Browse Health
Orthopaedic Surgeon, Surgical Specialist

Education ?

Medical School
(1953)

Awards & Distinctions ?

Associations
American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery

Publications & Research

Dr. Larson has contributed to 86 publications.
Title Determination of Lying Behavior Patterns in Healthy Beef Cattle by Use of Wireless Accelerometers.
Date May 2011
Journal American Journal of Veterinary Research
Excerpt

To describe daily, hourly, and animal-to-animal effects on lying behavior in steers.

Title Mollicutes Species and Mycoplasma Bovis Prevalence and Association with Health Outcomes in Beef Feeder Calves at Arrival and Initial Treatment for Bovine Respiratory Disease.
Date January 2011
Journal The Canadian Veterinary Journal. La Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Excerpt

Mollicutes nasal swab culture status and potential associations with health outcomes were determined in beef feeder calves. Mollicutes culture was positive in 7.6% (22/291) of calves at arrival and in 26.2% (34/130) of calves at first disease treatment. Positive Mollicutes culture at first treatment was associated with increased odds for subsequent retreatment or death.

Title The Effect of Differing Audience Response System Question Types on Student Attention in the Veterinary Medical Classroom.
Date October 2010
Journal Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Excerpt

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of specific types of multiple-choice questions delivered using an Audience Response System (ARS) to maintain student attention in a professional educational setting. Veterinary students (N=324) enrolled in the first three years of the professional curriculum were presented with four different ARS question types (knowledge base, discussion, polling, and psychological investment) and no ARS questions (control) during five lectures presented by 10 instructors in 10 core courses. Toward the end of the lecture, students were polled to determine the relative effectiveness of specific question types. Student participation was high (76.1%+/-2.0), and most students indicated that the system enhanced the lecture (64.4%). Knowledge base and discussion questions resulted in the highest student-reported attention to lecture content. Questions polling students about their experiences resulted in attention rates similar to those without use of ARS technology. Psychological investment questions, based on upcoming lecture content, detracted from student attention. Faculty preparation time for three ARS questions was shorter for knowledge base questions (22.3 min) compared with discussion and psychological investment questions (38.6 min and 34.7 min, respectively). Polling questions required less time to prepare (22.2 min) than discussion questions but were not different from other types. Faculty stated that the investment in preparation time was justified on the basis of the impact on classroom atmosphere. These findings indicate that audience response systems enhance attention and interest during lectures when used to pose questions that require application of an existing knowledge base and allow for peer interaction.

Title Validation of the Direct Analysis in Real Time Source for Use in Forensic Drug Screening.
Date August 2009
Journal Journal of Forensic Sciences
Excerpt

The Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) ion source is a relatively new mass spectrometry technique that is seeing widespread use in chemical analyses world-wide. DART studies include such diverse topics as analysis of flavors and fragrances, melamine in contaminated dog food, differentiation of writing inks, characterization of solid counterfeit drugs, and as a detector for planar chromatography. Validation of this new technique for the rapid screening of forensic evidence for drugs of abuse, utilizing the DART source coupled to an accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer, was conducted. The study consisted of the determination of the lower limit of detection for the method, determination of selectivity and a comparison of this technique to established analytical protocols. Examples of DART spectra are included. The results of this study have allowed the Virginia Department of Forensic Science to incorporate this new technique into their analysis scheme for the screening of solid dosage forms of drugs of abuse.

Title Interpretation of Diagnostic Testing Strategies for Production and Economic Usefulness.
Date October 2008
Journal Theriogenology
Excerpt

Veterinarians providing reproductive services use a variety of diagnostic testing methods, including physical examination, laboratory testing, diagnostic imaging, and performance record evaluation. The diagnostic end point may be a physical diagnosis of pregnancy, attainment of puberty, or adequate quality and quantity of sperm; furthermore, it may be a medical diagnosis of reproductive tract pathology, presence of an infectious pathogen, or abnormal hormonal status. Proper interpretation of test results requires an understanding of how sensitivity and specificity (as measures of test accuracy), and prevalence of the condition, affect the interpretation of an individual result. For many diagnostic questions, the proper use of more than one test, either in series or in parallel, allows veterinarians to optimize their diagnostic accuracy and the economic return for the testing strategy.

Title Epidemiology and Disease Control in Everyday Beef Practice.
Date October 2008
Journal Theriogenology
Excerpt

It is important for food animal veterinarians to understand the interaction among animals, pathogens, and the environment, in order to implement herd-specific biosecurity plans. Animal factors such as the number of immunologically protected individuals influence the number of individuals that a potential pathogen is able to infect, as well as the speed of spread through a population. Pathogens differ in their virulence and contagiousness. In addition, pathogens have various methods of transmission that impact how they interact with a host population. A cattle population's environment includes its housing type, animal density, air quality, and exposure to mud or dust and other health antagonists such as parasites and stress; these environmental factors influence the innate immunity of a herd by their impact on immunosuppression. In addition, a herd's environment also dictates the "animal flow" or contact and mixing patterns of potentially infectious and susceptible animals. Biosecurity is the attempt to keep infectious agents away from a herd, state, or country, and to control the spread of infectious agents within a herd. Infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, or parasites) alone are seldom able to cause disease in cattle without contributing factors from other infectious agents and/or the cattle's environment. Therefore to develop biosecurity plans for infectious disease in cattle, veterinarians must consider the pathogen, as well as environmental and animal factors.

Title Determination of Serologic and Colostral Response in Late-gestation Cows Vaccinated with a Mycoplasma Bovis Bacterin.
Date October 2008
Journal American Journal of Veterinary Research
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vaccinating cows during late gestation against Mycoplasma bovis will result in adequate concentrations of M bovis-specific IgG(1) in serum, colostrum, and milk. ANIMALS: 78 dairy cows. PROCEDURES: Serum samples were obtained 60 and 39 days prior to expected parturition in vaccinated and control cows from a single herd. Serum and colostrum samples were also obtained at parturition. Milk samples were obtained 7 to 14 days after parturition. Samples were analyzed for anti-M bovis IgG(1) concentrations. RESULTS: Prior to vaccination, control and vaccinated cows had similar anti-M bovis IgG(1) concentrations. After initial vaccination and subsequent booster and at parturition, there was a significant difference between the 2 groups, with vaccinated cows having higher IgG concentrations. Colostrum from vaccinated cows had higher anti-M bovis IgG(1) concentrations, compared with control cows; however, IgG(1) concentrations in milk did not differ between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Vaccination of late-gestation cows resulted in increased concentrations of anti-M bovis IgG(1) in colostrum. However, ingestion of colostrum by calves may not guarantee protection against M bovis infection.

Title Comparison of Short-term Health and Performance Effects Related to Prophylactic Administration of Tulathromycin Versus Tilmicosin in Long-hauled, Highly Stressed Beef Stocker Calves.
Date September 2008
Journal Veterinary Therapeutics : Research in Applied Veterinary Medicine
Excerpt

Health and feed performance parameters of 293 beef stocker calves at risk for bovine respiratory disease were compared after metaphylactic administration of one of two antimicrobials (tulathromycin or tilmicosin) with different durations of activity; the antimicrobial was administered 1 day after arrival. Calves that received metaphylactic tulathromycin displayed significant improvement in morbidity, mortality, and first-treatment success rates (P<.05) compared with tilmicosin-treated calves. Tulathromycin-treated calves also showed a significantly improved average daily gain and feed:gain ratio (P<.05) compared with tilmicosin-treated calves. Under conditions of this study, calves receiving tulathromycin were healthier through a 43-day growing phase compared with calves receiving tilmicosin. This health difference likely accounted for the differences in feed performance between the treatment groups.

Title Characterization of Protein Changes Associated with Sugar Beet (beta Vulgaris) Resistance and Susceptibility to Fusarium Oxysporum.
Date December 2007
Journal Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Excerpt

Fusarium oxysporum (F-19) is a serious threat to sugar beet. Resistance exists, but the basis for resistance and disease is unknown. Protein extracts from sugar beet genotypes C1200.XH024 (resistant, R) and Fus7 (susceptible, S) were analyzed by multidimensional liquid chromatography at 2 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) and compared to mock-inoculated controls. One hundred twenty-one (R) and 73 (S) protein peaks were induced/repressed by F-19, approximately 12 (R) and 8% (S) of the total proteome detected. Temporal protein regulation occurred within and between each genotype, indicating that the timing of expression may be important for resistance. Thirty-one (R) and 48 (S) of the differentially expressed peaks were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization with tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry; others were below detection level. Comparison between the two genotypes uncovered R- and S-specific proteins with potential roles in resistance and disease development, respectively. Use of these proteins to select for new sources of resistance and to develop novel disease control strategies is discussed.

