indians, NIDDM has a significant adverse effect on death rates that is directly related to diabetes duration, especially for deaths from diabetic nephropathy, IHD, or infections. Among the Pima, diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of death, and IHD ranks second--a variation from other populations (in which IHD ranks first), probably partly attributable to a much younger age of onset of diabetes among the Pima than in the U.S. white population.

Title Increased Mortality with Gallstone Disease: Results of a 20-year Population-based Survey in Pima Indians.
Date January 1993
Journal Annals of Internal Medicine
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To determine if gallstone disease is associated with an increased risk for malignancy and higher total mortality in Pima Indians. DESIGN: Inception cohort. SETTING: American Indian community. PARTICIPANTS: Age- and sex-stratified random population-based sample. MEASUREMENTS: Between 1966 and 1969, an age- and sex-stratified random sample of Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona was examined to identify evidence of gallstone disease defined as either gallstones (oral cholecystography) or previous cholecystectomy. During 20 years of follow-up, deaths were recorded and underlying causes of death, according to death certificates, were determined. RESULTS: Among 383 persons with known gallbladder status, 186 (49%) died: 133 among the 222 persons with gallstone disease and 53 among the 161 without. The overall death rate was higher in persons with gallstone disease than in those with normal gallbladders. The age- and sex-adjusted death rate ratio was 1.9 (95% Cl, 1.3 to 2.7). Furthermore, the death rate attributed to malignancies was 6.6 times (Cl, 1.3 to 33.1) as high in persons with gallstone disease as in those with normal gallbladders. Of the 20 fatal malignancies in persons with gallstone disease, 11 occurred in the digestive tract, of which six involved the gallbladder or bile ducts. CONCLUSIONS: Increased cancer mortality and total mortality were found in Pima Indians with gallstone disease. Although plausible explanations exist for the increased cancer mortality, the increased death rates due to other causes are unexplained. Whether cholecystectomy would change this risk is unknown.

Title Characterization of a > 900,000-m(r) Cryptosporidium Parvum Sporozoite Glycoprotein Recognized by Protective Hyperimmune Bovine Colostral Immunoglobulin.
Date January 1993
Journal Infection and Immunity
Excerpt

Cryptosporidium parvum, a zoonotic Apicomplexan pathogen, causes profound diarrhea, malnutrition, and dehydration in patients with AIDS. A less severe, self-limited disease occurs in immunocompetent individuals, particularly children, animal handlers, and residents of the developing world. Very little is known about the biology of the organism, the pathophysiology of the disease process, or the mechanism of protective immunity. There is no effective therapy for cryptosporidiosis, but hyperimmune bovine colostrum raised against Cryptosporidium oocysts and sporozoites has ameliorated infection and disease in some patients with AIDS, and a variety of monoclonal antibodies, as well as hyperimmune bovine colostrum, have significantly reduced cryptosporidial infection of mice and calves. We report here the identification and initial characterization of a > 900,000-M(r) Cryptosporodium sporozoite glycoprotein (GP900) that is a prominent antigen recognized by protective hyperimmune bovine colostral immunoglobulin. Three of six murine anticryptosporidial monoclonal antibodies reacted with GP900, indicating that the molecule is highly immunogenic in mice as well as in cows. GP900 is Triton X-100 soluble and N glycosylated. Western blotting of the N-deglycosylated protein, detected with antibodies eluted from recombinant clones expressing a partial GP900 fusion protein, suggested that the polypeptide backbone of the glycoprotein has an M(r) of < 190,000. GP900 is encoded by a single-copy gene that resides on the largest Cryptosporidium chromosome.

Title Large Glomerular Size in Pima Indians: Lack of Change with Diabetic Nephropathy.
Date November 1992
Journal Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : Jasn
Excerpt

The mean glomerular volume, glomerular fraction of cortical volume, and percentage of obsolescent glomeruli were calculated in kidney specimens from autopsies on 34 Pima Indians, of whom 15 had non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and kidney disease of diabetes mellitus. These values were compared with those of black, white, and non-Pima native American individuals without diabetes mellitus. Glomerular volume in the Pima Indians was similar in the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects and significantly greater than in the white subjects. Black and non-Pima native American individuals had glomerular volumes intermediate between white individuals and Pima Indians. The mean glomerular volume was not affected by the number of obsolescent glomeruli in diabetic Pima Indians. The glomerular volume fraction was greater in the Pimas than in the other groups. These data showed that glomerular volume in the Pima Indians was significantly greater than that in white subjects. There was no difference between diabetic and nondiabetics Pimas, and glomerular size was not correlated with the presence or degree of glomerulosclerosis in this population.

Title Insulin Treatment, Endogenous Insulin Concentration, and Ecg Abnormalities in Diabetic Pima Indians. Cross-sectional and Prospective Analyses.
Date September 1992
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

The prevalence and incidence of CHD, defined by ECG abnormalities according to the Tecumseh criteria for Minnesota Codes, were determined in Pima Indians greater than or equal to 25 yr of age. In a cross-sectional analysis, the age-sex-adjusted prevalence (+/- SE) of ECG abnormalities was higher in 1454 NIDDM patients (6.86 +/- 0.65%) than in 1696 nondiabetic subjects (3.23 +/- 0.63%; prevalence rate ratio = 2.12; 95% CI 1.39-3.25). In a prospective analysis, the age-sex-adjusted incidence (+/- SE) of ECG abnormalities was higher in 824 NIDDM patients (12.77 +/- 1.67) than in 935 nondiabetic subjects (5.93 +/- 1.43 cases/1000 person-yr; incidence rate ratio = 2.15; 95% CI 1.26-3.69). The prevalence of ECG abnormalities in insulin-treated NIDDM patients was significantly higher than in NIDDM patients not treated with insulin (age-sex-adjusted OR = 2.83; 95% CI 1.84-4.33); and this association persisted when adjusted for other factors such as sBP, BMI, duration of diabetes, serum cholesterol concentration, and oral hypoglycemic agents (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.34-3.37). In the prospective analysis, the incidence of ECG abnormalities in NIDDM patients treated with insulin was higher than in those NIDDM patients not treated with insulin, but, when controlled for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and oral hypoglycemic agents in a proportional-hazards model, the relationship with insulin treatment was not statistically significant (incidence rate ratio = 1.36; 95% CI 0.80-2.31). This suggests that insulin treatment may be a marker of more severe diabetes, and that factors associated with clinical indications for insulin treatment, rather than insulin treatment per se, are related causally to CHD. On the other hand, endogenous fasting and 2-h postload serum insulin concentrations were not associated with ECG abnormalities among 761 NIDDM patients not treated with insulin nor among 1226 nondiabetic subjects. Furthermore, in the prospective study, neither endogenous fasting nor 2-h postload serum insulin was associated with the subsequent development of ECG abnormalities in NIDDM patients or nondiabetic subjects.

Title Characterization of a Cryptosporidium Parvum Sporozoite Glycoprotein.
Date July 1992
Journal The Journal of Protozoology
Excerpt

Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies directed against Cryptosporidium oocysts or sporozoites were developed to identify and characterize sporozoite pellicle and apical complex antigens. A very large glycoprotein of Cryptosporidium sporozoites was identified by three monoclonal antibodies that also reacted with intracellular merozoites. The glycoprotein was also identified by polyclonal antibodies that were affinity-purified on nitrocellulose-bound recombinant proteins expressed by four lambda gtll genomic clones.

