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Education ?

Medical School Score
Kansas City University of Medicine (2005)

Affiliations ?

Dr. Kennedy is affiliated with 5 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations



  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - St. Paul
    5909 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    Top 25%
  • Children's Medical Center of Dallas
    1935 Motor St, Dallas, TX 75235
    Top 25%
  • Parkland Health & Hospital System
    5201 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
  • Children S Medical Center
  • Parkland
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Kennedy has contributed to 26 publications.
    Title Physiological Improvements and Health Benefits During an Exercise-based Comprehensive Rehabilitation Program in Medically Complex Patients.
    Date March 2007
    Journal Exercise Immunology Review

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of an exercise-based comprehensive rehabilitation program on the physiological, health, and cost benefit in medically complex patients. DESIGN: Case series SETTING: Comprehensive rehabilitation centers. PARTICIPANTS: Elderly chronically ill men (n = 39, age = 75.3 +/- 1.4) and women (n = 74, age = 76.5 +/- 0.9 years). INTERVENTION: Patients participated in individualized physical therapy with therapeutic exercises (stretching, strengthening, endurance, balance, sitting and standing dynamic exercises) three times/week for three months under the supervision of a physician. MEASUREMENTS: Upper (back) and lower (leg flexors) extremity strength, aerobic power as measured by metabolic equivalents (METS) at 80% of age predicted maximal heart rate (APMHR), physical functioning and mental health as assessed by the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire, and medical events (falls, physician visits, and hospitalizations) questionnaire was collected at baseline and after three months of the program. RESULTS: Strength measures improved by approximately 30% (P < 0.05) as well as aerobic power improved by approximately 25% (P < 0.05) over the three-month period. There were significant improvements in two of the SF-36 Physical Component Scales: Physical Functioning (P < 0.05) and Role Physical (P < 0.05); plus, there were significant improvements in all four of the Mental Component Scales: Vitality (P < 0.05), Social Functioning (P < 0.05), Role Emotional (P < 0.05), and Mental Health (P < 0.05). There were significant reductions in fall rate (P < 0.05), physician visits (P < 0.05), and hospitalizations (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients improve physical capacity, which result in improvements in health status with concurrent reductions in healthcare utilization during a comprehensive rehabilitation program.

    Title Sexual Dimorphism of the Intracellular Heat Shock Protein 72 Response.
    Date September 2006
    Journal Journal of Applied Physiology (bethesda, Md. : 1985)

    The majority of previous work examining stress responses has been done in males. Recently, it has become clear that the impact of stressor exposure is modulated by sex. One stress response that may be affected by sex is the induction of intracellular heat shock protein (HSP) 72, which is a stress- responsive molecular chaperone that refolds denatured proteins and promotes cellular survival. The following study compared HSP72 in males and females and also examined whether the estrous cycle altered HSP72 induction in females. We hypothesized that females compared with males would have a constrained HSP72 response after an acute stressor and that the stress-induced HSP72 response in females would fluctuate with the estrous cycle. Male and female F344 rats were either left in their home cage or exposed to acute tail-shock stress (8-10/group). Immediately following stressor, trunk blood was collected and tissues were flash frozen. Vaginal smear and estrogen enzyme immunoassay were used to categorize the phase of estrous. Results show that female rats had a greater corticosterone response than males, that both males and females exhibit a stress-induced release of progesterone, and that males and females had equal levels of stress-induced circulating norepinephrine. Sexual dimorphism of the HSP72 (ELISA) response existed in pituitary gland, mesenteric lymph nodes, and liver such that female rats had an attenuated HSP72 response compared with males after stress. The adrenal glands, spleen, and heart did not exhibit sexual dimorphism of the HSP72 response. The estrous cycle did not have a significant effect on basal or stress-induced HSP72 in females.

