Otolaryngologist (ear, nose, throat)
18 years of experience

Accepting new patients
Craniofacial Institute
26850 Providence Pkwy
Ste 205
Novi, MI 48374
Locations and availability (6)

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (1992)
  • Currently 4 of 4 apples
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Patients' Choice Award (2010 - 2013)
Compassionate Doctor Recognition (2010 - 2013)
Top 10 Doctor - State (2014)
Top 10 Doctor - Metro Area (2014)
Metro Detroit
Johns Hopkins University School Of Medicine - Baltimore Md
University Of Virginia School Of Medicine - Charlottesville Va
Assistant Professor
University Of Virginia (1999 - Present)
Ohio State University (2006 - Present)
Wayne State University School Of Medicine - Detroit Mi
Associate Professor
University Of Minnesota Medical School - Twin Cities - Minneapolis Mn
Assistant Professor
American Head and Neck Society
American Academy of Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery
American Board of Integrative Holistic Medicine
American Rhinologic Society
American Board of Otolaryngology

Affiliations ?

Dr. Faust is affiliated with 11 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations



  • St John Detroit Riverview Hospital
    7733 E Jefferson Ave, Detroit, MI 48214
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Rehabilitation Institute of Michigan
    261 Mack Ave, Detroit, MI 48201
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Huron Valley-Sinai Hospital
    1 William Carls Dr, Commerce Township, MI 48382
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Nationwide Childrens Hospital
  • St. John Hospital & Medical Center
  • Children's Hospital of Michigan
  • Providence Park Hospital
    47601 Grand River Ave, Novi, MI 48374
  • Providence Hospital and Medical Center
  • Augusta Medical Center
  • Sinaigrace Hospital
  • University Of Virginia Health System
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Faust has contributed to 39 publications.
    Title Paradigm Shift in Pediatric Surgery: Invasion of the Robots.
    Date May 2008
    Journal Clinical Pediatrics
    Title Evolutions in the Management of Congenital Intranasal Skull Base Defects.
    Date December 2004
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery

    BACKGROUND: Congenital skull base defects have traditionally been treated via an intracranial approach. Recent advances in endoscopic management have made minimally invasive extracranial approaches feasible, with less morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To determine the success of endoscopic treatment of congenital cerebrospinal fluid leaks and encephaloceles. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Retrospective review of congenital cerebrospinal fluid leaks and encephaloceles treated from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 2003. Data collected include demographic characteristics, presenting signs/symptoms, site of the skull base defect, surgical approach, repair technique, and clinical follow-up. RESULTS: Eight patients were treated via the endoscopic approach for congenital cerebrospinal fluid leaks and encephaloceles. The average age at presentation was 6 years (range, birth to 18 years). Three patients presented with meningitis (average age, 6 years), 4 had cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, and 3 developed a nasal obstruction. Five defects originated at the foramen cecum, and 3 others involved the ethmoid roof/cribriform plate only. Our endoscopic approaches were successful on the first attempt, with a mean follow-up of 19 months. One patient experienced nasal stenosis postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Continuing progress in the surgical management of congenital skull base defects demonstrates that endoscopic repair is a successful alternative to traditional craniotomy approaches, with less morbidity. This technique requires meticulous preparation and precise grafting of the defect to avoid collateral damage to surrounding structures. While reduction in the risk of meningitis, intracranial complications, and facial growth abnormalities and alleviation of nasal obstruction necessitate the timely repair of these skull base defects, special considerations are discussed regarding the optimal timing of surgical intervention, operative working space, and exposure in a smaller nasal cavity.

    Title Progressive Osseous Heteroplasia in the Face of a Child.
    Date October 2003
    Journal American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A

    We describe a rare case of progressive osseous heteroplasia of the face in a child. Biopsy showed osteoma cutis superficially with ectopic bone formation in the deeper tissues including skeletal muscle. Analysis of DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes showed mutations in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein of adenylyl cyclase (GNAS1), confirming the diagnosis of progressive osseous heteroplasia.

    Title Childhood Voice Disorders: Ambulatory Evaluation and Operative Diagnosis.
    Date June 2003
    Journal Clinical Pediatrics
    Title Child Abuse and the Otolaryngologist: Part I.
    Date April 2003
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery

    Nearly 1 million infants and children are neglected and abused yearly in the United States, with a greater than 1% resulting mortality rate. One half of these children are seen by physicians for abuse-related injuries, and nearly 75% have injuries of the head and neck. Physicians, however, account for reporting only 11% of all cases. As experts trained in diseases and injuries of the head and neck, otolaryngologists are particularly well positioned to recognize abuse in the clinic and in the emergency room and during other consultations. We present an overview of child abuse definitions, risk factors, and legal obligations of the physician. We also review the manifestations of child abuse within the head and neck, with particular attention to the role of the otolaryngologist. We briefly discuss some conditions that may be mistaken for abuse and suggest a practical protocol for management of suspected cases in the clinic.