Title Identification and Isolation of Cryptosporidium Parvum Genes Encoding Microtubule and Microfilament Proteins.
Date July 1992
Journal The Journal of Protozoology
Excerpt

Microtubules and microfilaments are highly conserved cytoskeletal polymers hypothesized to play essential biomechanical roles in the unusual gliding motility of Apicomplexan zoites and in their invasion of, and development within, host epithelial cells. We have identified and isolated Cryptosporidium parvum genes encoding the microtubule proteins alpha- and beta-tubulin and the microfilament protein actin by screening a lambda gt11 C. parvum genomic DNA library with degenerate oligonucleotide and heterologous cDNA hybridization probes respectively. The alpha- and beta-tubulin genes have been partially sequenced and the deduced peptide sequences show greatest homology with the tubulins of the related parasites, T. gondii and P. falciparum. The complete nucleic acid sequence of the actin gene predicts a 376 amino acid, 42 kDa protein having 85% sequence identity with the P. falciparum actin I and the human gamma-actin proteins. Each of these cytoskeletal protein genes was demonstrated to be of cryptosporidial origin by Southern analyses of C. parvum chromosomes fractionated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis; the cloned alpha- and beta-tubulin genes hybridized with chromosomes of ca. 1,200 and 1,500 kb respectively and the cloned actin gene also hybridized with a 1,200 kb chromosome.

Title Amplification of a Cryptosporidium Parvum Gene Fragment Encoding Thymidylate Synthase.
Date July 1992
Journal The Journal of Protozoology
Excerpt

Currently, there is no effective therapy for cryptosporidiosis and it is unclear why antifolate drugs which are effective treatments for infections caused by closely related parasites are not also effective against Cryptosporidium parvum. In protozoa, the target of these drugs, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), exists as a bifunctional enzyme also manifesting thymidylate synthase (TS) activity and is encoded by a fused DHFR-TS gene. In order to prepare a probe to isolate the C. parvum DHFR-TS gene we have used degenerate oligonucleotides whose sequences are based on strongly conserved regions of TS protein sequence to prime the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with C. parvum DNA. The PCR amplified a 375-bp DNA fragment which was cloned and sequenced; the deduced amino acid sequence had significant identity with known TS sequences, including strict conservation of all phylogenetically invariant TS amino acid residues. The cloned PCR fragment was used as a probe to isolate a number of overlapping clones from a C. parvum genomic library which were definitively shown to be of cryptosporidial origin by genomic Southern and molecular karyotype analyses. The deduced protein sequence of C. parvum TS was most similar to the bifunctional TS enzymes of Plasmodium chabaudi and Plasmodium falciparum.

Title Identification and Initial Characterization of Five Cryptosporidium Parvum Sporozoite Antigen Genes.
Date June 1992
Journal Infection and Immunity
Excerpt

Cryptosporidium parvum, an Apicomplexan parasite of gastrointestinal epithelial cells, causes severe disease in persons with AIDS and is a common cause of self-limited diarrhea in children, animal handlers, and residents of developing countries. No approved therapy exists; in research studies, however, hyperimmune bovine colostrum raised to Cryptosporidium oocysts and sporozoites has eradicated disease or decreased parasite burden in some AIDS patients. Although the protective antigens recognized by bovine hyperimmune colostrum have not been defined, protective antigens of other Apicomplexan parasites frequently have been associated with two unique structures of invasive forms, the trilaminar pellicle and the apical complex. In order to identify immunogenic Cryptosporidium proteins that may be protective antigens for use as recombinant immunogens in passive and/or active immunotherapy, we screened two genomic DNA expression libraries with polyspecific anti-Cryptosporidium antibodies. We used an approach to cloning apical complex and pellicle protein antigens that succeeded despite the lack of large numbers of organisms that would be necessitated for conventional biochemical approaches requiring organelle or membrane purification. We report here the molecular cloning of five C. parvum genes and the characterization of the cognate sporozoite proteins having molecular masses of greater than 500, 68/95, 45, 23, and 15/35 kDa. The light microscopic immunofluorescence pattern of antibodies recognizing these protein antigens suggest that they are located in the pellicle or apical complex of Cryptosporidium sporozoites.

Title Isolation and Characterization of a Cysteine Proteinase Gene of Plasmodium Falciparum.
Date May 1992
Journal Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Excerpt

We have previously identified a 28-kDa cysteine proteinase of Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites that appears to be an essential malarial hemoglobinase and a potential target for antimalarial chemotherapy. The trophozoite cysteine proteinase (TCP) shares a number of biochemical properties with the lysosomal cysteine proteinase cathepsin L. To isolate the gene encoding TCP, we synthesized degenerate oligonucleotides based on two amino acid sequences of cathepsin L that are well conserved among papain-family cysteine proteinases, and used the oligonucleotides to prime the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with P. falciparum genomic DNA. A 549-bp DNA fragment was amplified by PCR. This fragment was used as a hybridization probe to screen a lambda gt11 library of P. falciparum genomic DNA and isolate a 1.8-kb genomic clone (C1.8) that encoded an intact malarial cysteine proteinase gene. The sequence of C1.8 predicted a 67-kDa protein containing a typical signal sequence, a large pro sequence, and a 26.8-kDa mature proteinase with 37% amino acid identity to cathepsin L. Antisera directed against a peptide encoded by C1.8 recognized a 28-kDa trophozoite protein on immunoblots. In a Northern analysis, C1.8 hybridized predominantly with RNA from rings, the life-cycle stage immediately preceding the trophozoite stage. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the P. falciparum cysteine proteinase gene we have isolated and characterized encodes TCP.

Title Isolation, Sequence and Molecular Karyotype Analysis of the Actin Gene of Cryptosporidium Parvum.
Date April 1992
Journal Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Excerpt

Actin is an ubiquitous and highly conserved microfilament protein which is hypothesized to play a mechanical, force-generating role in the unusual gliding motility of sporozoan zoites and in their active penetration of host cells. We have identified and isolated an actin gene from a Cryptosporidium parvum genomic DNA library using a chicken beta-actin cDNA as an hybridization probe. The nucleotide sequences of two overlapping recombinant clones were identical and the amino acid sequence deduced from the single open reading frame was 85 % identical to the P. falciparum actin I and human gamma-actin proteins. The predicted 42 106-Da Cryptosporidium actin contains 376 amino acids and is encoded by a single-copy gene which contains no introns. The nucleic acid coding sequence is 72% biased to the use of A or T in the third position of codons. Chromosome-sized DNA released from intact C. parvum oocysts was resolved by OFAGE into 5 discrete ethidium bromide-staining DNAs ranging in size from 900 to 1400 kb; the cloned C. parvum actin gene hybridized to a single chromosomal DNA of approximately 1200 kb.

Title Renal Function in Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Purposes and Design of the Diabetic Renal Disease Study.
Date March 1992
Journal Acta Diabetologica
Excerpt

Type 2, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus accounts for 60% of the end-stage renal disease attributed to diabetes in the United States, yet little is known about glomerular function or the development of renal disease in this type of diabetes. The Diabetic Renal Disease Study (DRDS) is a longitudinal study designed to elucidate the natural history of renal disease and to characterize glomerular function throughout the course of renal disease in type 2, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The study is being conducted among the Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona because they experience a very high rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which often develops at a young age and which is frequently associated with the development of renal disease. Glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, albumin and IgG excretion, level of vasoactive hormones, retinal damage, and glomerular capillary permeability to dextrans of different sizes will be assessed at regular intervals over 48 months in six groups of subjects representing a range of glucose tolerance from normal to diabetes, and among the diabetic subjects, a range of proteinuria from normal to overt diabetic nephropathy. The DRDS is designed to provide new information on the functional determinants of renal disease in type 2, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and will serve as the basis for designing intervention strategies.