Title Estrus After Treatment with Syncro-mate B* in Ovariectomized Heifers is Dependent on the Injected Estradiol Valerate.
Date July 2007
Journal Theriogenology
Excerpt

A series of experiments was conducted to determine why ovariectomized heifers exhibit estrus after they are treated with the estrus synchronization product, Syncro-Mate B(*) (SMB). In Experiment 1, 23 of 40 (58%) ovariectomized heifers exhibited estrus after treatment with SMB. The mean concentration of estradiol-17beta (E(2)) in serum was lower (P < 0.001) before treatment than after implant removal in ovariectomized heifers treated with SMB. Six of 10 heifers from which serum was collected to determine concentrations of LH exhibited estrus and 5 of 6 had a surge of LH in serum after implant removal. In Experiment 2, when no estradiol valerate (EV) was given or when the norgestomet implant period was extended from 9 to 18 d, no heifer exhibited estrus after implant removal. The mean concentration of E(2) for 3 d after implant removal was lower (P < 0.001) in ovariectomized heifers with implants for 18 d versus those with implants for 9 d and was also lower (P < 0.001) in ovariectomized heifers treated only with norgestomet compared with those receiving the standard SMB treatment. When estradiol-17beta was substituted for EV in the SMB treatment, serum E(2) was lower (P < 0.001) after implant removal than in heifers receiving the standard SMB treatment. Experiment 3 demonstrated that combining a norgestomet implant or implant plus a 3-mg injection of norgestomet with EV did not alter concentrations of E(2) in serum on the days when synchronized estrus would be expected following SMB treatment. The results indicate that the SMB-induced estrus in ovariectomized heifers is dependent upon EV in the SMB treatment. Apparently, EV elevates the concentration of E(2) in serum, and the E(2) remains sufficiently high to induce estrus after implant removal.

Title Effect of Treatment with Ivermectin on Reproductive Performance of Yearling Beef Heifers.
Date July 2007
Journal Theriogenology
Excerpt

To determine the effect of treatment with ivermectin on reproductive parameters, 78 fall-born, yearling heifers were allotted to either an ivermectin treatment group or to the control, non-treatment group. The heifers were treated in June and October when they were approximately 7 and 11 mo old, respectively. Ivermectin effectively lowered fecal egg counts in the treated heifers compared with that of the controls. In heifers that were maintained on a marginal plane of nutrition, treatment with ivermectin not only improved weight gains during each recording period but also hastened the onset of puberty and improved the pregnancy rate during a 60-d breeding season. The positive effect of ivermectin on these reproductive characteristics could not be explained by increased weight gain alone, because the correlation between weight gain and puberty was not significant. Treatment with ivermectin positively affected pelvic area but not uterine score when compared with those of the controls.

Title Synchronization of Estrus in Yearling Beef Heifers with the Melengestrol Acetate/prostaglandin F(2alpha) System: Efficiency of Timed Insemination 72 Hours After Prostaglandin Treatment.
Date July 2007
Journal Theriogenology
Excerpt

Two experiments were conducted to determine the conception rates of heifers time-inseminated following melengestrol acetate/prostaglandin F(2alpha) (MGA/PG) estrous synchronization treatment. In Experiment 1, timed insemination of heifers at 72 h after the PG injection, without regard for behavioral estrus, tended to improve (P < 0.15) the percentage of heifers pregnant to artificial insemination (AI) compared with that of synchronized heifers bred 12 h after they were first detected in estrus. In the timed-insemination treatment, heifers exhibiting behavioral estrus 48 to 72 h after PG tended to have an increased (P < 0.15) conception rate to AI compared with heifers exhibiting estrus within 48 h of PG administration. In Experiment 2, the number of heifers conceiving to AI following the MGA/PG estrous synchronization regimen was increased by mass insemination of all heifers not exhibiting estrus by 72 h after PG. The pregnancy rate to AI was higher in heifers with serum progesterone (P(4)) concentrations higher than 1 ng/ml compared with that of heifers with concentrations lower than 1 ng/ml. Of heifers with serum P(4) greater than 1 ng/ml, the pregnancy rate to AI tended to be higher when concentrations exceeded 2 ng/ml than when concentrations were 1 to 2 ng/ml. In cyclic heifers, timed insemination can increase the percentage of heifers pregnant after being synchronized with MGA/PG.

Title Heifer Development: Reproduction and Nutrition.
Date June 2007
Journal The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Excerpt

The nutritional development of heifers from birth to the time they become pregnant with their second calf is a critical component of cowherd management. Veterinarians can use targeted body weights and condition scores to monitor progress and gauge future reproductive success throughout heifer development. Meeting Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle recommendations for net energy and metabolizable protein is the single most successful strategy for maximizing reproductive performance from birth through the second pregnancy. Supplementation with fat, minerals, and additional undegraded intake protein has not been consistently reported to enhance the reproductive function of heifers.

Title Influence of Glyphosate on Rhizoctonia and Fusarium Root Rot in Sugar Beet.
Date March 2007
Journal Pest Management Science
Excerpt

This study tests the effect of glyphosate application on disease severity in glyphosate-resistant sugar beet, and examines whether the increase in disease is fungal or plant mediated. In greenhouse studies of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet, increased disease severity was observed following glyphosate application and inoculation with certain isolates of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. betae Snyd. & Hans. Significant increases in disease severity were noted for R. solani AG-2-2 isolate R-9 and moderately virulent F. oxysporum isolate FOB13 on both cultivars tested, regardless of the duration between glyphosate application and pathogen challenge, but not with highly virulent F. oxysporum isolate F-19 or an isolate of R. solani AG-4. The increase in disease does not appear to be fungal mediated, since in vitro studies showed no positive impact of glyphosate on fungal growth or overwintering structure production or germination for either pathogen. Studies of glyphosate impact on sugar beet physiology showed that shikimic acid accumulation is tissue specific and the rate of accumulation is greatly reduced in resistant cultivars when compared with a susceptible cultivar. The results indicate that precautions need to be taken when certain soil-borne diseases are present if weed management for sugar beet is to include post-emergence glyphosate treatments.

Title Rotatory Instability of the Knee: Its Pathogenesis and a Clinical Test to Demonstrate Its Presence. 1968.
Date February 2007
Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Title A Proposal for the Assessment of the Quality of Food Supply Veterinary Medical Education.
Date November 2006
Journal Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Title Assessing Veterinary Medical Education with Regard to the Attraction, Admission, and Education of Students Interested in Food Supply Veterinary Medicine and Retention of Student Interest in a Career in the Food Supply Sector.
Date October 2006
Journal Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Title Effect of Dietary Lipoic Acid on Metabolic Hormones and Acute-phase Proteins During Challenge with Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus in Cattle.
Date September 2006
Journal American Journal of Veterinary Research
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplemental lipoic acid (LA) on serum concentrations of metabolic hormones and acute-phase proteins of steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). ANIMALS: 32 steers. PROCEDURES: Steers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments: negative control (NC; no LA, no IBRV challenge), control (CON; no LA, IBRV challenge), 16 mg of LA/kg of body weight (BW)/d plus IBRV challenge (LA16), and 32 mg of LA/kg of BW/d plus IBRV challenge (LA32). Following a 21-day adaptation period, CON, LA16, and LA32 steers received IBRV (2 mL/nostril [day 0]); NC steers received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Blood samples, nasal swab specimens, BW, and rectal temperatures were obtained 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days after challenge. Serum was analyzed for concentrations of haptoglobin, amyloid-A, leptin, and anti-IBRV antibodies. RESULTS: Steers fed LA32 began gaining BW by day 7, whereas BW of CON and LA16 steers declined. Serum haptoglobin concentration of LA32 steers was lower than that of CON and LA16 steers on day 7. Serum neutralization titers for 30 of 32 steers were negative for anti-IBRV antibodies before challenge; however, all steers (including NCs) had antibodies on day 21. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that LA supplementation augmented certain aspects of the immune response; LA32 steers had a more rapid recovery from IBRV viral challenge than did others.