    Title Child Abuse and the Otolaryngologist: Part Ii.
    Date April 2003
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery
    Title Three-dimensional Computed Tomography of Congenital Nasal Anomalies.
    Date October 2002
    Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of performing three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) of congenital naso-frontal anomalies for preoperative planning and counseling and compare it with standard two-dimensional (2D) imaging and intraoperative findings. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case evaluation of imaging studies and medical records in cohort of patients with congenital nasal anomalies. METHODS: We performed 3D CT imaging of three different types of congenital nasal lesions. Additional preoperative imaging consisted of standard 2D CT scans and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Information obtained from the 3D CTs was compared with other standard imaging and intraoperative findings. RESULTS: 3D CT was most useful in the case of a large encephalocele with a significant bony defect of the anterior cranial fossa. It provided moderate utility when used to evaluate a nasal dermoid with nasal bone and septal abnormalities and was of limited benefit in the case of a bifid nose with significant external soft tissue deformity and relatively normal bony anatomy. CONCLUSION: Congenital midline nasal anomalies are rare lesions with the potential for intracranial extension and anterior skull base abnormalities. The safe surgical treatment of these lesions depends upon accurate preoperative imaging to assist in establishing the diagnosis, to help guide surgical planning, and to assist in communicating the diagnosis and surgical approach for optimal counseling of families. 3D CT was instrumental in providing additional useful information in cases with significant bony abnormalities at little additional cost or time. It is also beneficial for preoperative counseling of patients and families with limited medical knowledge.

    Title Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Evaluation of Focal Tracheomalacia: Innominate Artery Compression Syndrome.
    Date September 2002
    Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

    BACKGROUND: The contribution of an 'aberrant innominate artery' to respiratory distress syndromes has been a matter of debate nearly since the introduction of this concept. Recent advances in dynamic imaging are proving to be of value in assessing tracheal function in patients with respiratory distress. We therefore evaluated patients with innominate artery compression syndrome using the cine magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) modality. OBJECTIVES: To apply the CMRI modality to evaluate patients with respiratory distress who exhibited tracheal compression at the level of the innominate artery. METHODS: A cohort of three patients in respiratory distress underwent bronchoscopy, followed by CMRI using a Siemens 1.5T Vision system. RESULTS: These three patients exhibited tracheal compression at the level of the innominate artery in agreement with their findings during bronchoscopy. All three exhibited dynamic tracheal compression that varied with the respiratory cycle. The degree of tracheal compromise was readily appreciated using the dynamic, real-time CMRI modality. Due to the severity of symptoms, the two children underwent innominate arteriopexy with complete resolution of their symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: CMRI provides extremely rapid acquisition of images, as well as integrated information regarding relationships of mediastinal structures. By providing functional imaging of tracheal patency during the respiratory cycle, CMRI may provide additional insight into innominate artery compression syndrome as more patients are evaluated.

    Title Tourette Syndrome Manifest As Chronic Cough.
    Date September 2002
    Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by the presence of fluctuating involuntary motor and vocal tics. We report the case of a child in whom TS manifest as an involuntary recurrent complex tic presenting as a chronic cough. The clinical and pathological features and management of TS are reviewed.

    Title A Unique Case of Bezold's Abscess Associated with Multiple Dural Sinus Thromboses.
    Date February 2002
    Journal The Laryngoscope

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Bezold's abscess and dural sinus thromboses are rare complications of otitis media in the era of antibiotics. Although potentially fatal, they are treatable. We present a unique case report of Bezold's abscess in association with multiple dural sinus thromboses. STUDY DESIGN: Single case report. METHODS: A young female patient's clinical course is presented and discussed. We review the anatomy, incidence, pathogenesis, and treatment of Bezold's abscess and dural sinus thrombosis. RESULTS: After mastoidectomy, neck exploration, broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, and anticoagulation therapy, the patient recovered fully and has remained asymptomatic since her discharge from the hospital at 12 months' follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of Bezold's abscess associated with a cavernous sinus thrombosis and the third reported case of Bezold's abscess associated with lateral sinus thrombosis. Despite its rarity, Bezold's abscess must be recognized and treated aggressively. Dural sinus thrombosis is relatively more common, and treatment of the underlying cause is essential. The diagnosis and rapid, aggressive treatment of these conditions are essential for an optimal clinical outcome.