Title Natural History of Diabetic Nephropathy in Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
Date February 1992
Journal The Journal of Diabetic Complications
Title Abnormal Glucose Tolerance During Pregnancy in Pima Indian Women. Long-term Effects on Offspring.
Date January 1992
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

The long-term effects on offspring of abnormal glucose tolerance detected during pregnancy were examined in 552 Pima Indian offspring 5-24 yr of age. Fasting hyperinsulinemia, presumably reflecting increased insulin resistance, occurred at an earlier age in the offspring of women who had abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy, and these offspring were more obese and had higher rates of abnormal glucose tolerance. When confounding factors were controlled, a 1 mM higher 2-h postload glucose concentration during pregnancy resulted in a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes in the offspring (odds ratio = 162). Maternal 2-h glucose concentration during pregnancy was also a significant predictor of glucose concentration during pregnancy in the offspring (P = 0.011). Thus, the metabolic abnormalities associated with the diabetic pregnancy result in long-term effects on the offspring, including insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes, which in turn may contribute to transmission of risk for developing the same problems in the next generation.

Title Trnas of Trypanosoma Brucei. Unusual Gene Organization and Mitochondrial Importation.
Date October 1991
Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Excerpt

In Trypanosoma brucei the U snRNA B gene (J. C. Mottram, K. L. Perry, P. M. Lizardi, R. Lührmann, N. Agabian, and R. G. Nelson (1989) Mol. Cell. Biol. 9, 1212-1223) is very tightly linked with other small RNA genes coding for tRNA(ACGArg), tRNA(CUULys), and a approximately 275-nucleotide RNA (RNA X) of unknown function. A similar genomic organization is found at the U6 snRNA locus, where the U6 gene is linked to tRNA(CGUThr) and tRNA(GUATyr) genes. The tRNA(Lys) and tRNA(Arg) genes are members of a multigene family, whereas the tRNA(Thr) and tRNA(Tyr) genes are single copy. Two additional tRNA(CUULys) genes and one tRNA(UUULys) gene were also isolated and sequenced and, together with a sequence previously published (D. A. Campbell (1989) Nucleic Acids Res. 17, 9479), appear to represent the entire gene family. Probes for tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Arg), tRNA(Thr), and tRNA(Tyr) were found to hybridize with mitochondrial and cytoplasmic tRNAs but not with mitochondrial DNA. This supports the hypothesis that mitochondrial tRNAs may be nuclear-encoded and imported from the cytosol into the mitochondrion.

Title Assessment of Risk of Overt Nephropathy in Diabetic Patients from Albumin Excretion in Untimed Urine Specimens.
Date October 1991
Journal Archives of Internal Medicine
Excerpt

The ability of an albumin-to-creatinine ratio, measured in a single untimed urine specimen, to indicate the likelihood of developing overt diabetic nephropathy was determined in 439 Pima Indians (134 men, 305 women) aged 25 years or older with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. During a mean follow-up period of 4.2 years, 59 (13%) of the subjects developed overt nephropathy, 47 (80%) of whom had albumin-to-creatinine ratios of 30 mg/g or greater at baseline. Subjects with albumin-to-creatinine ratios of 30 to 299 mg/g (a level of excretion often termed "microalbuminuria") had 9.2 times (95% confidence interval, 4.4 to 21.4) the incidence of overt nephropathy of those with ratios of less than 30 mg/g. Furthermore, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio remained a strong predictor of overt nephropathy even when controlled for age, sex, diabetes duration, mean blood pressure, and 2-hour postload plasma glucose concentration with a proportional-hazards function analysis. Thus, an albumin-to-creatinine ratio measured in a single untimed urine specimen is an effective means of identifying diabetic subjects who are at risk of developing overt nephropathy that could replace the more traditional timed urine collections.

Title Glomerular Function in Pima Indians with Noninsulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus of Recent Onset.
Date September 1991
Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
Excerpt

Differential solute clearances were used to characterize glomerular function in 20 Pima Indians with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) of less than 3 yr duration. 28 Pima Indians with normal glucose tolerance served as controls. In the diabetic group, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR, iothalamate clearance) exceeded the control value by 15% (140 +/- 6 vs. 122 +/- 5 ml/min, P less than 0.01). A corresponding 12% increase in renal plasma flow (RPF) was not statistically significant and did not account fully for the observed hyperfiltration, suggesting a concomitant elevation of the ultrafiltration pressure or coefficient. The median albumin excretion ratio in NIDDM exceeded control by almost twofold (10.1 vs. 5.8 mg/g creatinine), a trend which just failed to achieve statistical significance (P = 0.06). Fractional clearances of dextrans of broad size distribution were also elevated in diabetic subjects, significantly so for larger dextrans of between 48 and 60 A radius. A theoretical analysis of dextran transport through a heteroporous membrane revealed glomerular pores in NIDDM to be uniformly shifted towards pores of larger size than in controls. We conclude that an impairment of barrier size selectivity combined with high GFR elevates the filtered protein load in NIDDM of recent onset. We propose that enhanced transglomerular trafficking of protein may predispose to sclerosis of glomeruli in those Pima Indians with NIDDM who ultimately develop diabetic nephropathy.

Title Obesity in the Pima Indians: Its Magnitude and Relationship with Diabetes.
Date June 1991
Journal The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Excerpt

Members of the Pima Indian population are obese, on average, as estimated by the body mass index (BMI). Young adults have had the highest BMIs and there have been modest increases in age- and sex-specific mean BMIs for the past 25 y. These observations suggest that the older adults have had less exposure to factors leading to obesity than have the younger adults. Compared with children studied early in this century, present-day Pima children are much heavier for height, suggesting that the degree of obesity has increased since that time. Obesity in the Pimas is familial and has complex relationships with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a common disease in this population. Obesity predicts the development of diabetes; once people have diabetes, however, they tend to lose weight. Thus, obesity should not be studied in this population without also considering diabetes, which tends to limit the degree of obesity.

Title Selected Traditional and Contemporary Foods Currently Used by the Pima Indians.
Date April 1991
Journal Journal of the American Dietetic Association
Title A Two-step Model for Development of Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes.
Date March 1991
Journal The American Journal of Medicine
Excerpt

Both insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction occur during the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), but controversy exists about which lesion is primary. Based on longitudinal studies in the Pima Indians, a population with the world's highest reported prevalence of NIDDM, a two-step model for development of the disease is proposed. The first step is transition from normal to impaired glucose tolerance, for which insulin resistance is the main determinant, and the second and later step is worsening from impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes, in which beta-cell dysfunction plays a critical role. This hypothesis is consistent with findings from other ethnic groups from many parts of the world.

Title Adverse Mortality Experience of a Southwestern American Indian Community: Overall Death Rates and Underlying Causes of Death in Pima Indians.
Date December 1990
Journal Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Excerpt

As part of an ongoing epidemiologic study, the death rate and causes of death during 1975 through 1984 were determined in Pima Indians who resided in the Gila River Indian Community (GRIC) in 1965 and later. Death certificates were available for 677 of the 681 deaths. In 78% of the deaths, the underlying cause recorded on the death certificate agreed with the cause determined after review of all available relevant records. The age- and sex-adjusted average annual death rate for the GRIC population (1639/100,000) was 1.9 times (95% CI 1.7-2.0) the 1980 rate for the U.S. all races (878/100,000). In Pima males, whose death rate was substantially higher than that of Pima females, the age-adjusted death rate was 2.3 times that in U.S. males, all races. Moreover among males 25-34 years of age, the Pima death rate was 6.6 times that for the U.S. all races. Diseases of the heart and malignant neoplasms caused 59% of U.S. deaths in 1980, but only 19% of GRIC deaths. By contrast, the age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate in the GRIC Pima was 5.9 times the rate of the U.S. all races for accidents, 6.5 times for cirrhosis, 7.4 times for homicide, 4.3 times for suicide, and 11.9 times for diabetes. Tuberculosis and coccidioidomycosis were important causes of death in the Pima, for whom infectious diseases was the tenth leading cause of death. The findings indicate that programs to improve the adverse mortality experience of the GRIC population should emphasize factors related to fatal accidents, alcoholic cirrhosis, homicide, suicide, diabetes mellitus, and infectious diseases. Young Pimas, especially the males, should be the primary focus of such preventive efforts. These findings and recommendations probably apply to many Native American populations.