Title Effects of Delayed or Prolonged Fixation on Immunohistochemical Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type I in Skin of Two Persistently Infected Calves.
Date January 2006
Journal Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation : Official Publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
Excerpt

The effects of delayed or prolonged fixation on immunohistochemical detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen were evaluated in skin. Ear-notch specimens from 2 calves persistently infected with BVDV type 1 were handled in 1 of 3 ways: 1) fixed in formalin promptly and processed for immunohistochemistry (IHC) after 3-176 days; 2) held at 3-4degreesC in plastic bags up to 10 days, then fixed in formalin for 2-5 days before processing; or 3) exposed to room air and temperature for 1-5 days before formalin fixation. Immunohistochemical staining intensity was evaluated without the knowledge of specimen handling. Staining of specimens that had been promptly fixed in formalin was moderate to strong at all fixation periods through 36 days, weak or no staining was evident in specimens fixed for 176 days. Refrigerated specimens typically had moderate to strong immunohistochemical staining. Even after 10 days of refrigeration before fixation, all immunohistochemical reactions were positive. However, no immunohistochemical staining was detected in any specimen that was exposed to room air. Results indicate that prompt formalin fixation is optimal for BVDV IHC. Samples can be held in formalin at least 36 days, without loss of reactivity. A 1-day delay in fixation caused no loss of reactivity, provided the specimen was refrigerated and protected from desiccation.

Title A Review of Heat Stroke and Its Complications in the Canine.
Date September 2005
Journal New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Title Reducing Calf Losses in Beef Herds.
Date September 2005
Journal The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Title Prevalence, Outcome, and Health Consequences Associated with Persistent Infection with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Feedlot Cattle.
Date March 2005
Journal Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) at arrival at a feedlot, prevalence of chronically ill and dead PI cattle, and the magnitude of excess disease attributable to a PI animal. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and cohort studies. ANIMALS: 2,000 cattle at the time they arrived at a feedlot, 1,383 chronically ill cattle from 7 feedlots, and 1,585 dead cattle from a single feedlot. PROCEDURE: Skin biopsy specimens were collected and evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Cattle were characterized as either PI or not PI with BVDV on the basis of characteristic immunostaining. Follow-up was obtained for the 2,000 cattle from which samples were collected at arrival, and health outcomes were determined for cattle exposed and not exposed to a PI animal. RESULTS: Prevalence of PI cattle was 0.3% at arrival, 2.6% in chronically ill cattle, and 2.5% in dead cattle. Risk of initial treatment for respiratory tract disease was 43% greater in cattle exposed to a PI animal, compared with those not exposed to a PI animal. Overall, 15.9% of initial respiratory tract disease events were attributable to exposure to a PI animal. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Relatively few PI cattle arrive at feedlots. However, those cattle are more likely to require treatment for respiratory tract disease and either become chronically ill or die than cattle that are not PI. In addition, they are associated with an increase in the incidence of respiratory tract disease of in-contact cattle.

Title Food Animal Veterinary Medicine: Leading a Changing Profession.
Date March 2005
Journal Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Excerpt

The veterinary profession has gone through periods of profound change in response to economic and social changes. We are currently in another such period: profound change is required in order for the profession to remain relevant in a marketplace where a rapidly expanding knowledge base and new technologies demand an ever-increasing level of expertise in a greater variety of areas. However, the veterinary profession is perceived both internally and by the public as possessing a narrow set of skills that supports a narrow group of careers focused on salvaging ill or injured companion animals. It will be necessary to dramatically change the way veterinary students are recruited and trained, as well as how graduate veterinarians are licensed and provided continuing education, in order for the veterinary profession to capitalize on our historical strengths and provide service and leadership in a greater diversity of career paths. Even though the number of veterinarians needed to provide primary care for livestock is decreasing, both the level of expertise demanded by livestock owners and the value of veterinary involvement on livestock farms are increasing. Colleges of veterinary medicine appear challenged to meet the changing needs for veterinary services in animal agriculture because of the declining percentage of veterinary students interested in food animal careers. Fortunately for animal agriculture, the skill set needed by food animal veterinarians is also needed by several emerging segments of the veterinary profession that have tremendous potential for rapid growth, including employment in all segments of food production systems, environmental monitoring and management, bio-security and disease eradication, laboratory diagnostics, and federal regulatory and bio-defense roles. Like previous periods of profound change, this moment in history will require creative thought, open discussion, and a willingness to step into the unknown.

Title Economic Costs Associated with Two Testing Strategies for Screening Feeder Calves for Persistent Infection with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus.
Date March 2005
Journal Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To develop partial budgets of the economic costs of 2 test strategies for screening cattle for persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). DESIGN: Partial budget analysis. ANIMALS: 938 calves arriving at 2 stocker operations. PROCEDURE: Calves were tested to determine prevalence of persistent BVDV infection. Test strategies that were evaluated included a single-test strategy consisting of immunohistochemical staining of skin biopsy specimens from all animals and a 2-test strategy consisting of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assaying of pooled blood samples followed by immunohistochemical staining of skin biopsy specimens from animals in pools for which assay results were positive. Break-even costs (i.e., cost of persistent BVDV infection per animal necessary to justify whole-herd diagnostic testing) associated with each test strategy were calculated as a function of disease prevalence and test cost. RESULTS: Apparent prevalence of persistent BVDV infection was 0.32%. Sensitivity and specificity of the PCR assay for pooled samples were 100% and 89.7%, respectively. Regardless of the prevalence of persistent BVDV infection, the break-even cost for the 2-test strategy was lower than the break-even cost for the single-test strategy. However, the economic advantage was greatest when prevalence was low. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that using a 2-test strategy to screen cattle for persistent BVDV infection, whereby the first test involves PCR assaying of pooled samples and the second involves immunohistochemical testing only of those animals represented in pooled samples with positive assay results, will reduce the cost of screening incoming feedlot cattle, compared with immunohistochemical testing of all animals.

Title Economic Considerations for Diagnostic and Control Options for Neospora Caninum-induced Abortions in Endemically Infected Herds of Beef Cattle.
Date June 2004
Journal Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To compare economic outcome for herds not exposed to Neospora caninum with that for herds with various seroprevalences of N caninum infection and evaluate 3 control strategies. DESIGN: Economic simulation model. SAMPLE POPULATION: Beef herds with various seroprevalences of N caninum infection. PROCEDURE: A 5-year simulation model was used. Control strategies that were evaluated included culling females that fail to calve, selling seropositive females and purchasing seronegative replacements, and excluding the daughters of seropositive dams as potential replacements. RESULTS: For a 5-year period with low prices for feeder calves, endemic N caninum infection decreased mean return to fixed assets by 22.2% when true seroprevalence was 10% and by 29.9% when true seroprevalence was 70%. Percentage decrease in return to fixed assets was less dramatic when a 5-year period with high prices for feeder calves was evaluated. Analysis indicated that 2 control strategies (culling females that fail to give birth to a calf and selling seropositive female cattle and purchasing seronegative replacement female cattle) were not likely to be economically beneficial. The third control strategy (testing the entire herd for N caninum infection and excluding the female offspring of seropositive dams as replacements) appeared to be a reasonable control strategy. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: For the assumptions in the model, endemic N caninum infection decreases return to fixed assets for cow-calf herds. Of the potential control strategies evaluated, testing the entire herd for N caninum infection and excluding the daughters of seropositive dams as potential replacements provided the best economic return.)