    Title Real-time, Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Evaluation of the Pediatric Airway.
    Date February 2002
    Journal The Laryngoscope

    BACKGROUND: Standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) modalities are limited in their ability to image dynamic organs. New real-time, dynamic, cine magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) techniques have the potential to image moving structures. OBJECTIVE: We therefore investigated the feasibility of using CMRI techniques to dynamically image the human airway, to assess laryngeal and tracheal patency and function. METHODS: A cohort of 10 pediatric patients, 10 adult patients, and 10 normal volunteers underwent routine static MRI, as well as CMRI using a Siemens 1.5 T Vision system (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Patients also underwent endoscopic evaluation. Cine axial, coronal, and sagittal sequences of the larynx and trachea were obtained during quiet respiration, as well as during a variety of provocative maneuvers. RESULTS: CMRI readily demonstrated normal vocal cord mobility and tracheal stability in normal volunteers. Abnormal vocal mobility was easily appreciated using the CMRI imaging system. Similarly, dynamic effects of tracheomalacia were clearly demonstrated using CMRI. Dynamic extrinsic tracheal compression resulting from mass lesions or anomalous vasculature was also visualized using CMRI. CONCLUSIONS: Cine MRI of the airway has the potential to provide novel data regarding laryngeal and tracheal patency and function. This evolving modality may serve as a valuable adjunct to static MR and CT imaging, as well as endoscopy, in the assessment of the airway.

    Title Assessment of Congenital Bony Nasal Obstruction by 3-dimensional Ct Volume Rendering.
    Date December 2001
    Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

    The nature and extent of congenital bony nasal obstruction is best determined by X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. Three-dimensional volume rendering of CT images provides an integrated perspective that can assist in clinical decision making and in operative planning. Clinical cases of choanal atresia and pyriform aperture stenosis are reviewed with their images. The authors propose this modality as an evolving standard for imaging of congenital bony nasal obstruction.

    Title Significance of Protein Kinase Ck2 Nuclear Signaling in Neoplasia.
    Date August 2001
    Journal Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Supplement

    Many stimuli play a role in influencing the structure and function of chromatin and nuclear matrix through post-translational modifications of the component proteins in these dynamic structures. We propose that the protein serine/threonine kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is one such agent that is involved in signal transduction in the nuclear matrix and chromatin in response to a variety of stimuli. Protein kinase CK2 appears to undergo rapid modulations in its association with nuclear matrix and nucleosomes in response to mitogenic signals and is involved in the phosphorylation of a variety of intrinsic proteins in these structures depending on the state of genomic activity. In addition, its association or loss from the nuclear matrix may also influence the apoptotic activity in the cell. CK2 has been found to be dysregulated in virtually all the neoplasias examined and nuclear association appears to be an important facet of its expression in tumor cells. We hypothesize that CK2 provides a functional paradigm linking the nuclear matrix and chromatin structures. Identification of precise loci of action of CK2 in these structures and how they influence the morphological appearance of the nucleus under normal and abnormal growth conditions would be an important future direction of investigation. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl. 35:130-135, 2000. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

    Title Securing Cochlear Implants to the Skull: Two Alternate Methods.
    Date June 2001
    Journal Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal

    In view of the various problems encountered with the traditional methods of securing cochlear implants--including dural tear and suture dissolution following infection--we devised two alternate methods of performing this procedure. We use a titanium mesh or a Gore-Tex patch secured with two 4-mm screws to fix the receiver to the skull. No patient who has undergone either of these procedures at our institution has experienced any of the complications that are associated with the older silk, nylon, and Dacron sutures. Moreover, our two alternate methods are less technically difficult and can be performed in a shorter period of time.

    Title Antisense Oligonucleotides Against Protein Kinase Ck2-alpha Inhibit Growth of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck in Vitro.
    Date August 2000
    Journal Head & Neck

    BACKGROUND: Human squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) overexpress the protein kinase CK2, and elevated CK2 activity correlates with aggressive tumor behavior and poor clinical outcome. We therefore investigated whether interference with CK2 expression would inhibit SCCHN cell growth in vitro. METHODS: We targeted the catalytic (alpha) subunit of CK2 using an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) strategy. Human Ca9-22 cells derived from SCCHN were transfected with CK2-alpha sense, nonsense, or antisense ODN; CK2 activity was measured; and the effect on CK2 activity and on cell growth was determined. RESULTS: Transfection of Ca9-22 cells with antisense CK2-alpha ODN resulted in significantly decreased CK2 kinase activity associated with nuclear chromatin and in dose-dependent growth inhibition of Ca9-22 cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Interference with the protein kinase CK2 signal in SCCHN cells may offer a novel anticancer strategy for this malignancy.