Title Insulin and Hypertension. Relationship to Obesity and Glucose Intolerance in Pima Indians.
Date December 1990
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

The relationships among blood pressure, obesity, glucose tolerance, and serum insulin concentration were studied in 2873 Pima Indians aged 18-92 yr (mean 37 yr). Age- and sex-adjusted to the Pima population, the prevalence of hypertension (systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 160 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg, or receiving drug treatment) was 7.1% for subjects with normal glucose tolerance compared with 13.0% for subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 19.8% for those with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) (P less than 0.001). The prevalence ratio of hypertension was 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.5) for IGT and 2.6 (95% CI 2.0-3.2) for NIDDM compared with normal glucose tolerance, controlled for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). In logistic regression analysis, hypertension was positively related to age, male sex, BMI, glucose tolerance, and fasting but not 2-h postload serum insulin concentration. Among subjects not taking antihypertensive drugs, however, neither fasting nor 2-h postload serum insulin was significantly related to hypertension. Furthermore, in 2033 subjects receiving neither antihypertensive nor antidiabetic drugs, blood pressure was not significantly correlated to fasting insulin concentration, and 2-h postload serum insulin was negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, insulin is not significantly related to blood pressure in Pima Indians not receiving antihypertensive drugs. Higher insulin concentrations in drug-treated hypertensive patients might result from the treatment rather than contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. Thus, these data do not support a major role for insulin in determining the occurrence of hypertension or regulation of blood pressure in Pima Indians.

Title Periodontal Disease and Niddm in Pima Indians.
Date November 1990
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of periodontal disease and its relationship with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Two thousand two hundred seventy-three Pima Indians (949 men, 1324 women) aged greater than or equal to 15 yr from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona were examined between 1983 and 1989. Periodontal disease was diagnosed by tooth loss and by percentage of interproximal crestal alveolar bone loss ascertained from panoramic radiography. Subjects with little or no evidence of periodontal disease were classified as nondiseased. Thus, the incidence of advanced periodontal disease was determined. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of periodontal disease at first dental examination was 60% in subjects with NIDDM and 36% in those without. Twenty-two new cases developed in a subset of 701 subjects (272 men, 429 women) aged 15-54 yr who initially had little or no evidence of periodontal disease and had at least one additional dental examination. The incidence of periodontal disease in this group was similar in men and women (incidence-rate ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval [Cl] 0.5-1.9, controlled for age and diabetes). Higher age predicted a greater incidence of periodontal disease (chi 2 = 30.6, df = 3, P less than 0.001, controlled for sex and diabetes). The rate of periodontal disease in subjects with diabetes was 2.6 times (95% Cl 1.0-6.6, controlled for age and sex) that observed in those without. Although periodontal disease was common in nondiabetic Pima Indians, in whom most of the incident cases occurred, diabetes clearly conferred a substantially increased risk. Thus, periodontal disease should be considered a nonspecific complication of NIDDM.

Title Familial Predisposition to Renal Disease in Two Generations of Pima Indians with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) Diabetes Mellitus.
Date October 1990
Journal Diabetologia
Excerpt

We studied the occurrence of renal disease by measuring serum creatinine and urine protein concentrations in the diabetic members of 316 Pima Indian families with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes in two successive generations to determine if diabetic renal disease aggregates in families. After adjustment for sex and other risk factors, proteinuria occurred among 14.3% of the diabetic offspring if neither parent had proteinuria, 22.9% if at least one diabetic parent had proteinuria, and 45.9% if both parents had diabetes and proteinuria. Among male offspring, an elevated serum creatinine concentration (greater than or equal to 177 mumol/l) was present in 11.7% if the parent had an elevated creatinine and in 1.5% if the parent did not. Thus, proteinuria and high serum creatinine aggregated in diabetic families, suggesting that susceptibility to renal disease is inherited independently of diabetes.

Title Disproportionately Elevated Proinsulin in Pima Indians with Noninsulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
Date June 1990
Journal The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Excerpt

Fasting serum total immunoreactive insulin (IRI), true insulin, and true proinsulin (PI) were measured in 169 Pima Indians. The relationship of these variables to glucose tolerance, obesity, and parental diabetes was studied. Seventy-seven subjects had normal glucose tolerance, 46 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 46 had noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) by WHO criteria. In subjects with normal glucose tolerance, the geometric mean ratio of PI to IRI (PI/IRI) was 10.8% (arithmetic mean, 12.5%), similar to that reported in other ethnic groups with lower prevalence rates of NIDDM. Parental diabetes had no effect on PI/IRI. Obese persons (body mass index, greater than or equal to 27 kg/m2) with normal glucose tolerance had PI/IRI of 9.3% compared with 16.3% for the nonobese (P less than 0.001), and PI/IRI was negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.34; P = 0.002). Proinsulin was disproportionately elevated in NIDDM (geometric mean PI/IRI, 19.9%; arithmetic mean, 23.6%), and the degree of elevation was related to the severity of hyperglycemia, but not the duration of diabetes. Subjects with IGT were more obese and had higher fasting plasma glucose (5.7 vs. 5.2 mmol/L; P = 0.025), true insulin (250 vs. 125 pmol/L; P less than 0.001), and PI concentrations (26 vs. 15 pmol/L; P less than 0.001) than those with normal glucose tolerance but similar mean PI/IRI (9.4 vs. 10.8%; P = 0.4). These findings indicate that Pima Indians with NIDDM have a disproportionate elevation of PI consistent with the hypothesis that beta-cell dysfunction associated with hyperglycemia leads to the release of proinsulin-rich immature granules.

Title Low Incidence of Fatal Coronary Heart Disease in Pima Indians Despite High Prevalence of Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes.
Date April 1990
Journal Circulation
Excerpt

The incidence of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) was determined in a population of Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona. Between 1975 and 1984, 394 deaths occurred among 4,828 subjects aged 5 years or older, and 199 of these occurred in the 1,093 persons with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Only 28 deaths were attributed to CHD; all occurred among the 689 diabetic persons 45 years of age or older. No CHD deaths occurred among the 419 nondiabetic subjects 45 years of age or older. The rate of fatal CHD among the diabetic subjects was higher in men than in women and increased with advancing age and duration of diabetes. A higher incidence of fatal CHD was associated with proteinuria, renal insufficiency, medial arterial calcification, diabetic retinopathy, insulin therapy, and an abnormal electrocardiogram. In Pima Indians aged 50-79 years, the incidence of fatal CHD was less than half that found in the Framingham population after controlling for age, sex, and diabetes (incidence rate ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.7). Factors protecting Pima Indians from fatal CHD may include racial heritage, low serum concentrations of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and rarity of heavy smoking. Among the diabetic subjects, mortality from diabetic renal disease, which shows many of the same risk factors, may selectively compete and remove those at risk for fatal CHD. This would not, however, explain the lack of fatal CHD among the nondiabetic subjects. Fatal CHD shares many of the risk factors associated with the specific microvascular complications of diabetes, and diabetes and its associated attributes are the major predictors of fatal CHD in this population.