    Title Catecholamines Mediate Stress-induced Increases in Peripheral and Central Inflammatory Cytokines.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Neuroscience

    Proinflammatory cytokines act at receptors in the CNS to alter physiological and behavioral responses. Exposure to stressors increases both peripheral and central proinflammatory cytokines, yet the mechanism(s) of induction remain unknown. Experiments here examined the role of catecholamines in the in vivo induction of proinflammatory cytokines following tailshock stress. Rats were pretreated i.p. with 2.0 mg/kg prazosin (alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist), 10.0 mg/kg propranolol (beta-adrenoceptor antagonist), or 5.0 mg/kg labetalol (alpha1- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) 30 min prior to tailshock exposure and plasma interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-6, along with tissue interleukin-1beta from the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and pituitary were measured immediately following stressor termination. Prazosin attenuated stress-induced plasma IL-1beta and IL-6, but had no effect on tissue IL-1beta levels, while propranolol attenuated plasma IL-6 and blocked tissue IL-1beta elevation, and labetalol, which cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, attenuated plasma IL-1beta and IL-6, blocked pituitary IL-1beta, but had no effect on central tissue IL-1beta levels. Furthermore, administration of 50.0 mg/kg N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride, a neurotoxin that lesions neural projections from the locus coeruleus, prevented stress-induced elevation in hippocampal IL-1beta, a region highly innervated by the locus coeruleus, but had no effect on hypothalamic IL-1beta, a region that receives few locus coeruleus projections. Finally, i.p. injection of 5.0 mg/kg isoproterenol (beta-adrenoceptor agonist) was sufficient to induce circulating IL-1 and IL-6, and tissue IL-1beta. These data suggest catecholamines play an important role in the induction of stress-induced proinflammatory cytokines and that beta-adrenoceptors are critical for tissue IL-1beta induction, while both alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors contribute to the induction of plasma cytokines.

    Title Adrenergic Receptors Mediate Stress-induced Elevations in Extracellular Hsp72.
    Date December 2005
    Journal Journal of Applied Physiology (bethesda, Md. : 1985)

    Heat-shock protein concentrations in the blood increase after exposure to a variety of stressors, including trauma and psychological stress. Although the physiological function of extracellular heat shock protein remains controversial, there is evidence that extracellular heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) can facilitate immunologic responses. The signal(s) that mediate(s) the in vivo elevation of extracellular Hsp72 in the blood after stressor exposure remain(s) unknown. Here we report that Hsp72 increases in the circulation via an alpha1-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Activation of alpha1-adrenoceptors results in a rapid increase in circulating Hsp72, and blockade of alpha1-adrenoceptors prevents the stress-induced rise in circulating Hsp72. Furthermore, our studies exclude a role for beta-adrenoceptors, glucocorticoids, and ACTH in mediating stress-induced elevations in circulating extracellular Hsp72. Understanding the signals involved in elevating extracellular Hsp72 could facilitate the use of extracellular Hsp72 to bolster immunity and perhaps prevent exacerbation of inflammatory diseases during stress.

    Title Resting Cellular and Physiological Effects of Freewheel Running.
    Date December 2005
    Journal Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

    INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Exercise modulates many aspects of physiology. The purpose of the current experiment was to characterize the impact of regular, moderate physical activity on resting, baseline measures of cellular immunity blood lipids, and muscle enzyme. METHODS: Male Fischer 344 rats were housed with either mobile (run, N = 10) or immobile (sedentary, N = 10) running wheels. After 4 wk of running, rats were sacrificed. Blood and muscle (long and medial heads of the triceps) were collected. From blood, white blood cell (WBC) differentials, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and lipid profiles were measured. Muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity was measured by spectrophotometric analysis. RESULTS: Rats ran an average of 9.89 +/- 0.79 km.wk(-1). There were no differences in the total number of circulating WBC, RBC, or eosinophils. Freewheel running decreased the number of circulating neutrophils (P < 0.001), monocytes (P < 0.01), and basophils (P < 0.01), while increasing the number of lymphocytes (P < 0.001), when compared with sedentary animals. Mean corpuscular content of hemoglobin was elevated in the freewheel group (P < 0.01). Physically active animals had slightly lower triglycerides and LDL, and elevated HDL. These changes resulted in a significant improvement in LDL/HDL ratio (P < 0.05). Muscle CS activity was unchanged between groups. CONCLUSION: Both the alterations in the RBC hemoglobin and lipid proteins are positive health changes associated with exercise training. The impact of the alterations in WBC differentials remains unknown but could indicate a reduction in inflammatory load. In conclusion, freewheel running provides sufficient exercise stimulus to produce some, but not all, training associated physiological adaptations.