    Title Apoptosis and Growth Inhibition of Head and Neck Tumor Cell Line Induced by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor.
    Date January 2000
    Journal Oral Oncology

    Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, a hallmark of aerodigestive squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), correlates with aggressive tumor behavior. There is evidence that SCCHN cells auto-activate their EGF receptors. The receptor has therefore attracted interest as a potential therapeutic target. We tested the in vitro therapeutic efficacy of PD153035--a potent, specific inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase intrinsic to the EGF receptor--by employing a well-characterized cell line derived from human gingival SCCHN. DNA-synthesis and cell number were assayed for growth-inhibitory effects, phosphorylation of the EGF receptor was quantitated by immunoblot, and cell apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxytransferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP)-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) in situ assay. PD153035, at nanomolar concentrations, inhibited autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor induced by EGF stimulation and the inhibition occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Under the same conditions, PD153035 inhibited cell growth, and induced apoptosis of SCCHN cells in vitro. We conclude that selective inhibition of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase completely abolishes EGF receptor phosphorylation resulting from receptor stimulation, and results in growth inhibition and apoptosis of SCCHN cells in vitro. By inducing cytostasis and apoptosis, this new class of inhibitors may be of therapeutic value against SCCHN.

    Title Subcellular Immunolocalization of Protein Kinase Ck2 in Normal and Carcinoma Cells.
    Date November 1999
    Journal The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology

    CK2 is a messenger-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in cell growth and proliferation. Our recent analysis of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) revealed a significant elevation in CK2 activity in these tumor cells relative to normal mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract and suggested a correlation with aggressive tumor behavior and poor clinical outcome. In order to further define the distribution of CK2 in these tissues, we have examined the immunohistochemical staining pattern of surgical specimens of both SCCHN tumors and normal upper aerodigestive tract mucosa using a monoclonal antibody directed against the catalytic subunit CK2-alpha of the kinase, and have compared these data with the subcellular distribution of CK2 activity in these same tissues. These measurements showed that CK2 is predominantly localized to the nuclei of the tumor cells, which agreed closely with the immunohistochemical staining pattern of CK2-alpha in tumor cells. The chiefly nuclear distribution of CK2-alpha immunostaining found consistently in SCCHN tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes contrasted with a relatively more predominant cytosolic staining pattern exhibited by various cellular constituents of normal oropharyngeal mucosa. The immunostaining pattern of CK2-alpha revealed that staining was observed in the cells stained for the proliferation-marker Ki-67; however, strong distinct immunostaining for CK2-alpha was also observed in large numbers of other cells in these same tumors, suggesting that CK2 elevation in these tumors is not a reflection of proliferative activity alone, but may also relate to the pathobiological behavior of the tumor.

    Title Modulation of Nuclear Matrix Protein Phosphorylation by Histones: Possible Involvement of Nm-associated Protein Kinase Ck2 Activity.
    Date May 1999
    Journal Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

    Nuclear matrix (NM), a proteinaceous network of filaments, dictates nuclear morphology and the structure/function of DNA. Phosphorylation of NM proteins is a potential signal for regulating matrix functions. Histones also are intimately involved in DNA structure and transcription. Here, we report that various histones enhanced 32P incorporation into certain NM proteins. Modulation of NM protein phosphorylation by histones is mediated through regulation of protein kinase CK2, a messenger-independent serine/threonine kinase, which is significantly associated with the NM. The stimulatory effect of histones was mitigated by prior incubation of histones with DNA in the reaction. Phosphorylation of NM proteins was extensively reduced when an excess of the CK2-specific peptide substrate was included in the phosphorylation reaction as a competitor. Also, enhancement in the NM-associated CK2 activity by histones was blocked by inhibitors of CK2. Histone H1 effect appeared to be mediated mainly by charge effect since a stretch of polylysine induced a similar effect. Various histones also differentially affected the autophosphorylation of NM-associated CK2 subunits. This may contribute to the observed effects of histones on the NM, resulting in an enhancement and differential pattern of NM protein phosphorylation. Such a regional modification of NM protein phosphorylation might influence the nuclear functions that require histone displacement, namely, replication and transcription.

    Title The Near Complete Tracheal Ring Deformity.
    Date February 1999
    Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

    Congenital complete and near-complete tracheal rings are extremely rare tracheal deformities. There are fewer than 100 cases of congenital complete tracheal rings, and only four cases of near-complete described in the literature. Long-segment occurrences of these anomalies are usually incompatible with life. We describe the presentation of the long-segment near complete tracheal ring deformity and long-segment anterior fusion of cartilage rings (cartilage sleeve deformity) in a living infant. The literature is reviewed, and the embryology, presentation, and management of these extremely rare anomalies are discussed.