Title Albuminuria in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Pima Indians.
Date March 1990
Journal Diabetologia
Excerpt

The prevalence of abnormal urinary albumin excretion, defined by a urine albumin to creatinine ratio greater than or equal to 30 mg/g (approximately equivalent to an albumin excretion rate of greater than or equal to 30 mg/24 h), was determined in 2728 Pima Indians aged greater than or equal to 15 years from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona, a population with a high prevalence of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Excessive albumin excretion was present in 8% of subjects with normal glucose tolerance, 15% of those with impaired glucose tolerance, and 47% of subjects with diabetes. The intermediate prevalence of abnormal albuminuria in those with impaired glucose tolerance suggests that hyperglycaemia even at levels below those diagnostic of diabetes is associated with renal abnormalities in some subjects and that these abnormalities may precede the onset of diabetes. Abnormal albuminuria at levels not reliably detected by the usual dipstick methods was commonly observed in Pima Indians with diabetes, even those with diabetes of recent onset. Associations were found with age, duration of diabetes, level of glycaemia, blood pressure, and treatment with insulin.

Title Diabetic Renal Disease in Pima Indians.
Date February 1990
Journal Transplantation Proceedings
Excerpt

Diabetic renal disease is a major source of morbidity and mortality in Pima Indians. Excess mortality in NIDDM occurs principally in those with proteinuria regardless of whether death is due to cardiovascular or renal disease. Diabetes duration is a strong predictor of diabetic renal disease. Additional predictors include blood pressure, severity of diabetes, and, most likely, genetic or shared environmental determinants. The incidence rate of diabetic renal disease in Pima Indians with NIDDM is similar to that reported for subjects with IDDM with equivalent durations of diabetes. These observations suggest that clinical proteinuria and renal failure may occur in patients with NIDDM just as frequently as in those with IDDM. This finding has important implications and suggests that the variations in the frequency and age of onset of NIDDM among different populations and ethnic groups may be primarily responsible for the apparent variations in the frequency of ESRD associated with diabetes in different populations. Furthermore, diabetic renal disease appears to account for virtually all of the excess mortality associated with diabetes among Pima Indians and may perhaps do so in other populations. Improved survival of persons with NIDDM, an increasing incidence of this disease, and a relatively early age of onset in many populations could lead to a dramatic increase in the incidence of ESRD in the future. On the other hand, if diabetic renal disease and its consequences could be prevented, a profound improvement in the longevity and quality of life of those afflicted with diabetes might be possible.

Title Sequential Changes in Serum Insulin Concentration During Development of Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes.
Date July 1989
Journal Lancet
Excerpt

Changes in serum insulin concentrations during deterioration of glucose tolerance were studied in 81 Pima Indians who worsened from normal to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 44 who changed from IGT to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM); 27 who were seen at diagnosis of NIDDM and 1.4-8.5 years later; and 11 subjects who were seen at each of these stages. When their glucose tolerance was normal, subjects who later developed NIDDM had higher fasting and post-load insulin concentrations than controls of similar age and body mass index who did not become diabetic. Onset of IGT or NIDDM was associated with a further increase in fasting insulin concentrations, although a deterioration from IGT to NIDDM was associated with little change in insulin responses to oral glucose in spite of increased blood glucose. After the onset of NIDDM, both fasting and post-load insulin concentrations diminished. These longitudinal data show that, as glucose tolerance worsens, insulin and glucose concentrations in individuals follow the inverted-U-shaped relation previously reported in cross-sectional population studies.

Title Isolation and Sequence of Four Small Nuclear U Rna Genes of Trypanosoma Brucei Subsp. Brucei: Identification of the U2, U4, and U6 Rna Analogs.
Date June 1989
Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology
Excerpt

Trypanosomes use trans splicing to place a common 39-nucleotide spliced-leader sequence on the 5' ends of all of their mRNAs. To identify likely participants in this reaction, we used antiserum directed against the characteristic U RNA 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) cap to immunoprecipitate six candidate U RNAs from total trypanosome RNA. Genomic Southern analysis using oligonucleotide probes constructed from partial RNA sequence indicated that the four largest RNAs (A through D) are encoded by single-copy genes that are not closely linked to one another. We have cloned and sequenced these genes, mapped the 5' ends of the encoded RNAs, and identified three of the RNAs as the trypanosome U2, U4, and U6 analogs by virtue of their sequences and structural homologies with the corresponding metazoan U RNAs. The fourth RNA, RNA B (144 nucleotides), was not sufficiently similar to known U RNAs to allow us to propose an identify. Surprisingly, none of these U RNAs contained the consensus Sm antigen-binding site, a feature totally conserved among several classes of U RNAs, including U2 and U4. Similarly, the sequence of the U2 RNA region shown to be involved in pre-mRNA branchpoint recognition in yeast, and exactly conserved in metazoan U2 RNAs, was totally divergent in trypanosomes. Like all other U6 RNAs, trypanosome U6 did not contain a TMG cap and was immunoprecipitated from deproteinized RNA by anti-TMG antibody because of its association with the TMG-capped U4 RNA. These two RNAs contained extensive regions of sequence complementarity which phylogenetically support the secondary-structure model proposed by D. A. Brow and C. Guthrie (Nature [London] 334:213-218, 1988) for the organization of the analogous yeast U4-U6 complex.

Title Incidence of End-stage Renal Disease in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) Diabetes Mellitus in Pima Indians.
Date May 1989
Journal Diabetologia
Excerpt

The incidence of end-stage renal disease was determined in the Pima Indians of the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona, a population with a high prevalence of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Between 1975 and 1986, from a study population of 5059 subjects, end-stage renal disease occurred in 80 persons, 76 (95%) of whom had Type 2 diabetes. A review of the cases with end-stage renal disease indicated that among the diabetic subjects only two cases could be attributed to nondiabetic renal disease; all other cases were attributable to diabetic nephropathy. In diabetic Pima Indians the incidence rate of end-stage renal disease did not change during the study period, was similar in men and women, and was not effected by age at diagnosis of diabetes or by attained age, but did increase significantly with hypertension (p less than 0.05). The incidence of end-stage renal disease attributed to diabetic nephropathy increased from 0 cases/1000 person-years at 0-5 years to 40.8 cases/1000 person-years at greater than or equal to 20 years duration of diabetes. In these subjects with Type 2 diabetes, the incidence rate of end-stage renal disease was similar to that in subjects with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes who were followed at the Joslin Clinic in Boston, Massachusetts when those with similar duration of diabetes were compared.

Title Proliferative Retinopathy in Niddm. Incidence and Risk Factors in Pima Indians.
Date May 1989
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

The incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy was determined in the Pima Indians of the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona. Over 4 yr, this complication developed in 25 of 953 subjects greater than or equal to 9 yr of age with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. No cases were diagnosed in less than 35-yr-old subjects, and the incidence was strongly related to the duration of diabetes. The cumulative incidence of proliferative retinopathy after 20 yr duration was 14%. All cases of proliferative retinopathy occurred in subjects with background retinopathy. Younger age at diagnosis of diabetes was associated with a higher incidence of proliferation when subjects with diabetes of similar duration were compared. A higher incidence of proliferative retinopathy, after controlling for age, sex, and diabetes duration, was associated with hypertension, proteinuria, renal insufficiency, absence of Achilles tendon reflex, elevated total serum cholesterol concentration, and insulin therapy.

Title Transient Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Pima Indians: is It Important?
Date March 1989
Journal Bmj (clinical Research Ed.)
Excerpt

As part of a continuing epidemiological study of non-insulin dependent diabetes among Pima Indians 154 subjects who had had a transient impairment of glucose tolerance were followed up for 1.2-16.9 (median 5.8) years after their glucose tolerance had returned to normal. Of these, 49 subsequently developed diabetes; 26 subsequently developed impaired glucose tolerance; and 79 had normal glucose tolerance at the last examination. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was 16% and 48% at five and 10 years of follow up respectively, compared with 3% and 8% for a control group of 1245 members of the same population. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and plasma glucose concentration two hours after glucose loading the incidence of diabetes among the subjects who had had transient impaired glucose tolerance was 3.0 times that among the controls (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 4.3). Proportional hazards function analysis indicated that obesity was the most important predictor of subsequent development of diabetes. The results suggest that transient impairment of glucose tolerance indicates, at least in some subjects, a predisposition to diabetes and should not be considered clinically unimportant.