    Title Splenic Norepinephrine Depletion Following Acute Stress Suppresses in Vivo Antibody Response.
    Date September 2005
    Journal Journal of Neuroimmunology

    Exposure to an intense acute stressor immediately following immunization leads to a reduction in anti-KLH IgM, IgG, and IgG2a, but not IgG1. Stress also depletes splenic norepinephrine (NE) content. Immunization during pharmacological (alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine) or stress-induced splenic NE depletion results in antibody suppression similar to that found in rats immunized prior to stressor exposure. Prevention of splenic NE depletion during stress by tyrosine, but not pharmacological elevation (mirtazapine) of NE, resulted in normal antibody responses. These data support the hypothesis that splenic NE depletion is necessary and sufficient for stress-induced suppression of antibody to a T-cell dependent antigen.

    Title Influence of Age and Physical Activity on the Primary in Vivo Antibody and T Cell-mediated Responses in Men.
    Date January 2005
    Journal Journal of Applied Physiology (bethesda, Md. : 1985)

    The aging immune system is characterized by the progressive decline in the antibody and T cell-mediated responses to antigen. Little is known, however, about the benefits of exercise in aging on the generation of a primary immune response to antigen and the subsequent antibody and memory T cell-mediated response. Most in vivo immune research to date has utilized vaccines or recall antigens to elicit an immune response. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to examine the association of aging and physical activity on the primary antibody and T cell response to the novel protein antigen keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Forty-six physically active and sedentary, young (20-35 yr) and older (60-79 yr) men were recruited. Subjects were intramuscularly immunized with 100 microg of KLH, and blood samples were collected at days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Samples were measured for anti-KLH IgM, IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 by ELISA. On day 21 after intramuscular KLH administration, subjects received an intradermal injection with 1 microg of KLH of inflammation recorded at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h to assess anti-KLH delayed-type hypersensitivity response. There was a significant reduction in all anti-KLH measures with aging except for anti-KLH IgG2. The physically active older group had significantly higher anti-KLH IgM, IgG, IgG1, and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, but not IgG2 compared with the sedentary older group. In conclusion, regular physical activity in older men is associated with a more robust immune response to novel antigenic challenge.

    Title The Mentally Ill and Social Exclusion: a Critical Examination of the Use of Seclusion from the Patient's Perspective.
    Date November 2004
    Journal Issues in Mental Health Nursing

    Nurses in psychiatric settings have an important role to play in the application of seclusion, a measure that continues to be a frequently used intervention for the management of disturbing patient behaviours. Albeit a controversial measure, isolating patients remains a common institutional practice that has received widespread attention from a political, ethical, legal, and clinical standpoint. Although there is an abundance of scientific work on the subject, few studies have examined the experience of patients being confined. In order to improve the quality of nursing care surrounding this measure it appeared essential to obtain data on patients' perspectives, information deemed valuable in orienting nursing interventions. This qualitative study, guided by a phenomenological research design, aimed at describing and gaining a better understanding of patients with a severe and persistent psychiatric disorder who were placed in a seclusion room while hospitalized on a closed psychiatric unit. Using a semi-structured, non-directive interview format, a total of six patients participated in this study. Content analysis of participants' narratives yielded three main themes that appeared to be central to their experience of seclusion: their experience of seclusion on an emotional level, their perception of this intervention, and how they coped during their stay in the seclusion room. Major findings emerging from this nursing study centred on the following dimensions: patients' perceptions of seclusion as a punitive measure and a modality for social control and, the experience of seclusion serving as an intensification of already existing feelings of exclusion, rejection, abandonment, and isolation. In addition the findings also suggest that it is not seclusion per se that impacts on their negative perception and negative emotional experience but rather the lack of nurse-patient contact during the seclusion experience. Furthermore, whether patients coped by regressing, acting out, or taking on a more compliant stance, they appeared to be motivated by a need to connect with staff. This points to the importance of the relational aspects of nursing care when applying this restrictive measure. A need for modifying the institutional culture surrounding seclusion and transforming nursing practices are discussed as are future research endeavours.