    Title Chemical Warfare Agents: Estimating Oral Reference Doses.
    Date June 1998
    Journal Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

    Health risk assessments for sites contaminated with chemical warfare agents require a comparison of the potential levels of exposure with a characterization of the toxic potency of each chemical. For noncancer health effects, toxic potency is expressed in terms of Reference Doses (RfD). A RfD is a daily exposure level or dose (usually expressed in units of milligrams of chemical per kilogram body weight per day) for the human population, including sensitive subpopulations, that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects. A daily exposure at or below the RfD is not likely to be associated with health risks, but as the amount of chemical that an individual is exposed to increases above the RfD, the probability that an adverse effect will occur also increases. A RfD is derived by first examining the available human or animal toxicity data to identify a dose or exposure that corresponds to a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) or a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL). The NOAEL is the exposure level at which there are no statistically or biologically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects between the exposed population and its appropriate control. Effects may be produced at this level, but they are not considered to be adverse if they do not result in functional impairment or pathological lesions that affect the performance of the whole organism or which reduce an organism's ability to cope with additional challenge. The LOAEL is the lowest exposure level at which there are statistically or biologically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects between the exposed population and its appropriate control. If only a LOAEL is identified by the toxicity data, a NOAEL is estimated by dividing the LOAEL by a factor no greater than 10. This extrapolation factor of 10 or less is termed the LOAEL-to-NOAEL Uncertainty Factor (UFL). The NOAEL is also adjusted by the application of other Uncertainty Factors, including (1) a UFH < or = 10 to ensure that the resulting RfD protects segments of the human population that may be more sensitive to the chemical than the average person; (2) a UFA < or = 10 to extrapolate from the experimental animal species to humans; (3) a UFS < or = 10 to extrapolate from an experimental subchronic exposure study to a potential chronic exposure; and (4) a UFD < or = 10 to ensure that the resulting RfD is protective for all possible adverse effects, particularly those that may not have been adequately evaluated in the available studies. A Modifying Factor (MF), based on a qualitative professional assessment of the data, may also be used to account for other factors (e.g., deficiencies in the critical study) that are not adequately covered by the standard Uncertainty Factors. 1. Agent HD (Sulfur Mustard). RfDe = 7 x 10(-6) mg kg-1 d-1. A LOAEL was identified in a two-generation reproductive toxicity study conducted in rats. A total uncertainty factor of 3000 was applied to account for protection of sensitive subpopulations (10), animal-to-human extrapolation (10), LOAEL-to-NOAEL extrapolation (3), and extrapolation from a subchronic to chronic exposure (10). A LOAEL-to-NOAEL UF of 3, instead of the default value of 10, was used because the critical effect (stomach lesions) was considered to be "mild" in severity and may have been enhanced by the vehicle used (sesame oil in which sulfur mustard is fully soluble) and the route of administration (gavage), which is more likely to result in localized irritant effects. The key study did identify a toxic effect that is consistent with the vesicant properties of sulfur mustard. In none of the other available studies was there any indication of a different effect occurring at a lower exposure level.

    Title Results of Esophageal Biopsies Performed During Triple Endoscopy in the Pediatric Patient.
    Date June 1998
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic examination (direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy) is the method of choice for diagnosis of respiratory symptoms of unknown cause in children. However, gastroesophageal reflux is being recognized increasingly often as a cause of pediatric respiratory symptoms and is difficult to diagnose on the basis of findings from direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy. In cases in which gastroesophageal reflux was included in the differential diagnosis, we additionally performed esophagoscopy with esophageal mucosal biopsies. OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of routinely performing esophageal biopsies during triple endoscopy in children. METHODS: Twenty-four children ranging in age from 2 weeks to 10 years were referred for airway evaluation. Under general anesthesia, children underwent direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy with mucosal biopsy. RESULTS: Esophageal mucosa biopsy specimens were quickly and safely obtained during endoscopic evaluation. There were no complications. Reflux esophagitis was present in 54% of biopsy specimens, as suggested by basal cell hyperplasia, papillary elongation, and/or inflammatory cell infiltrates. CONCLUSION: Gastroesophageal reflux is often difficult to diagnose in the pediatric population. When direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy is performed during examination of the child with airway symptoms, the addition of esophagoscopy with mucosal biopsies will safely and quickly provide data regarding the potential contribution of gastroesophageal reflux.

    Title Noncancer Inhalation Toxicology of Crystalline Silica: Exposure-response Assessment.
    Date September 1997
    Journal Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology

    Silicosis from inhalation of silica has long been recognized as an occupational hazard. Concern has arisen regarding the potential risk of silicosis from ambient silica (primarily quartz dust). This presentation reviews available data regarding ambient silica levels and estimates of the risk of silicosis at low exposure levels as they relate to the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter. Current data indicate that for individuals not compromised by other respiratory ailments and for ambient environments expected to sustain 10% or less silica fraction in particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter of < or = 10 microns (PM10), maintenance of the 50 micrograms/m3 annual NAAQS for PM10 is adequate to protect against fibrotic effects from ambient silica exposures. Issues such as the large divergence of risk estimates within the occupational setting (particularly at high cumulative exposures) and factors to consider for extrapolating risk in an occupational setting to risk from ambient exposure are discussed.