Title Management Strategies to Decrease Calf Death Losses in Beef Herds.
Date February 2004
Journal Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Title Effects of Supplemental Lactoferrin on Serum Lactoferrin and Igg Concentrations and Neutrophil Oxidative Metabolism in Holstein Calves.
Date February 2004
Journal Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Excerpt

Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding protein present in both colostrum and secondary granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). We hypothesized that supplemental LF enhances neutrophil function in neonatal calves. Newborn calves were assigned to receive colostrum (C), colostrum + LF (CLF, 1 g/kg), or milk replacer + LF (MRLF, 1 g/kg). Serum (LF and IgG) and whole blood (neutrophil isolation) samples were obtained prior to treatment (day 0) and at 24 hours and 9 days of age. Serum IgG concentrations (mean +/- SD) in C, CLF, and MRLF calves at 24 hours were 1,911 +/- 994 mg/dL, 2,181 +/- 625 mg/dL, and 0 mg/ dL, respectively. Serum LF concentrations in C, CLF, and MRLF calves on day 0 were 324 +/- 334 ng/mL (range 0-863 ng/mL), 135 +/- 158 ng/mL (range 0-429 ng/mL), and 318 +/- 337 ng/mL (range 0-964 ng/mL), respectively. LF concentrations in C, CLF, and MRLF calves at 24 hours were significantly higher (P < .05), at 1,564 +/- 1,114 ng/mL (range 335-3,628 ng/mL, 2,237 +/- 936 ng/mL (range 31-3,287 ng/mL), and 3,189 +/- 926 ng/mL (range 1,736-4,120 ng/mL), respectively. Cytochrome c reduction in opsonized zymosan-treated or phorbol ester-treated cells was not significantly affected by supplemental LF provided at birth. Oral LF is absorbed in calves but does not alter PMN superoxide production and does not alter IgG absorption.

Title Economic Evaluation of Neonatal Health Protection Programs for Cattle.
Date October 1998
Journal Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To develop an economic tool that can be used to help cattle producers evaluate benefits of neonatal health programs. DESIGN: Computer simulation of a multiple-year spreadsheet model, using economic and production variables. SAMPLE POPULATION: Records for a university research farm beef herd. PROCEDURE: Data from the university research farm beef herd for each year from 1990 to 1995 were evaluated to determine economic benefits for the cow-calf enterprise that would result from a decrease in morbidity and mortality. A baseline economic evaluation of returns to variable costs was performed, using actual production and marketing information. Actual economic performance was contrasted with a projected simulation in which morbidity and mortality were decreased. Sensitivity analysis for the simulation model assessment of a neonatal health program was also performed. RESULTS: Mean-per-cow increase in net income for the herd during the 6-year period for morbidity and mortality reductions of 20, 40, and 60% was $7.44, $14.93, and $22.42, respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that net income per cow was not sensitive to errors in projections of morbidity and mortality. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Identifying potential economic benefits for implementing a neonatal health plan and quantifying the costs to implement each component of the plan can be used by veterinarians and their clients when formulating a proactive strategy to provide the greatest potential for economic reward.

Title Molecular Analysis of Allelic Polymorphism at the Aat2 Locus of Alfalfa.
Date December 1993
Journal Molecular & General Genetics : Mgg
Excerpt

Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays a key enzymatic role in the assimilation of symbiotically fixed nitrogen in legume root nodules. In alfalfa, two distinct genetic loci encode dimeric AAT enzymes: AAT1, which predominates in roots, and AAT2, which is expressed at high levels in nodules. Three allozymes of AAT2 (AAT2a, -2b and -2c), differing in net charge, result from the expression of two alleles, AAT2A and AAT2C, at this locus. Utilizing antiserum to alfalfa AAT2, we have previously isolated from an expression library one AAT2 cDNA clone. This clone was used as a hybridization probe to screen cDNA libraries for additional AAT2 cDNAs. Four different clones were obtained, two each that encode the AAT2a and AAT2c enzyme subunits. These two sets of cDNAs encode polypeptides that differ in net charge depending upon the amino acid at position 296 (valine or glutamic acid). Within each set of alleles, the two members differ from each other by the presence or absence of a 30 bp (ten amino acid) sequence. The presence or absence of this ten amino acid sequence has no effect on the size or charge of the mature AAT2 protein because it is located within the region encoding the protein's transit peptide, which is proteolytically removed upon transport into plastids. The data suggest that a deletion event has occurred independently in two AAT2 progenitor alleles, resulting in the four allelic cDNA variants observed. The deletion of this ten amino acid sequence does not appear to impair the normal maturation of the enzyme.

Title Prolonged Postpartum Anovulation in Mastectomized Cows Requires Tactile Stimulation by the Calf.
Date May 1993
Journal Journal of Animal Science
Excerpt

Association of the calf with its dam prolongs the postpartum interval to first ovulation in intact and mastectomized cows indicating that tactile stimulus of the teat and (or) udder is not necessary. Therefore, we conducted the following experiment to determine whether individual calves allowed restricted contact with their mastectomized dam would delay the onset of first postpartum ovulation. Mastectomized cows (n = 21) were allotted randomly and equally to three groups in which cows were 1) allowed unrestricted access to their calves, with unlimited tactile, olfactory, visual, and auditory stimuli (calf present); 2) removed permanently from their calves 24 h after parturition and provided no further association with their calves (calf removed); and 3) remained with their calves for 24 h and then the cow-calf pair was restricted to a pen where tactile contact of the calf was limited to the head and neck region of its dam (calf restricted). Seven udder-intact cows (control) remained with their calves and were allowed to nurse ad libitum. Postpartum intervals to ovulation and first estrus for the calf-restricted cows and calf-removed cows were similar but shorter (P < .05) than those for the calf-present and udder-intact groups. We conclude that restricting tactile stimuli of the calf to the head and neck area of its dam failed to prolong postpartum anovulation in the mastectomized dam and that a cow-calf nursing orientation with tactile stimuli to the inguinal area, but not limited to the teat and(or) udder, was sufficient to prolong anovulation.

Title Retrospective Direct Comparison of Three Intraarticular Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions.
Date March 1992
Journal The American Journal of Sports Medicine
Excerpt

A long-term retrospective study (minimum 5 years) was done looking at three groups of anterior cruciate deficient knee patients using both subjective and objective anterior cruciate tests. Twenty-seven chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees reconstructed with the middle third of the patellar tendon and 28 chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees reconstructed with the semitendinosus tendon were included in this consecutive group of patients and were felt to be directly comparable. It was found that the chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficient group reconstructed with the semitendinosus tendon had 4 excellent, 10 good, 7 poor, and 7 failures with an objective score averaging 4.5 of a possible 12, while the comparable group reconstructed with the middle third of the patellar tendon had 16 excellent, 7 good, 3 poor, and only 1 failure with a score of 10 of a possible 12 (P less than 0.0032). For completeness sake, 20 anterior cruciate deficient knees from this group of consecutive patients that were reconstructed acutely with the semitendinosus tendon were also examined. This group had 8 excellent results, 9 good, 3 poor, and no failures with a score of 9.8 (P less than 0.03 compared to the other group using the semitendinosus tendon). This comparison between the two groups where the semitendinosus tendon was used in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was made only to show the difference between studies dealing with knee reconstructions. There may be a significant difference between a study dealing with acutely reconstructed knees versus one focusing on chronically reconstructed knees, most likely because of both patient selection and time between injury and reconstruction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Title Synthetic Materials for the Replacement of Knee Ligaments.
Date October 1991
Journal Annales Chirurgiae Et Gynaecologiae
Excerpt

The augmentation of autogenous tissue should be considered in failed autogenous grafts or when inadequate tissue is present which does not allow adequate tissue length, provide enough tensile strength, or insufficient fixation. Multiply failed anterior cruciate ligament surgical procedures should be considered candidates for a true prosthetic replacement. In certain patients with degenerative changes and functional instability, the use of a true prosthesis might also be considered in combination with other types of degenerative joint surgery. With all of our attempts at ligamentous reconstruction about the knee, we are seeking the ideal solution--the ultimate surgical technique for the anterior cruciate loss--minimal morbidity, rapid rehabilitation, return to full function, and reliable results. The intra-articular notch is not the ideal area to create a new ligament whether it be by autogenous or artificial means.