    Title Alterations in Enzymes Involved in Fat Metabolism After Acute and Chronic Altitude Exposure.
    Date March 2001
    Journal Journal of Applied Physiology (bethesda, Md. : 1985)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute (24 h) and chronic (5 wk) hypobaric hypoxic exposure equivalent to a simulated altitude of 4,300 m (446 mmHg) on the enzymes of fat metabolism. Heart, liver, and skeletal muscle were taken from 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Altitude exposure did not affect the activity of citrate synthase in any of the tissues, suggesting that mitochondrial content was unchanged. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) activity was significantly reduced in the heart by both acute and chronic high altitude exposure compared with controls. A similar reduction was found for CPT-I activity in extensor digitorum longus after acute and chronic exposure compared with control animals. CPT-I activity was not affected by altitude exposure in the soleus muscle or the liver. 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity was significantly depressed in the hearts of chronically exposed animals compared with controls. No difference between acute and control animals was found in the heart for beta-HAD activity. Liver beta-HAD activity was also significantly decreased in the acclimatized as well as in the acute animals compared with the control group. Quadriceps beta-HAD activity was reduced for the chronic animals only compared with controls. These data suggest that acclimatization to high altitude selectively decreases key enzymes in fat utilization and oxidation in the heart, liver, and select skeletal muscles.

    Title Functional Gamma-secretase Inhibitors Reduce Beta-amyloid Peptide Levels in Brain.
    Date February 2001
    Journal Journal of Neurochemistry

    Converging lines of evidence implicate the beta-amyloid peptide (Ass) as causative in Alzheimer's disease. We describe a novel class of compounds that reduce A beta production by functionally inhibiting gamma-secretase, the activity responsible for the carboxy-terminal cleavage required for A beta production. These molecules are active in both 293 HEK cells and neuronal cultures, and exert their effect upon A beta production without affecting protein secretion, most notably in the secreted forms of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Oral administration of one of these compounds, N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester, to mice transgenic for human APP(V717F) reduces brain levels of Ass in a dose-dependent manner within 3 h. These studies represent the first demonstration of a reduction of brain A beta in vivo. Development of such novel functional gamma-secretase inhibitors will enable a clinical examination of the A beta hypothesis that Ass peptide drives the neuropathology observed in Alzheimer's disease.

    Title Requests for Assisted Suicide: a Nursing Issue.
    Date March 1998
    Journal Nursing Ethics

    At the heart of the debate over assisted suicide is the recognition that not all persons can be healed and not all suffering can be relieved. This article addresses the ethical, professional and legal issues to be considered by the nurses in the United States who are facing patients' requests for assisted suicide. Both personal and professional risks, and the consequences of an action must be evaluated. Ultimately, a decision is based on some ranking of patient values; personal values and beliefs; professional codes, standards and other guidelines; and societal laws and regulations.

    Title Synchronous Multicentric Osteosarcoma: the Case for Metastases.
    Date December 1997
    Journal Skeletal Radiology

    OBJECTIVE: There is a current debate whether multicentric osteosarcoma represents synchronous multiple primary osteosarcomas or metastatic disease. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the etiology, presentation, and classification of this entity. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Six patients ranging in age from 7 to 29 years were studied. The clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings are reported. In addition, a review of the literature was undertaken. RESULTS: The clinical courses of our six patients as well as a review of the literature suggest that multicentric osteosarcoma represent one extreme of a continuous scale of metastatic osteosarcoma rather than multiple synchronous primary tumors. The presentation is unusual and the clinical behavior distinctive, but the mechanism of spread remains the same: blood-borne and lymphatic-borne. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience with these six patients supports the concept in the recent literature that synchronous osteosarcoma is one extreme of the spectrum of metastatic osteosarcoma. Its unique features are: (1) multiple radiodense lesions that present simultaneously with or without pulmonary metastases; (2) a single "dominant" lesion with multiple smaller lesions; and (3) a uniformly rapid, fatal prognosis. Osteosarcoma should be regarded as a metastatic disease, even when only a single primary lesion is found at the initial presentation.

    Title Brain Levels of Neuropeptide Y in Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis.
    Date May 1993
    Journal Molecular and Chemical Neuropathology / Sponsored by the International Society for Neurochemistry and the World Federation of Neurology and Research Groups on Neurochemistry and Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is found in high concentrations in several regions of the brain including nuclei of the brain stem and in nerve fibers surrounding cerebral vessels, has been proposed to play a role in regulating cerebral blood flow (CBF) and systemic vegetative functions. Since CBF is altered during meningitis, we examined whether NPY concentrations changed in various regions of the rabbit brain in response to experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Changes were most pronounced in the medulla, where NPY concentration increased threefold after 48 h of infection. Concomitantly, there was an increase in NPY immunoreactive fibers surrounding small vessels in the dorsolateral medulla, especially in the nucleus tractus solitarius. These results suggest that NPY may play a role in inducing some of the hemodynamic changes seen during pneumococcal meningitis.