    Title Association of Protein Kinase Ck2 with Nuclear Matrix: Influence of Method of Preparation of Nuclear Matrix.
    Date May 1997
    Journal Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

    Nuclear matrix (NM) plays a role of fundamental structural and functional significance as the site of replication, transcription, and RNA processing and transport, acting as an anchor or attachment site for a variety of enzymes and other proteins involved in these activities. We have previously documented that protein kinase CK2 translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus, where it associates preferentially with chromatin and NM, in response to certain growth stimuli. Considering that characteristics of the isolated NM can depend on the procedural employed for its isolation, we compared three standard methods for NM preparation to confirm the association of intrinsic CK2 with this structure. Our data suggest that the method used for isolating the NM can qualitatively influence the measurable NM-associated CK2. However, all three methods employed yielded qualitatively similar results with respect to the stimulus-mediated modulation of NM-associated CK2, thus further supporting the notion that NM is an important site for physiologically relevant functions of CK2. In addition, core filaments and cytoskeleton that were isolated by two of the preparative methods had a small but significant level of associated CK2 activity.

    Title Nuclear Matrix Proteins As Malignant Markers in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.
    Date April 1997
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that transformation of normal upper aerodigestive mucosa to squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is associated with specific changes in nuclear matrix (NM) proteins. DESIGN: Retrospective, nonrandomized investigation using a cellular fractionation sequence followed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of NM proteins. SUBJECTS: Nuclear matrix proteins were extracted from a cohort of 12 pathologic SCCHN specimens and 5 normal specimens of oropharyngeal mucosa. RESULTS: All SCCHN specimens examined expressed 11 NM proteins that were not detected in normal mucosa. Conversely, at least 4 NM proteins that were expressed by all specimens of normal mucosa were absent from all SCCHN tumors. Seven NM proteins were common to carcinomas and normal specimens. Spindle cell histological variants of squamous cell carcinoma had distinct NM patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Malignant transformation of normal upper aerodigestive mucosa to SCCHN is associated with specific changes in NM composition. These data suggest that different NM proteins might serve as specific tumor markers.

    Title Nuclear Matrix As an Anchor for Protein Kinase Ck2 Nuclear Signalling.
    Date December 1996
    Journal Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

    Nuclear matrix (NM) is not only the structural basis for nuclear shape but also is intimately involved in nuclear functional activities. Among the modulatory factors that may affect these diverse activities are the signals that may influence the state or composition of the NM proteins. One such mechanism for altering the functional activity of at least some NM proteins may be the extent of their phosphorylation. Protein kinase CK2 appears to associate with NM and to phosphorylate a number of NM-associated proteins. Chromatin- and NM-associated CK2 is rapidly modulated by mitogenic signals. We propose that NM serves as a physiological anchor for nuclear signalling of protein kinase CK2 which may influence functions of NM such as transcription of active genes and growth.

    Title Quantitative Image Analysis of Hiv-1 Infection in Lymphoid Tissue.
    Date December 1996
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)

    Tracking human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection at the cellular level in tissue reservoirs provides opportunities to better understand the pathogenesis of infection and to rationally design and monitor therapy. A quantitative technique was developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid tissues. Image analysis and in situ hybridization were combined to show that in the presymptomatic stages of infection there is a large, relatively stable pool of virions on the surfaces of follicular dendritic cells and a smaller pool of productively infected cells. Despite evidence of constraints on HIV-1 replication in the infected cell population in lymphoid tissues, estimates of the numbers of these cells and the virus they could produce are consistent with the quantities of virus that have been detected in the bloodstream. The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment.

    Title Outpatient Biopsies of the Palatine Tonsil: Access to Lymphoid Tissue for Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Rna Titers.
    Date July 1996
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery

    OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the feasibility of using tonsillar lymphoid biopsy specimens obtained on an outpatient basis to quantitate a patient's lymphoid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA titers. DESIGN: A pilot cohort study was performed. PATIENTS: We evaluated ten HIV-seropositive patients who ranged in age from 26 to 48 years and had CD4+ cell counts ranging from 110 to 833 at enrollment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were tolerance and safety of outpatient tonsil biopsies and quantitation of HIV RNA titers in tonsillar lymphoid biopsy specimens, plasma, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells determined by a new method of HIV RNA signal amplification with branched DNA probes. RESULTS: Outpatient tonsil biopsies were well tolerated and were performed without complications. Nine of 10 tonsil biopsies from the HIV-seropositive patients examined were positive for significant concentrations of HIV RNA, ranging from 106 to 101 HIV RNA equivalents per gram of tissue. All of the HIV RNA-positive tonsillar lymphoid specimens had HIV RNA titers that were 101 to 104 times greater than those recovered from plasma (per milliliter) of the same patient obtained at the time of biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Sufficient tonsillar tissue can be obtained in an outpatient clinic setting to quantitate lymphoid HIV titers by the new branched-DNA signal amplification method with relative ease and without complication. The biopsy method described here affords ready access to the lymphoreticular system, which may help to advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of myriad immune diseases without the need for excisional node biopsies.