Title The Natural History of Impaired Glucose Tolerance in the Pima Indians.
Date December 1988
Journal The New England Journal of Medicine
Excerpt

Among 384 Pima Indians with impaired glucose tolerance according to World Health Organization criteria who were followed for 1.6 to 11.5 years (median, 3.3), non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) developed in 118 (31 percent), glucose tolerance remained impaired in 100 (26 percent), and glucose tolerance returned to normal in 166 (43 percent). The cumulative incidence of NIDDM was 25 and 61 percent at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The risk of development of diabetes was 6.3 times (95 percent confidence interval, 3.8 to 10.6) as high as in a normoglycemic control group (n = 752). Variables predicting deterioration to NIDDM were age up to the age of 40, after which increasing age had a beneficial effect; higher plasma glucose levels during fasting and after carbohydrate loading; and higher serum insulin levels after fasting and lower levels after carbohydrate loading, suggesting that insulin resistance and decreased beta-cell responsiveness are important determinants of the clinical outcome of impaired glucose tolerance. Obese subjects had 2.9 times (95 percent confidence interval, 2.0 to 10.9) the incidence of NIDDM as the nonobese. Obesity was not, however, predictive of progression to NIDDM after an adjustment for plasma glucose and serum insulin levels. We conclude that in this population approximately one fourth of subjects with impaired glucose tolerance have NIDDM at five years and two thirds at 10 years (approximately one third revert to normal) and that age and plasma glucose and insulin levels are the best predictors of clinical outcome.

Title Effect of Proteinuria on Mortality in Niddm.
Date December 1988
Journal Diabetes
Excerpt

The effect of proteinuria (greater than or equal to approximately 1 g/day) on mortality in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was assessed in Pima Indians aged greater than or equal to 45 yr. Among 1426 subjects, 48% with NIDDM at the beginning of followup, there were 489 deaths in 13,345 person-yr of observation. The age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate was 32.7/1000 person-yr (95% Cl = 27.6, 37.8) in diabetic subjects without proteinuria, similar to the rate of 30.1/1000 person-yr (95% Cl = 25.7, 34.4) in nondiabetic subjects without proteinuria. By contrast, in diabetic subjects with proteinuria the mortality rate was 121.4/1000 person-yr (95% Cl = 97.5, 145.3). When controlled for age, sex, and diabetes duration, diabetic subjects with proteinuria had a death rate 3.5 times as high (95% Cl = 2.8, 4.4) as those without proteinuria. Of the excess mortality associated with NIDDM in Pima Indians, 97% was found in subjects with proteinuria. The death rate in diabetic subjects without proteinuria was not appreciably greater than the rate in nondiabetic subjects. Mortality rates from uremia and cardiovascular disease were significantly higher in diabetic Pima Indians with proteinuria than in those without. These relationships are similar to observations reported in people with insulin-dependent diabetes.

Title Incidence, Prevalence and Risk Factors for Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
Date August 1988
Journal Primary Care
Excerpt

Non-insulin-dependent diabetes is a worldwide disease. In the United States nearly 10 million persons are affected and the prevalence is increasing. Considerable advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and determinants of non-insulin-dependent diabetes have occurred in recent years. Genetic and environmental determinants are associated with the development of diabetes, but the mode of inheritance of the genetic determinants is unknown. Obesity, particularly if it is centrally distributed and of long duration, is the most prominent environmental risk factor for non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Although it has long been suspected as an etiological factor, evidence that physical activity is a predictor of the disease is now emerging. The adoption of a western lifestyle and improvements in socioeconomic conditions are at least partially responsible for the very high rates of diabetes among several ethnic and racial groups, although the specific components of these changes that contribute to development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes are still uncertain. Other factors that worsen insulin resistance are likewise predictive of the development of disease. An understanding of the risk factors for non-insulin-dependent diabetes may lead to more specific intervention, and possibly to prevention of this disease.

Title Lower-extremity Amputations in Niddm. 12-yr Follow-up Study in Pima Indians.
Date March 1988
Journal Diabetes Care
Excerpt

The incidence of lower-extremity amputations was estimated in the Pima Indians of the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona, a population with a high prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Between 1972 and 1984, from a study population of 4399 subjects, lower-extremity amputations were performed on 84 patients, 80 (95%) of whom had NIDDM. Among diabetic subjects, the incidence rate of first lower-extremity amputations was higher in men than in women. Rates increased significantly with increasing duration of diabetes. Presence of medial arterial calcification, retinopathy, or nephropathy; absence of patellar tendon reflexes; impaired great toe vibration-perception threshold; and degree of fasting and 2-h postload hyperglycemia were significant risk factors for amputations. Serum cholesterol concentration, blood pressure, age, and absence of Achilles tendon reflexes were not predictive of amputations. The death rate was greater in diabetic amputees than in diabetic nonamputees of similar age, sex, and duration of diabetes, and a significant increase in cardiovascular deaths was observed in diabetic subjects with amputations. The incidence rate of lower-extremity amputations in diabetic Pima Indians is higher than that reported in other diabetic populations. This may reflect differences in risk or a more complete case ascertainment than was possible in previous studies. If the latter is true, the rate of amputations in diabetic individuals may be higher than has been previously appreciated.

Title Ocular Angiostrongyliasis in Japan: a Case Report.
Date March 1988
Journal The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Excerpt

A small motile worm was found in the posterior pole of the eye of a patient, producing a decrease in visual acuity. The patient had signs of meningitis and had cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia. His serum was positive for antibodies to Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Without surgical intervention, the patient recovered and his visual acuity returned to normal.

Title The Trypanosome Spliced Leader Small Rna Gene Family: Stage-specific Modification of One of Several Similar Dispersed Genes.
Date April 1986
Journal Nucleic Acids Research
Excerpt

Diverse mRNAs of Trypanosoma brucei possess the same 5' terminal 35 nucleotides, termed the spliced leader (SL), which appears to be derived from a separate 135 nucleotide transcript. This small SL RNA is encoded within a 1.4 kb unit of DNA which is tandemly reiterated in the genome. In addition, there are at least 4 orphon elements containing SL sequences dispersed from the tandem array. Here we show that during the trypanosome life cycle one of the SL orphons undergoes a stage-specific modification that prevents cleavage of an EcoRV site and we further demonstrate that although only one orphon is modified, three of the SL orphons are flanked by very similar sequences. Each of these contains SL reiteration units including the non-transcribed spacer DNA, suggesting that they did not originate through an RNA intermediate. In addition no evidence of direct repeats at the junction of 1.4 kb and non-1.4 kb DNA was observed. Finally, a phylogenetic survey indicates that while many trypanosomatid species possess similarly organized SL-like sequences, only the SL orphons of closely related subspecies of the T. brucei - T. evansi complex share similar flanking regions.

Title Preferential Activation of Telomeric Variant Surface Glycoprotein Genes in Trypanosoma Brucei.
Date February 1986
Journal Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Excerpt

During an infection, Trypanosoma brucei expresses diverse variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes in a quasi-sequential order. Numerous VSG genes have intrachromosomal locations but many are located adjacent to telomeres. We have tested whether telomeric VSG genes are preferentially activated compared to intrachromosomal VSG genes during an antigenic switch. The frequency with which the IsTat 11 VSG gene is expressed in first relapse populations has been compared for variant antigenic types (VATs) A3 and A11. These VATs express the same A VSG gene from the same chromosome but VAT A11 contains an inactive telomeric 11 VSG gene which is absent in VAT A3. The 11 gene is activated at a much higher frequency in first relapse populations from VAT A11 than from VAT A3. A resultant VAT 11 clone was examined in detail and shown to have reactivated the telomeric 11 VSG gene. These results suggest that a telomeric location can result in a greater frequency of activation of a VSG gene. This preferential activation may explain, in part, the order of expression of VSG genes.