    Title Toxicity in Neuronal Cells Caused by Cerebrospinal Fluid from Pneumococcal and Gram-negative Meningitis.
    Date November 1992
    Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases

    To identify neurotoxic factors in meningitis, a neuronal cell line (HN33.1) was exposed to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from rabbits with pneumococcal meningitis or Escherichia coli meningitis or 2 h and 6 h after meningitis was induced by proinflammatory bacterial products (pneumococcal cell walls, endotoxin). CSF from all types of meningitis induced similar degrees of cytotoxicity. When a soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor that completely blocked TNF-mediated toxicity at 10(-7) M was used, all toxicity in meningitis caused by E. coli, endotoxin, or pneumococcal cell wall administration (2 h afterwards) was mediated by TNF. In contrast, CSF from animals with meningitis caused by live pneumococci or pneumococcal cell wall injection (6 h afterwards) retained cytotoxicity in the presence of the TNF receptor. Thus, in established pneumococcal meningitis, but not in the other forms of meningitis, TNF is not the only component toxic in this neuronal cell line.

    Title Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis Causes Central Nervous System Pathology Without Inducing the 72-kd Heat Shock Protein.
    Date August 1992
    Journal The American Journal of Pathology

    We examined whether experimental pneumococcal meningitis induced the 72-kd heat shock protein (HSP72), a sensitive marker of neuronal stress in other models of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Brain injury was characterized by vasculitis, cerebritis, and abscess formation in the cortex of infected animals. The extent of these changes correlated with the size of the inoculum (P less than 0.003) and with pathophysiologic parameters of disease severity, i.e., cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate (r = 0.61, P less than 0.0001) and CSF glucose concentrations (r = -0.55, P less than 0.0001). Despite the presence of numerous cortical regions having morphologic evidence of injury, HSP72 was not detected in most animals. When present, only rare neurons were HSP72 positive. Western blot analysis of brain samples confirmed the paucity of HSP72 induction. The lack of neuronal HSP72 expression in this model suggests that at least some of the events leading to neuronal injury in meningitis are unique, when compared with CNS diseases associated with HSP72 induction.

    Title Use of Ampicillin-sulbactam for Treatment of Experimental Meningitis Caused by a Beta-lactamase-producing Strain of Escherichia Coli K-1.
    Date January 1992
    Journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    We evaluated the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of ampicillin combined with sulbactam in a rabbit model of meningitis due to a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Escherichia coli K-1. Ceftriaxone was used as a comparison drug. The MIC and MBC were 32 and greater than 64 micrograms/ml (ampicillin), greater than 256 and greater than 256 micrograms/ml (sulbactam), 2.0 and 4.0 micrograms/ml (ampicillin-sulbactam [2:1 ratio, ampicillin concentration]) and 0.125 and 0.25 micrograms/ml (ceftriaxone). All antibiotics were given by intravenous bolus injection in a number of dosing regimens. Ampicillin and sulbactam achieved high concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with higher dose regimens, but only moderate bactericidal activity compared with that of ceftriaxone was obtained. CSF bacterial titers were reduced by 0.6 +/- 0.3 log10 CFU/ml/h with the highest ampicillin-sulbactam dose used (500 and 500 mg/kg of body weight, two doses). This was similar to the bactericidal activity achieved by low-dose ceftriaxone (10 mg/kg), while a higher ceftriaxone dose (100 mg/kg) produced a significant increase in bactericidal activity (1.1 +/- 0.4 log10 CFU/ml/h). It appears that ampicillin-sulbactam, despite favorable CSF pharmacokinetics in animals with meningitis, may be of limited value in the treatment of difficult-to-treat beta-lactamase-producing bacteria, against which the combination shows only moderate in vitro activity.