    Title Elevated Protein Kinase Ck2 Activity in Chromatin of Head and Neck Tumors: Association with Malignant Transformation.
    Date June 1996
    Journal Cancer Letters

    We hypothesized that malignant transformation of normal mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract to squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) might be associated with altered CK2 activity in the chromatin compartment of these tumors. We measured CK2 activity in the cytosol and chromatin of 7 surgical specimens of SCCHN, and 5 specimens of normal oropharyngeal mucosa from non-smokers/non-drinkers. CK2 activity in SCCHN tumors was significantly elevated in both the nuclear chromatin (P < 0.0005) and cytosolic (P <0.04) compartments relative to normal mucosa. These data suggest that activation of dysregulation of the chromatin-associated CK2 signal may play a role in the pathobiology od SCCHN.

    Title Association of Elevated Protein Kinase Ck2 Activity with Aggressive Behavior of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.
    Date January 1996
    Journal Molecular Medicine (cambridge, Mass.)

    BACKGROUND: Protein kinase CK2 (also known as casein kinase 2) is a messenger-independent protein serine/threonine kinase ubiquitously distributed in eukaryotes. CK2 has been found to phosphorylate a wide variety of cytosolic and nuclear substrates which are intimately involved in regulation of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, and differentiation. We therefore addressed the hypothesis that malignant transformation of upper aerodigestive tract mucosa to squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) might be associated with altered CK2 activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To this end, we subjected surgical specimens of SCCHN tumors and of normal oropharyngeal mucosa to subcellular fractionation. We then quantitated CK2 activity in cytosol and nuclei of these specimens using a CK2-specific peptide substrate (Arg-Arg-Arg-Glu-Glu-Glu-Thr-Glu-Glu-Glu). RESULTS: We found that CK2 activity was significantly elevated in both nuclear (p < 0.0005) and cytosolic (p < 0.0034) compartments of SCCHN tumors, relative to normal oropharyngeal mucosa. Moreover, CK2 activity in the cellular cytosolic fraction of SCCHN tumors was associated with less differentiated histologic grade (p < 0.037), positive nodal metastatic status (p < 0.056), and a poor clinical outcome (p < 0.028). Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival analysis revealed greatly reduced survival in the high-CK2 activity patient group, with high statistical significance (p < 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data reveal that malignant transformation of the upper aerodigestive tract mucosa is associated with altered CK2 activity. The results further suggest that dysregulation of this protein kinase may play a significant role in the pathobiology of SCCHN, and that CK2 activity may be a prognostic indicator in this malignancy.

    Title Regulation of Ltp-i Secretion from Human Monocyte-derived Macrophages by Differentiation and Cholesterol Accumulation in Vitro.
    Date April 1990
    Journal Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

    Human macrophages in vitro synthesize and secrete the cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer protein, LTP-I. The effect of differentiation of monocyte-to-macrophage on the synthesis and secretion of LTP-I cholesteryl ester transfer activity was investigated. One marker of macrophage differentiation is expression of the 'scavenger' receptor, which mediates macrophage uptake and degradation of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Monocytes secreted very little detectable CE transfer activity in the first 24 h following cell isolation. Both CE transfer activity and scavenger receptor activity increased with time in culture. Thus, although circulating monocytes probably do not secrete CE transfer activity, tissue macrophages such as hepatic Kupffer cells may contribute to plasma CE transfer activity. Resident macrophages of the arterial wall are derived from circulating monocytes which enter the vessel wall where they differentiate into macrophages. Such macrophages are the principal source of lipid-laden foam cells of the atherosclerotic plaque. Cholesterol accumulation results when uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol overwhelms the capacity of macrophages to excrete cholesterol. Since LTP-I is postulated to function in reverse cholesterol transport, the effect on LTP-I secretion of loading macrophages with cholesterol was determined after exposure of macrophages to acetylated-LDL or free cholesterol (FC). Cholesterol loading by both these maneuvers resulted in dose-dependent increases in macrophage secretion of CE transfer activity, and there was a significant positive correlation between CE transfer activity secreted and accumulation of CE. Thus, LTP-I may function at the cellular level in maintenance of lipid homeostasis: macrophage LTP-I secretion may be a protective mechanism in response to excess cholesterol accumulation in resident macrophages of the arterial wall.