Title Technology in Long Term Care. Computers Graduate to Integrated Software.
Date December 1985
Journal Journal - American Health Care Association
Title Identification of a Small Rna Containing the Trypanosome Spliced Leader: a Donor of Shared 5' Sequences of Trypanosomatid Mrnas?
Date November 1984
Journal Cell
Excerpt

The 35 nucleotide spliced leader (SL) sequence is found on the 5' end of numerous trypanosome mRNAs, yet the tandemly organized reiteration units encoding this leader are not detectably linked to any of these structural genes. Here we report the presence of a class of discrete small SL RNA molecules that are derived from the genomic SL reiteration units of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leptomonas collosoma. These small SL RNAs are 135, 105, and 95 nucleotides, respectively, and contain a 5'-terminal SL or SL-like sequence. S1 nuclease analyses demonstrate that these small SL RNAs are transcribed from continuous sequence within the respective SL reiteration units. With the exception of the SL sequence and a concensus donor splice site immediately following it, these small RNAs are not well conserved. We suggest that the small SL RNAs may function as a donor of the SL sequence in an intermolecular process that places the SL at the 5' terminus of many trypanosomatid mRNAs.

Title Trypanosome Mrnas Share a Common 5' Spliced Leader Sequence.
Date September 1984
Journal Cell
Excerpt

A 5'-terminal leader sequence of 35 nucleotides was found to be present on multiple trypanosome RNAs. Based on its representation in cDNA libraries, we estimate that many, if not all, trypanosome mRNAs contain this leader. This same leader was originally identified on mRNAs encoding the molecules responsible for antigenic variation, variant surface glycoproteins. Studies of selected cDNAs containing this leader sequence revealed that leader-containing transcripts can be stage-specific, stage-regulated, or constitutive. They can be abundant or rare, and transcribed from single or multigene families. No linkage between the genomic leader sequences and the structural gene exons was observed. Possible mechanisms by which the leader sequences are added to trypanosome mRNAs are discussed.

Title Genomic Organization of Variant Surface Glycoprotein Genes in Trypanosoma Brucei Procyclic Culture Forms.
Date July 1984
Journal Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Excerpt

The production of the variant surface glycoprotein coat of bloodstream form African trypanosomes ceases after conversion to the procyclic form. In the bloodstream stage alternate expression of different variant surface glycoprotein genes is responsible for the antigenic variation that occurs during relapse infections in the mammalian host. We have examined procyclic stage populations, derived from different bloodstream variant antigen types, for the two types of genomic alterations associated with variant surface glycoprotein genes in the bloodstream stage. Transcriptional activation of some variant antigen genes is accompanied by the generation of a new copy of the gene, the expression-linked copy. We find that the expression-linked copy is maintained after conversion to procyclic form, indicating that the presence of an expression-linked copy is not sufficient for the expression of a surface coat. Sequences 3' to other variant surface glycoprotein genes show expression-independent variation in bloodstream stage trypanosomes. The same genes showed variation between procyclic populations of different origin, and between procyclics and their bloodstream parent. These data are discussed in light of observations on the sequence of variant antigen expression after cyclic transmission.

Title Two Mechanisms of Expression of a Predominant Variant Antigen Gene of Trypanosoma Brucei.
Date June 1984
Journal Nature
Excerpt

African trypanosomes evade the host immune response by periodically switching their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. The resulting, serologically distinct variant antigenic types (VATs) appear in a loosely ordered sequence and those arising early in infections are termed predominant VATs. VAT switching reflects the successive transcriptional activation of single VSG genes from a large repertoire. Activation of some VSG genes is accomplished by duplication of a previously silent basic copy (BC) gene and insertion of this expression linked copy (ELC) near a chromosomal telomere where is is expressed. However, other VSG genes, always located near a telomere, use a non-duplication activation ( NDA ) mechanism. We report here that the gene encoding the predominant IsTat 1.A VSG can be activated with or without duplication. Four of six independently derived clones activated the 1.A gene without gene duplication or detectable rearrangement. The other two contained an active 1.A ELC, possibly generated by a gene conversion extending to the end of the telomere. The ability to utilize both NDA and ELC mechanisms of gene activation and perhaps an alternative mechanism for gene duplication may account for the fact that VAT 1.A is the most predominant VAT of the IsTaR 1 serodeme .

Title Molecular Characterization of Initial Variants from the Istat I Serodeme of Trypanosoma Brucei.
Date May 1984
Journal Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Excerpt

Variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) were isolated from variant antigen types (VATs) of the IsTat 1 serodeme. Molecular weight and isoelectric focusing analysis demonstrate that seven early VSGs possess properties generally attributed to VSGs isolated from other trypanosome serodemes. Six of the seven VSGs characterized are distinct from one another, while two (D and 1) appear identical. The presence of VSG specific mRNA in corresponding VATs was demonstrated by in vitro translation of RNA from each of the VATs, followed by immunoprecipitation with homologous and heterologous antisera. Hybridization of VSG cDNA clones with RNA from each VAT confirm that VSG mRNA is present only in homologous VATs and verifies the transcriptional control of these VSG genes. The two VATs D and 1 express indistinguishable VSGs by a variety of biochemical criteria, as well as by reactivity with 24 monoclonal antibodies. The VSG mRNAs in VATs D and 1 also appear identical. However, this identity is not reflected at the genomic level. Data is presented which establishes that DNA rearrangements can occur around both expressed and non-expressed VSG genes without qualitatively affecting VSG gene expression.

Title Genomic Organization of Trypanosoma Brucei Variant Antigen Gene Families in Sequential Parasitemias.
Date May 1984
Journal Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Excerpt

cDNA libraries were made from mRNA purified from each of seven sequentially isolated variant antigen types (VATs) of the IsTat 1 serodeme. Plasmids containing variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) sequences corresponding to each of the isolates were used in Southern analyses to examine the genomic organization of VSG nucleotide sequences. In most cases, cells expressing a given VSG were shown to have an extra copy of the corresponding VSG gene. In one case an expression-linked copy (ELC) was not detectable. VSG gene rearrangements not obviously correlated with the expression of homologous sequences were detected in four of six VSG gene families. Thus, even cDNAs which detected an ELC revealed additional genomic reorganization in regions flanking VSG sequences. The cells used to initiate the chronic infection expressed the same VSG as those isolated from the first parasitemia. The extent of genomic rearrangement observed between these two sequentially derived populations was comparable to that observed between any of the other serially derived VATs. Thus, within a short period of time and in the absence of detectable antigenic variation, the amount of genetic flux in sequences associated with VSG genes can be substantial.

Title Sequences Homologous to Variant Antigen Mrna Spliced Leader in Trypanosomatidae Which Do Not Undergo Antigenic Variation.
Date May 1984
Journal Nature
Excerpt

Trypanosomes which parasitize mammals have evolved mechanisms to evade immune attack, such as the occupation of 'safe' intracellular sites (for example, Trypanosoma cruzi), or antigenic variation, exemplified by the salivarian trypanosomes (for example, Trypanosoma brucei). Antigenic variation is mediated by sequential expression of single variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes, and often involves transposition of the active gene. Every VSG transcript examined shares the same 5' terminal 35-nucleotide leader sequence. In T. brucei, this leader is encoded within a 1.4-kilobase unit tandemly reiterated to form a large array. It is hypothesized that this array is distantly linked to the expressed VSG gene and functions as a multiple promoter of VSG gene transcription, restricting transcription to that gene which, through genomic rearrangement, is placed downstream from the array. Leader and structural gene sequences are presumably juxtaposed by RNA splicing. Here we show that several trypanosomatids, both those which undergo antigenic variation (Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax) and those which do not (T. cruzi and Leptomonas collosoma), contain reiterated sequences homologous to the T. brucei spliced leader (SL). These results suggest that the SL, although utilized in VSG gene expression, is an ancestral sequence also used in the expression of other trypanosomatid genes.