Title Cancer Update 90. Pain Management--up the Ladder. How Chemotherapy Stops Cancer Cell Growth.
Date May 1990
Journal Nursing
Title Long-term Evaluation of Knee Stability and Function Following Surgical Reconstruction for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Insufficiency.
Date December 1988
Journal The American Journal of Sports Medicine
Excerpt

Currently used measures of knee stability and function for ACL reconstructed knees have not gained universal acceptance. Clinical test results often are given more value than the patient's subjective evaluation of the surgical outcome. This study was designed to identify specific knee stability and function variables that were most predictive of the patient's rating of knee function following one of two types of combined (intraarticular and extraarticular) ACL reconstruction procedures. Individual measures of knee stability and function were also evaluated for differences between contralateral operated and nonoperated limbs. Postoperative and healthy contralateral knees of 51 male and female patients aged 18 to 49 years (mean, 23.7 years) were evaluated on a battery of tests at an average of 48.0 months after surgery (range, 24 to 101 months). All subjects possessed a normal contralateral knee for comparative purposes. The results of this retrospective study indicated that the variables selected were not highly correlated with, nor could they effectively predict, the patients' perceptions of postoperative knee status as measured by the Knee Function Rating Form (KFR). Statistically significant differences (P less than 0.001) between operated and nonoperated knees were found for 9 of 11 variables analyzed. The data suggest that patients' perceptions of postoperative knee status were independent of the results of static and dynamic clinical tests commonly used to assess knee stability and function. Postoperative deficits of up to 30% between the surgically reconstructed and normal contralateral knees on specific measures of knee stability and function did not greatly influence the patients' perceptions of knee function. Development of new, more specific dynamic tests may be necessary before stronger relationships between clinical test results and patients' perceptions of knee status in the ACL reconstructed knee can be realized.

Title Use of a "stat" Bag to Improve Stat Administration Times.
Date October 1988
Journal Hospital Pharmacy
Title Proximal Tibial Osteotomy in Patients Who Are Fifty Years Old or Less. A Long-term Follow-up Study.
Date September 1988
Journal The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Excerpt

Proximal tibial valgus osteotomy was performed for unicompartmental osteoarthritis in forty-five patients (fifty-one knees). The average age of the patients was forty-one years (range, twenty-three to fifty years), and the average length of follow-up was ten years. At follow-up, 70 per cent (thirty-six knees) were rated as good or excellent and 30 per cent (fifteen knees) were rated as fair or poor. There was no clear correlation between the quality of the result and the radiographic evidence of the severity of the arthritis preoperatively, the age of the patient at osteotomy, or the length of follow-up. There was a correlation between an improved result and an increased angle of correction after osteotomy, but the values were not statistically significant. The most important factor influencing the quality of results was the over-all level of disease in the knee as reflected in the preoperative knee score. Deficiency of the anterior cruciate ligament at the time of the osteotomy did not prevent a good result. We believe that proximal tibial osteotomy for unicompartmental arthritis of the knee is a good and effective procedure for patients who are less than fifty years old and who have an active life-style, and that lasting results can be achieved if the procedure is done early in the course of the disease.

Title Achieving Order Entry by Physicians in a Computerized Medical Record.
Date August 1988
Journal Hospital Pharmacy
Excerpt

When Community Memorial Hospital selected a computerized Medical Information System (MIS), it was recognized that physician use and acceptance was paramount to success. To achieve this, active participation from the medical-dental staff via an advisory committee, system education and emphasis on physician benefits was sought. Advance preparation included selection of light pen technology, field trips by selected physicians to other hospitals with the same system, and strategic placement and availability of terminals. During implementation, training was scheduled at the convenience of the physician. This training continues to be offered immediately to new physicians as they join the staff. System upgrades and added functions prompt scheduling of demonstrations for interested physicians. Many developmental ideas come from physicians using MIS indicating their interest in maintaining the system. New approaches that will make order entry easier for physicians so that everyone can benefit from their cooperation and participation are continually being looked for.

Title Anterior Cruciate Reconstruction in the Chronically Unstable Knee Using an Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene (ptfe) Prosthetic Ligament.
Date October 1987
Journal The American Journal of Sports Medicine
Excerpt

The purpose of this study is to review 30 patients with failed, multiply operated knees, or knees with gross instability which were reconstructed using the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) prosthetic ligament as a substitute for the ACL. The results were then compared with our experience with the proplast ligament used in a previous clinical series. This prospective review evaluated the patients preoperatively and at regular intervals during the postoperative period. The average followup was 24 months postoperation. Eighty-three percent of the patients had a satisfactory result, scoring greater than 140 points on a 200 point knee grading scale. Objectively, the anterior instability pattern was improved in 87% of the knees. Subjectively, pain of at least a mild degree persisted in 70% of the patients postoperatively. This pain seemed to correlate with articular cartilage changes documented intraoperatively. Major complications occurred in two patients. In conclusion, the PTFE prosthetic ligament was an improvement over the proplast ligament in the reconstruction of the multiply operated, unstable knee. The 83% satisfactory rate with the PTFE was promising compared to a 52% satisfactory rate using the proplast ligament. However, we encourage future long term studies of the PTFE prosthetic ligament in the reconstruction of the ACL in the chronically unstable knee.

Title Clinical Experience and Early Results of Carbon Fiber Augmentation of Anterior Cruciate Reconstruction of the Knee.
Date July 1985
Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Excerpt

Augmentation by autogenous tissue in the repair of acute anterior cruciate ligament injury has been found to be of benefit in providing a scaffold for the disrupted tissue and a stent to protect the repaired tissue, thereby ultimately increasing the strength of the repair. In both the acute setting and when autogenous tissue is used to reconstruct a chronic anterior cruciate-deficient knee, the substitute tissues require protection while revascularization and recollagenization take place. Potential solutions to these problems are sought in a ligament prosthesis, such as carbon fibers, that would be capable of providing both a stent for protection and an inducement for collagen ingrowth. Intra-articular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with autogenous tissue augmented by PLA-coated carbon fibers was performed in one group of ten patients. A second group of matched cases was similarly treated but without augmentation for controls. The results were analyzed at one year postoperation on both the 100-point protocol rating system and the authors' 200-point knee rating system. On the 100-point scale, the study group improved by 14.8% of the preoperative rating, while the comparison group improved by 23.3%. On the 200-point system, the study group improved by 21.9%, the comparison group by 22.6%. There was no demonstrable benefit in the use of carbon fiber to augment intra-articular, autogenous tissue anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions.

Title Overview and Philosophy of Knee Injuries.
Date June 1985
Journal Clinics in Sports Medicine
Excerpt

The problem of the injured knee has attracted thoughtful discussion over the years. A current review of changes in thinking and treatment relative to the meniscus, ligament injuries, the extensor mechanism, prosthetic ligaments, and rehabilitation is presented.

Title Augmentation of Acute Rupture of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament.
Date March 1985
Journal The Orthopedic Clinics of North America
Excerpt

Acute repair and augmentation of anterior cruciate ligament rupture is indicated in the active individual who is going to place excessive demands on the knee. Repair of any other ligament injury with the addition of augmentation of the anterior cruciate ligament repair provides a better chance for functional stability and lessens the incidence of secondary meniscal injury.

Title Noncutting Methods of Needle and Syringe Disposal.
Date October 1984
Journal Hospital Pharmacy
Excerpt

The time required of nurses to cut needles and syringes, the costs of boxes used to cut needles and store used syringes, as well as some of the costs related to treating needlesticks are discussed. A new method of utilizing a large box (3 X 13 X 31 inches) in a medication cart is described. The box is made of one-quarter inch cardboard and waxed. It is replaced daily and incinerated. The system is time-saving, economical, and should reduce the number of needlesticks.

Title Effective Communication in Emergency Situations. Pharmaceutical Companies' Telephone Numbers.
Date August 1984
Journal American Pharmacy
Title Patellofemoral Disorders: Physical and Radiographic Evaluation. Part I: Physical Examination.
Date May 1984
Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Excerpt

Patellofemoral disorders present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the orthopedic surgeon. By the sequential application of such basic diagnostic tools as inspection, palpation, and various measurements to a patient in standing, sitting, supine, and prone positions, a reproducible, comprehensive physical examination of the patellofemoral joint and entire lower extremity may be achieved.