    Title Secretion of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein-lipoprotein Complexes by Human Hepg2 Hepatocytes.
    Date June 1989
    Journal Atherosclerosis

    We have employed immunoaffinity chromatography to characterize the distribution of cholesteryl ester transfer activity in particles secreted by HepG2 hepatocytes. HepG2-secreted cholesteryl ester transfer activity is associated with apoprotein (apo) A-I (58%) as well as apo A-II (55%), and is not associated with apo B or E. In contrast, our previous studies have shown that most (88%) cholesteryl ester transfer activity in human plasma is associated with apo A-I whereas very little (7%) is associated with apo A-II. Thus, the distribution of cholesteryl ester transfer activity in plasma particles likely reflects active remodeling of nascent particles in the plasma compartment. Further data suggested that HepG2 cells secrete a lipid transfer inhibitor activity which is associated with apo E-containing lipoprotein particles. This inhibitory activity is heat labile.

    Title Plasma Cholesteryl Ester and Phospholipid Transfer Proteins and Their Regulation.
    Date March 1989
    Journal Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
    Title Regulated Vectorial Secretion of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (ltp-i) by the Caco-2 Model of Human Enterocyte Epithelium.
    Date July 1988
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    We have investigated the human CaCo-2 enterocyte model for secretion of the plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein, LTP-I. CaCo-2 cells secrete a cholesteryl ester transfer protein which possesses molecular identity with plasma LTP-I, demonstrated by anti-LTP-I immunoblot analysis and immunoinhibition of all cell-secreted cholesteryl ester transfer activity. When CaCo-2 are cultured on permeable membranes, cholesteryl ester transfer activity is detected only in the lower culture compartment. Thus, CaCo-2 vectorially sort and secrete LTP-I, as well as the intestinal apolipoproteins, from the basolateral cellular domain. Over a 24-h period, CaCo-2 secrete cholesteryl ester transfer activity in a time-dependent manner, at approximately twice the rate of HepG2. Furthermore, CaCo-2 enterocytes, but not HepG2 hepatocytes, regulate LTP-I secretion in response to fatty acid concentration in the culture medium. Based on these observations, we speculate that the intestine may be the principal regulated source of human plasma LTP-I.

    Title Synthesis and Secretion of Plasma Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein by Human Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line, Hepg2.
    Date June 1987
    Journal Arteriosclerosis (dallas, Tex.)

    We have examined the synthesis, secretion, and functional and physical characteristics of a lipid transfer protein synthesized by a human hepatocellular carcinoma line. We found that this protein shares immunochemical determinants and many other properties with the lipid transfer protein, LTP-I, which has been purified from human plasma. We conclude that the human liver cell line, HepG2, synthesizes and secretes LTP-I. Thus, hepatocytes may be the source of LTP-I in human plasma.

    Title Tetanus: 2,449 Cases in 68 Years at Charity Hospital.
    Date March 1977
    Journal The Journal of Trauma

    The 68-year Charity Hospital experience with tetanus has been reviewed with particular emphasis on the past 8 years. There were 2,449 cases treated at Charity Hospital from 1906 through 1974. The mortality rate has remained high. There were 24 cases in the past 8 years, with a 58% case fatality rate. Clues to our high mortality rate could be: 1) many cases with a short period of onset, 2) none of our 24 cases received treatment at time of injury, and 3) there were more severe cases, as judged by the high rate of need for tracheostomy. The method of management emphasizes: 1) wound care, 2) neutralization of the toxin, 3) antibiotic therapy, 4) supportive measures including good nursing care with control of convulsions and seizures, and 5) completion of active immunization. Prophylaxis is stressed, with particular emphasis on wound debridement and toxoid. The decreasing incidence of the disease is encouraging, probably related directly to proper immunization. However, the mortality rate remains high and the solution to the problem of tetanus is still prophylaxis. Epidemiologic considerations were discussed with particular emphasis on tetanus in the five Gulf States, the South in general, and the decreasing incidence in endemic areas.

    Title Management and Tetanus Prophylaxis in the Treatment of Puncture Wounds.
    Date June 1972
    Journal The American Surgeon
    Title Tetanus at Charity Hospital, New Orleans, La. (collection of Cases from 1962 to 1966).
    Date October 1968
    Journal Surgery
    Title Pellegrini-stieda Syndrome: Report of 44 Cases Followed from Original Injury.
    Date April 1968
    Journal Southern Medical Journal
    Title Robotic Surgical Technique for Pediatric Laryngotracheal Reconstruction.
    Journal Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America

    The attributes of robotic technology-steady, precise movements and untiring action in difficult positions and confined spaces-are well suited to surgical procedures that benefit from these qualities. Ironically, the introduction of robotic technology to the specialty of otolaryngology has been limited by the same anatomic constraints that make the technology so appealing: the anatomic areas that currently are accessed using minimally invasive endoscopic methods can be too small to accommodate the robotic apparatus. This article focuses on the authors' experience using the da Vinci robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, California).

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