Title Variant Antigen Genes of Trypanosoma Brucei: Genomic Alteration of a Spliced Leader Orphon and Retention of Expression-linked Copies During Differentiation.
Date April 1984
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Excerpt

Variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei involves not only the sequential activation of individual VSG genes during mammalian bloodstream stage antigenic variation but also the regulation of gene expression during cyclic transmission through alternate mammalian and insect hosts. In the bloodstream stage, transcriptional activation of many VSG genes is correlated with the appearance of an additional copy of the gene in a novel genomic location, the expression-linked copy. The parasite loses the ability to synthesize VSG during differentiation from mammalian bloodstream to insect procyclic stage. Five different bloodstream populations were individually converted to procyclic forms. In each case, the procyclic cells retained the expression-linked copy of the bloodstream parent, and it remained in the same immediate genomic context. Transcripts homologous to the VSG structural gene exon were found in bloodstream stage RNA but not in procyclic RNA. Nevertheless, transcripts containing sequences homologous to the VSG mRNA spliced leader were abundant in both procyclic and bloodstream stage cells. When the genomic organization of sequences homologous to the VSG leader was examined, a specific alteration correlated with procylic differentiation was found. These data are discussed in light of biological studies on antigenic variation.

Title Expression of a Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei Variant Antigen in Escherichia Coli.
Date April 1984
Journal Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Excerpt

A cDNA library derived from antigenically homogeneous bloodstream stage Trypanosoma brucei brucei was screened with an antiserum directed against the variant surface antigen (VSA) using an enzyme-linked filter immunoassay. Several recombinant clones were detected and the clone giving the most intense reaction was further analyzed. It contained a VSA-specific cDNA insert and synthesized a protein of the expected molecular weight bearing VSA determinants. The nucleotide sequence of the insert was determined and shown to have the unusual codon bias characteristic of T. brucei VSAs, frequently employing codons specifying tRNAs rare in Escherichia coli. These results indicate that a codon bias very different from that of E. coli does not preclude the expression of a cloned sequence to detectable levels in this heterologous host.

Title Sequences Homologous to the Variant Antigen Mrna Spliced Leader Are Located in Tandem Repeats and Variable Orphons in Trypanosoma Brucei.
Date December 1983
Journal Cell
Excerpt

We have examined the organization of genomic sequences homologous to the spliced leader of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) mRNA, using a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide probe. These sequences are highly reiterated in the trypanosome genome and most are located in 1.4 kb units arranged in a direct tandem repeat. However, some of the 1.4 kb sequences are dispersed from the cluster(s) of tandem repeats and are flanked by non-repeat DNA. The number and arrangement of these leader sequence orphons varies among different T. brucei stocks. Within the IsTat serodeme, the arrangement of three of four spliced leader orphons observed with Eco RV digestion was stable during a chronic infection and cyclic transmission through the insect vector. The fourth Eco RV orphon, however, undergoes rearrangement during antigenic variation and life-cycle differentiation.

Title Nucleosome Organization of the Yeast 2-micrometer Dna Plasmid: a Eukaryotic Minichromosome.
Date March 1980
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Excerpt

The eukaryotic microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains 50-100 copies per cell of a circular plasmid called 2-micrometer DNA. The intracellular structure of these molecules, which represent about 4% of the total DNA, was examined by digestion of total cellular chromatin with micrococcal nuclease (nucleate 3'-oligonucleotidohydrolase, EC 3.1.31.1). Nuclease-resistant DNA fragments were fractionated by gel electrophoresis and 2-micrometer DNA sequences were detected by hybridization. The 2-micrometer and chromosomal DNA digestion patterns were very similar indicating that both types of DNA are condensed into nucleosomes. An analysis of these digestion patterns showed that the kinetics of digestion of 2-micrometer chromatin and total chromatin are similar and that both have the same nucleosome repeat length of about 165 base pairs. Native 2-micrometer plasmids were examined by zone sedimentation in sucrose gradients containing 0.15 M NaCl and were found to have a sedimentation constant of 75 S, about 3 times the sedimentation constant of protein-free 2-micrometer DNA. This sedimentation property is what would be expected for a 2-micrometer DNA minichromosome. We conclude that within the cell 2-micrometer DNA molecules are organized in a chromatin structure very similar to that of the yeast chromosomes.

Title Effect of Dietary Ingestion of Oxalic Acid on Growth and Reproduction in Male and Female Long-evans Rats.
Date December 1977
Journal Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
Excerpt

Male and female Long-Evans rats placed on a diet of Purina laboratory chow supplemented with 2.5 and 5.0% oxalic acid for a period of 70 days revealed decreased body weights and restricted growth rates. Ingestion of 5.0% oxalic acid depressed absolute organ weights of several visceral and endocrine tissues but enhanced the organ/body weight ratios of both male and female rats. Vaginal smears indicated disrupted estrous cycles.

Title Optical Properties of Sugars. 3. Circular Dichroism of Aldo- and Ketopyranose Anomers.
Date August 1976
Journal Journal of the American Chemical Society
Title Optical Properties of Sugars. 4. Circular Dichroism of Methyl Aldopyranosides.
Date August 1976
Journal Journal of the American Chemical Society
Title Conformation of Dna in Ethylene Glycol.
Date November 1970
Journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Title [influence of Dentifrices on Dental Acrylate. 2 Discussions]
Date April 1970
Journal Tidning. Sveriges Tandläkarförbund
Title An Electron Microscopic Study of Chlorpromazine Pigmentation.
Date March 1967
Journal The Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Title Eccrine Spiradenoma. Histochemical and Electron Microscopic Studies.
Date August 1966
Journal The Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Title Calcifying Epithelioma of Malherbe. Histochemical and Electron Microscopic Studies.
Date August 1966
Journal The Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Title Evaluation of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Equation for Estimating the Glomerular Filtration Rate in Multiple Ethnicities.
Date
Journal Kidney International
Excerpt

An equation from the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) provides more accurate estimates of the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) than that from the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) Study, although both include a two-level variable for race (Black and White and other). Since creatinine generation differs among ethnic groups, it is possible that a multilevel ethnic variable would allow more accurate estimates across all groups. To evaluate this, we developed an equation to calculate eGFR that includes a four-level race variable (Black, Asian, Native American and Hispanic, and White and other) using a database of 8254 patients pooled from 10 studies. This equation was then validated in 4014 patients using 17 additional studies from the United States and Europe (validation database), and in 1022 patients from China (675), Japan (248), and South Africa (99). Coefficients for the Black, Asian, and Native American and Hispanic groups resulted in 15, 5, and 1% higher levels of eGFR, respectively, compared with the White and other group. In the validation database, the two-level race equation had minimal bias in Black, Native American and Hispanic, and White and other cohorts. The four-level ethnicity equation significantly improved bias in Asians of the validation data set and in Chinese. Both equations had a large bias in Japanese and South African patients. Thus, heterogeneity in performance among the ethnic and geographic groups precludes use of the four-level race equation. The CKD-EPI two-level race equation can be used in the United States and Europe across a wide range of ethnicity.

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