Title Patellofemoral Disorders: Physical and Radiographic Evaluation. Part Ii: Radiographic Examination.
Date May 1984
Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Excerpt

Evaluation of the patient with patellofemoral complaints requires a comprehensive physical and radiologic investigation. The tangential view is most helpful in the evaluation of such patellofemoral disorders as chondromalacia, lateral patellar compression syndrome, and recurrent subluxation or dislocation. Commonly utilized tangential views include those described by Hughston, Merchant, Laurin, and Ficat. Multiple calculations available for quantitation of abnormal tangential views include the sulcus angle, congruence angle, lateral patellofemoral angle, patella index, and patellofemoral index. Lateral radiographic views commonly utilized to evaluate the patellofemoral joint for patella alta or infera include those described by Blumensaat, Labelle and Laurin, and Insall and Salvati. Utilization of all of the available patellofemoral radiographic views and calculations is impractical and unnecessary. However, to ensure diagnostic accuracy, a routine consisting of a reproducible radiographic technique and various, easily performed calculations that aid in diagnosis must be adopted.

Title Reconstruction Procedures for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Insufficiency: a Computer Analysis of Clinical Results.
Date October 1983
Journal The American Journal of Sports Medicine
Excerpt

A pre- and postoperative study of 205 patients who had surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee was evaluated with the use of a prototype computer program. An average followup of 4.1 years revealed a 27% improvement in subjective complaints and a 8% improvement in objective findings. The anterior drawer test was improved 25% and subluxation of the lateral tibial plateau (ALRI) was improved 118% correlating highly (P less than 0.001) with a good result. Seventy-four percent of patients had undergone medial meniscectomy, 58% lateral meniscectomy, and 41% had both menisci removed at followup after reconstruction. Ninety-two percent of the 121 patients responding to a final subjective complaint evaluation felt that their knee was significantly improved (average 6.1 years after reconstruction). The computer demonstrated a wide variation in the results of reconstruction within the intraarticular, extraarticular, and combined groups. The addition of associated procedures to the main reconstructive procedure significantly affected the results. This study reveals improvement of subjective complaints and objective findings after reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament and proposes the use of computer analysis for specific evaluation of different procedures.

Title Emergency Telephone Numbers of Pharmaceutical Companies.
Date August 1983
Journal Hospital Pharmacy
Title Physical Examination in the Diagnosis of Rotatory Instability.
Date March 1983
Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Excerpt

Various tests are used to evaluate rotatory instability. Anteromedial rotatory instability (AMRI) is detected by performing an anterior drawer test with the foot in external rotation. Excessive anterior rotation of the medial tibial plateau indicates laxity of the medial structures. Anterolateral rotatory instability (ALRI) is a manifestation of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knee. The functional disability produced is the pivot shift phenomenon, which is elicited by the MacIntosh, jerk, ALRI, FRD, and Losee tests. Posteromedial rotatory instability is checked by noting a posteromedial displacement of the medial tibial plateau with a valgus stress. This is a relatively unusual type of instability, although it may be part of a severe valgus type. Posterolateral rotatory instability is evaluated by the external rotation recurvatum, posterolateral drawer, and reverse pivot shift tests. The abnormalities produced by these tests will clarify the method to correct the functional deficiency.

Title 24-hour Unit Dose Dispensing of Class Iii-v Controlled Substances.
Date June 1982
Journal Hospital Pharmacy
Excerpt

Methods of controlling controlled substance (CS) inventories in unit dose dispensing systems vary. The two extremes are total floor stock of all CS drugs by the use of declining inventory signout sheets on the nursing unit to controlling only Class II and a few selected class III-V items. The method described herein outlines a systematic approach to controlling items on an individual patient basis consistant with the benefits of unit dose dispensing. A CS card assigned to each patient for each of his required controlled substance medications serves as an audit trail for doses consumed by the patient and provides a declining inventory receipt when returned to the pharmacy.

Title Presidential Address of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine.
Date February 1982
Journal The American Journal of Sports Medicine
Title Emergency Telephone Numbers of Pharmaceutical Companies.
Date December 1981
Journal Hospital Pharmacy
Title Combined Instabilities of the Knee.
Date July 1980
Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Excerpt

A knee with a combination of instabilities in very difficult to restore to a completely stable condition. The ligamentous structure of the knee is a functional unit. Laxity in any of the planes of the knee motion can produce increased stretching and stress to the structures, which help to provide stability in the other planes. Since it is almost impossible to restore the knee to the pre-injury state, residual laxity in different planes of motion is going to produce increasing stress to the other components, which may have been restored to a greater degree of stability. This emphasizes the importance of a good muscular rehabilitation program and a dynamic component to knee reconstructive procedures to protect against this eventuality. Passive laxity, if present, should not be taken as a sign of failure of the procedure. Often the patient's assessment of his functional capabilities have improved after the reconstructive procedures.

Title Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries. Results of Early Surgical Repair.
Date May 1980
Journal The American Journal of Sports Medicine
Excerpt

A retrospective study of 20 patients (19 men and one woman) with clinical diagnosis of posterior cruciate ligament injuries (seen between December 1969 and September 1977) was conducted. Eighteen patients underwent surgery an average of 2.6 days after injury. Tears of the posterior cruciate ligament were confirmed in all patients and a high incidence of associated ligamentous injuries was noted. No cases of truly isolated posterior cruciate injury were found. The posterior drawer sign was the most accurate test for posterior cruciate disruption. Torn posterior cruciate ligaments, as well as associated ligamentous injuries, were repaired to bone when possible. Irreparable disruptions or unstable repairs were reinforced with dynamic tendon transfers. We prefer to use as a tendon transfer the medial one-third of the medial head of the gastrocnemius because it provides static posterior drawer resistance and functions dynamically. The average follow-up period was 30.8 months. A comparison of preoperative and follow-up stability was made and it revealed that all patients exhibited mild residual instability. A functional rating showed that seven patients had excellent results, seven had good, three had fair, and one patient had poor results among those surgically treated. One patient treated conservatively rated good. The other one was lost to followup. The results of our study demonstrate that early surgical repair with dynamic augmentation, as indicated, can lead to acceptable functional results in the majority of knees with posterior cruciate ligament injury.

Title Z-plasty Lateral Retinacular Release for the Treatment of Patellar Compression Syndrome.
Date May 1980
Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Excerpt

Lateral retinacular release by Z-plasty technique in selected patients provides a relatively simple procedure for relief of symptoms in patellar compression syndrome and is a satisfactory initial surgical procedure in cases not responding to conservative therapy. Unfortunately, there is no specific symptom complex, physical finding, radiographic finding, or arthrotomy finding which delineates the patient with patellar compression syndrome who will benefit from an isolated lateral retinacular release. Some patients may require further extensor mechanism realignment procedures (e.g., medial capsular reefing, tibial tubercle transplantation, tibial tubercle elevation, etc.) to relieve the aggravating symptoms of parapatellar and retropatellar pain.

Title Limited Arthrography in Acute Knee Injuries.
Date March 1980
Journal The American Journal of Sports Medicine
Excerpt

Fifty consecutive limited arthrograms in acute knee injuries are reported with operative findings in 27 knees. The arthrograms were completely accurate regarding cruciate and medial collateral ligament integrity in 82% of all of the cases. Improvements in technique and recognition of superimposed anatomical structures led to fewer errors in interpretation as the series progressed. Limited arthrography is recommended as a useful office procedure in the early evaluation of knee ligament integrity in acute painful knee injuries.

Title Liquid Culture of Diplodia Maydis.
Date February 1980
Journal Microbios
Excerpt

Diplodia maydis, a Zea mays L. stalk rot causing fungus, was grown in Czapek-Dox broth and modifications of Fries liquid media using combinations of 1% cellulose, 1% sucrose and ammonium or nitrate-nitrogen. Conditions are defined to yield consistently maximum mycelial dry weight in two days in contrast to the usually reported five-day incubation period.

Title Nitrogen-metabolizing Enzymes of Diplodia Maydis, a Zea Mays L. Stalk Rot Causing Fungus.
Date July 1979
Journal Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Excerpt

The nitrogen source available to Diplodia maydis in vivo is reported to affect the severity of stalk rot in maize. Nitrate and (or) ammonium salts were tested for their effect on the type of nitrogen metabolism found in Diplodia maydis in vitro. The level of glutamate dehydrogenase remained essentially constant on either nitrogen salt but nitrate reductase was induced by growth on nitrate salts and was not extractable on ammonium salts. Properties of nitrate reductase reported here are similar to those reported for the higher plant and Neurospora crassa enzymes. Thr relationship of nitrogen metabolism in Diplodia maydis to Zea mays L. stalk rot is discussed.

Title The Patellar Compression Syndrome: Surgical Treatment by Lateral Retinacular Release.
Date March 1979
Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Excerpt

Patellar compression syndrome may be a manifestation of contraction of the lateral retinacular structures which consists largely of the lateral patellofemoral ligament producing a tethering action on the patella. This may produce parapatellar pain, particularly in activities requiring repetitive knee flexion. Minor patellofemoral incongruencies with pain, grating, and functional limitation may be found on examination but the patient does not demonstrate the problems of instability of marked congenital abnormalities often seen with other patellar problems. Forty patients underwent a simple release of the lateral retinaculum to decompress the patella in the patellofemoral groove. Follow-up was obtained in 31 patients at an average of 18.3 months after surgery. Twenty-four knees which had severe preoperative pain were converted to 6 with no pain, 4 with mild pain, 11 with moderate pain and 3 whose pain remained unchanged after surgery. Twenty knees with moderate preoperative pain were changed to 4 with no pain, 11 with mild pain and 4 whose pain remained unchanged. Thirty-seven of the 45 knees had lessening of the pain after the operation and 10 patients returned to unrestricted atheletic activities.

Title Rotary Mechanics After Pes Anserinus Transplant: a Method for Dynamic Assessment.
Date October 1978
Journal The American Journal of Sports Medicine
Title Should the Pharmacist Make Permanent Entries on Patients' Charts?
Date March 1978
Journal Hospital Pharmacy
Title Gene-dependent Flavonoid Glucosyltransferase in Maize.
Date May 1977
Journal Biochemical Genetics
Excerpt

A direct relationship between a specific gene and a specific enzyme involved in flavonoid biosynthesis is reported for the gene Bz and uridine diphosphoglucose: quercetin glucosyltransferase in maize pollin, seedlings, and seeds. Ratios are presented for specific activities of the glucosyltransferase from pollen, seed, and seedling tissues homozygous and heterozygous for Bz and homozygous for bz.

Title Little League Survey: the Eugene Study.
Date January 1977
Journal The American Journal of Sports Medicine
Excerpt

In a clinical and radiographic survey of the elbows of 120 pitchers ages 11 and 12, 20% were found to have symptoms, 10% flexion contractures, and 23% roentgenographic changes related to traction stresses on the medial side of the elbow. Five per cent had more serious lateral compression findings related to the radial head or capitellum, but none of these had symptoms. Although this represents a definite incidence of abnormal occurrence, there were no statistically significant correlations or interrelations found relating to pitching experience, valgus elbow deformities, symptoms, flexion contractures, or x-ray findings.

Title Clinical Test for Anterolateral Rotary Instability of the Knee.
Date October 1976
Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Excerpt

A simplified test for anterolateral rotary subluxation of the knee is largely based on the concepts described by Galway and McIntosh although performed in a different manner. The examiner places the right hand gently on the lateral side of the knee with the thumb overlying the posterior aspect of the fibula and the index finger palpating the anterolateral aspect of the joint line to determine the the tibiofemoral relationship. The left hand embraces the lateral side of the distal end of the femur with the thumb over the posterior aspect of the lateral femoral condyle. With equal pressure on the lateral femoral condyle and fibular head the knee is pushed gently forward into flexion. When anterointernal tibial luxation is present, a reduction phenomenon is felt as the knee passes into the 25 to 40 degree flexion range. This may occur as a sudden palpable and occasionally audible repositioning which is responsible for such terminology as a "pivot shift" or "jerk sign." We have experienced many instances where the reduction phenomenon is more subtle and is determined by palpation alone. The pathologic mechanics are determined by observations at surgery in 45 patients with a positive test. This test has improved our diagnositc ability and is easly taught to those unfamiliar with knee joint disorders.

Title Traumatic Bursitis and Artificial Turf.
Date January 1976
Journal The Journal of Sports Medicine
Title Pes Anserinus Transplant: Impressions After a Decade of Experience.
Date January 1976
Journal The Journal of Sports Medicine
Title High Tibial Osteotomy.
Date December 1974
Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Title Late Reconstruction of Ligamentous Injuries of the Medial Compartment of the Knee.
Date August 1974
Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Title Late Reconstruction Procedures Used to Stabilize the Knee.
Date May 1974
Journal The Orthopedic Clinics of North America
Title Epiphyseal Injuries in the Adolescent Athlete.
Date May 1974
Journal The Orthopedic Clinics of North America
Title Magnesol Thin-layer Chromatography of Flavonoid Compounds.
Date September 1969
Journal Journal of Chromatography
Title Knee Injuries in the Adolescent Athlete.
Date August 1968
Journal Medical Times
Title Rotatory Instability of the Knee. Its Pathogenesis and a Clinical Test to Demonstrate Its Presence.
Date May 1968
Journal The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Title Pes Anserinus Transplantation. A Surgical Procedure for Control of Rotatory Instability of the Knee.
Date May 1968
Journal The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Title The Epiphyses and the Childhood Athlete.
Date July 1966
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Title Anterior Cruciate Ligament Insufficiency: Principles of Treatment.
Date
Journal The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Excerpt

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries often result in functional disability, particularly in jumping, cutting, and deceleration activities. Some patients can accommodate to this functional loss, while others require surgical reconstruction of the ligament to provide stability and to protect the meniscus from further injury. Nonoperative management involves an intensive rehabilitation program, patient counseling about high-risk activities, and measures to prevent recurrent injuries. Surgical reconstruction of the ACL involves the technical factors of graft selection, positioning, fixation, and tensioning and the avoidance of stress risers. A supervised and intensive rehabilitation program is necessary to achieve optimal results.

Title Microsomal Flavonoid 3'-monooxygenase from Maize Seedlings.
Date
Journal Plant Physiology
Excerpt

Identification of flavonoid 3'-monooxygenase establishes another reaction in the biosynthesis of flavonoid compounds in maize (Zea mays L.). The flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase was obtained as a microsomal enzyme preparation by buffer extraction of 5 day old maize seedlings and ultracentrifugation. Seedlings were exposed to light 24 hours prior to enzyme extraction. The extraction buffer required the addition of sucrose or glycerin and dithiothreitol to obtain an active hydroxylase that retained its activity on storage at -70 degrees C. Enzymic activity required O(2) and NADPH, was optimum at pH 8.5 and 30 degrees C, and could be inhibited 79% by carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide inhibition could be reduced to 21% by irradiation of the samples with 450 nanometer light during incubation. Kaempferol, a flavonol; naringenin, a flavanone; and apigenin, a flavone, all served as substrates for the hydroxylase. Treatment of the microsomal enzyme preparation, previously reduced with sodium dithionite, with carbon monoxide gave a 455 nanometer absorption peak which disappeared on oxidation of the preparation with the formation of a 420 nanometer peak. These results suggest a cytochrome P-450 type monooxygenase enzyme. The concentration of cytochrome P-450 was 0.21 nanomoles per milligram protein. Identification of the monooxygenase provides further biochemical information about a biosynthetic sequence for which the genetics have been studied intensely.

Title Hydroxamic Acid Glucosyltransferases from Maize Seedlings.
Date
Journal Plant Physiology
Excerpt

Hydroxamic acids occur in several forms in maize (Zea mays L.) with 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) being the predominant form and others including 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) being found at lower concentrations. Two enzymes capable of glucosylating hydroxamic acids were identified in maize protein extracts and partially purified and characterized. The total enzyme activity per seedling increased during the first 4 days of germination and was concurrent with the accumulation of DIMBOA. Purification of the enzymes by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-200 and Q-Sepharose gel chromatography resulted in a 13-fold increase in specific activity. The enzymes are initially separated into two peaks (peak 1 and peak 2) of activity by Q-Sepharose gel chromatography. The peak 1 glucosyltransferase had 3.6% of the DIMBOA glucosylating activity when DIBOA was used as substrate, whereas this percentage increased to 57% for the peak 2 enzyme. The enzyme in peak 2 has a K(m) of 174 micromolar for DIMBOA and a K(m) of 638 micromolar for DIBOA; the enzyme in peak 1 has a K(m) of 217 micromolar for DIMBOA and its activity on DIBOA was too low to determine a K(m). The identification of two glucosyltransferases capable of glucosylating hydroxamic acids in vitro serves as an initial step in the characterization of the enzymes involved in production of hydroxamic acids in maize.

Title Maize Microsomal Benzoxazinone N-monooxygenase.
Date
Journal Plant Physiology
Excerpt

The benzoxazinones occur in hydroxamic acid and lactam forms in maize (Zea mays L.) tissue. The hydroxamic acid forms which possess a N-hydroxyl group are found in the highest concentration while the lactam members which lack the N-hydroxyl group occur in lower concentrations. The hydroxamic acid 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) has as its lactam counterpart 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HBOA). An enzyme has been identified in maize microsomal preparations which catalyzes the N-hydroxylation of HBOA to form DIBOA. The enzyme is initially observed in seedlings 2 days after imbibition which coincides with the onset of hydroxamic acid accumulation. The enzyme requires NADPH and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, NADP, cytochrome c, cations, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen gas. The effect of nitrogen can be reversed by exposing the enzyme to air, while the effect of carbon monoxide can be reversed by exposing the enzyme to 450 nanometer light during the incubation period. The apparent K(m) values for HBOA and NADPH are 13 and 5 micromolar, respectively. The pH optimum is 7.5 and the temperature optimum for the enzyme is 35 degrees C. A 450 nanometer absorbance peak is observed when reduced microsomal preparations are exposed to carbon monoxide which in combination with other data presented supports the hypothesis that the enzyme is a cytochrome P-450 dependent N-monooxygenase.

Title Syncro-mate B((r)) Induces Estrus in Ovariectomized Cows and Heifers.
Date
Journal Theriogenology
Excerpt

Eleven ovariectomized Hereford x Simmental cows and 10 ovariectomized crossbred heifers (primarily Angus and Hereford) were given the Syncro-Mate B (SMB) estrous synchronization treatment. The SMB treatment consisted of a 2 ml i.m. injection containing 5 mg of estradiol valerate and 3 mg of norgestomet plus a hydron ear implant containing 6 mg of norgestomet. The ear implant was removed 9 d later. Cows and heifers were considered in estrus only if they stood for mounting by a herdmate or a bull. Observations for estrus were made four or six times each day for 3 d after implant removal. The 21 animals were used in eight trials. Each trial involved 9 or 11 cows or 5 or 10 heifers. Four days to three weeks elapsed between implant removal and implant insertion for the next trial. No ovariectomized cow or heifer was observed in estrus for 21 d before treatment with SMB. In the eight trials, 3 of 9, 7 of 9 and 6 of 11 cows exhibited estrus, whereas 5 of 10, 1 of 5, 3 of 5, 3 of 5 and 5 of 5 heifers exhibited estrus after treatment. When data were pooled, 16 of 29 (55.2%) cows and 17 of 30 (56.7%) heifers exhibited estrus after treatment. Our data indicate that the SMB treatment can induce estrus in cows and heifers, independently of the ovaries.

Title Magnetic Observations in Studies of Sea-floor Spreading.
Date
Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
Title East Pacific Rise Crest: A Near-bottom Geophysical Profile.
Date
Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
Excerpt

A deep-towed magnetometer profile made across the East Pacific Rise crest shows many anomalies with about 1000-gamma amplitudes and 500-meter wavelengths and has larger amplitude changes corresponding to magnetic field reversals. This profile across contacts between normal and reversely magnetized crustal blocks is interpreted to place an upper limit of 4700 years on the time required for field reversals and an upper limit of 280 meters on the width of the intrusion center at the rise crest. This intrusion center may occasionally shift several kilometers laterally with respect to the rise axis. The magnetometer records are compatible with the hypothesis that the magnetic field has undergone many fluctuations of short period and small intensity in the past 2 million years. Sediment accumulation increases from less than 2 meters at the rise crest axis to about 20 meters at the western end and 10 meters at the eastern end of the profile. This increase in accutmiulation appears to be the result of ocean-floor spreading.

Title Gulf of California: A Result of Ocean-floor Spreading and Transform Faulting.
Date
Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
Excerpt

Ocean-floor spreading tore southern Baja California from mainland Mexico 4 million years ago and has subsequently rafted it 260 kilometers to the northwest along the Tamayo Fracture Zone. Magnetic-anomaly profiles indicate spreading at the mouth of the gulf at 3.0 centimeters per year and a rise-crest offset of 75 kilometers inside the gulf across the Tamayo Fracture Zone.

Title Strontium Isotopes in Mid-cretaceous Seawater.
Date
Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
Title In Vitro Effects of Lactoferrin on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Proliferation, Gene Expression, and Prostanoid Production by Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.
Date
Journal American Journal of Veterinary Research
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of lactoferrin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proliferation of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), gene expression of inflammatory mediators, and production of prostanoids in vitro. SAMPLE POPULATION: PBMCs isolated from 15 Holstein bull calves. PROCEDURES: Mixed populations of PBMCs were isolated by differential centrifugation. Proliferation assays were conducted in 96-well plates designed to allow addition of lactoferrin (200 ng/mL) with and without LPS (1 microg/mL) in a checkerboard design. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine was used to determine proliferation of PBMCs. Prostaglandin E2 production was determined in culture-conditioned medium by use of enzyme immunoassay. Effects of lactoferrin on LPS-induced gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were monitored by use of PCR assays. RESULTS: Lactoferrin supplementation significantly reduced LPS-induced incorporation of 3H-thymidine and production of prostaglandin E2 by PBMCs. Lactoferrin reduced LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and MMP-9 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Lactoferrin reduced LPS-induced cellular proliferation, inflammatory mediator gene expression, and prostaglandin E2 production by bovine PBMCs in vitro. These effects may be beneficial in reducing the impact of endotoxemia in neonates.

Title A Stochastic Model to Assess the Risk of Introduction of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus to Beef Cow-calf Herds.
Date
Journal Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Excerpt

A spreadsheet model using Monte Carlo simulation was designed to evaluate the introduction of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to cow-calf farms and the effect of different testing strategies. Risks were modeled to include imports to the cow-calf herd and stocker calves imported to adjacent pastures. The number of persistently infected (PI) animals imported and the probability of BVDV introduction were monitored for three herd sizes, four import profiles, and six testing strategies. Importing stockers and importing pregnant heifers were the biggest risks for introduction of BVDV. Testing for PI animals in stockers decreased the risk they posed, but testing pregnant heifers was not sufficient to decrease risk unless their calves were also tested. Test sensitivity was more influential than PI prevalence on the likelihood of BVDV introduction, when all imports were tested. This model predicts the risk of BVDV introduction for individual herds based on management decisions, and should prove to be a useful tool to help cow-calf producers in controlling the risk of importing BVDV to a naïve herd.

Title Characterization of a U.s. Isolate of Beet Black Scorch Virus.
Date
Journal Phytopathology
Excerpt

ABSTRACT The first reported U.S. isolate of Beet black scorch necrovirus (BBSV) was obtained and characterized. Host range of the virus for localized and occasionally systemic infection included the Chenopodiaceae and Tetragonia expansa; Nicotiana benthamiana supported symptomless systemic infection by the virus. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of the virus, designated BBSV-Co, exhibits 93% similarity to the genome of the 'Ningxia' isolate of BBSV from China. Amino acid sequence similarity in predicted genes ranged from 95% in the p4 gene to 97% in the p82 and coat protein genes. A potential additional gene exists within the U.S. isolate of BBSV that is absent from Chinese isolates of BBSV due to nucleotide differences between these isolates within the coat protein gene. Coat protein analysis by isoelectric focusing and by mass spectroscopy indicated the presence of phosphorylated residues. Using primer extension analysis of the 5' end of the genome and site-directed mutants of genomic clones of BBSV-Co from which infectious RNA was produced, the native 5' end of the BBSV-Co genome was determined to be 5'-GAAACCTAACC...3', lacking the two terminal adenosine nucleotides in the published sequences of BBSV from China.

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