    Title Evaluation of Piperacillin-tazobactam in Experimental Meningitis Caused by a Beta-lactamase-producing Strain of K1-positive Escherichia Coli.
    Date August 1990
    Journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    We evaluated the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of piperacillin combined with tazobactam, a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor, in experimental meningitis due to a beta-lactamase-producing strain of K1-positive Escherichia coli. Different doses of piperacillin and tazobactam, as single agents and combined (8:1 ratio; dosage range, 40/5 to 200/25 mg/kg per h), and of ceftriaxone were given to experimentally infected rabbits by intravenous bolus injection followed by a 5-h constant infusion. The mean (+/- standard deviation) rates for penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid of infected animals after coadministration of both drugs were 16.6 +/- 8.4% for piperacillin and 32.5 +/- 12.6% for tazobactam. Compared with either agent alone, combination treatment resulted in significantly better bactericidal activity in the cerebrospinal fluid. The bactericidal activity of piperacillin-tazobactam was dose dependent: cerebrospinal fluid bacterial titers were reduced by 0.37 +/- 0.19 log10 CFU/ml per h with the lowest dose versus 0.96 +/- 0.25 log10 CFU/ml per h with the highest dose (P less than 0.001). At the relatively high doses of 160/20 and 200/25 mg of piperacillin-tazobactam per kg per h, the bactericidal activity of the combination was comparable to that of 10 and 25 mg of ceftriaxone per kg per h, respectively.

    Title Loss of Cerebrovascular Autoregulation in Experimental Meningitis in Rabbits.
    Date March 1990
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation

    The present study was designed to determine whether cerebrovascular autoregulation is intact in experimental meningitis and to examine the relationship between fluctuations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Measurements of CBF were determined by the radionuclide microsphere technique in rabbits with experimental Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis with simultaneous ICP monitoring via an implanted epidural catheter. CBF and ICP measurements were determined at baseline and when mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was artificially manipulated by either pharmacologic or mechanical means. CBF was pressure passive with MABP through a range of 30-120 torr, and ICP directly correlated with CBF. These findings indicate that autoregulation of the cerebral circulation is lost during bacterial meningitis, resulting in a critical dependency of cerebral perfusion on systemic blood pressure, and that the parallel changes in ICP and in CBF suggest that fluctuations in CBF may influence intracranial hypertension in this disease.

    Title Evaluation of Fce 22101 in Experimental Meningitis Caused by Escherichia Coli and Streptococcus Pneumoniae.
    Date July 1989
    Journal The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

    FCE 22101 is a new penem antibiotic with a spectrum of activity suggesting a possible role in the empirical treatment of meningitis. It appears to achieve a mean reduction in bacterial titre in CSF comparable with currently accepted agents for both pneumococcal and Escherichia coli meningitis. Its efficacy may, however, be variable. It does not achieve CSF level/MIC ratios as favourable as imipenem for the pathogens studied. Further studies are necessary to determine its role, if any, in this disease.

    Title Prevalence of Panic Attacks in a Nonclinical Sample.
    Date March 1988
    Journal The American Journal of Psychiatry
    Title Using Importance-performance Analysis for Evaluating University Health Services.
    Date October 1987
    Journal Journal of American College Health : J of Ach
    Title Always a Nurse.
    Date May 1981
    Journal Nursing & Health Care : Official Publication of the National League for Nursing
    Title "a Campaign for Men".
    Date April 1981
    Journal Nursing & Health Care : Official Publication of the National League for Nursing
    Title Dental Health Knowledge Tests: Their Development, Implementation and Evaluation.
    Date March 1979
    Journal The Journal of School Health

    The present study discusses the development of dental health knowledge tests as part of an integrated dental health curriculum in the public school system of a rural community. It is part of a large project designed to test the effectiveness of a school-based dental health delivery system. Cognitive measures of dental health were designed to study the relationship of dental health knowledge to oral health behaviors. A review of the literature revealed no suitable dental health knowledge tests for grades K-6; new assessment measures were then developed by project staff. The tests consisted of 14 objectively scored tests--two parallel forms at each of the seven grade levels, K-6, and were administered four times to 1,942 students. Consistently, the tests have demonstrated high reliability estimates and low standard errors of measurement and indicate that the instruments are functioning as parallel forms and measuring the same dental concepts with equal precision.

    Title Establishing Educational Objectives for School Based Dental Health Education Programs.
    Date February 1977
    Journal The Journal of Preventive Dentistry
    Title Role of Central Beta-adrenergic Receptors in Regulating Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses to a Peripheral Bacterial Challenge.
    Journal Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

    Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain have potent effects on altering physiological, behavioral, and cognitive processes. The mechanism(s) by which brain cytokines are induced during a peripheral immune challenge remains unclear since microorganisms/cytokines do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent studies indicate that central beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-ADRs) may mediate brain interleukin-1beta (IL-1) production. This has direct implications for the production of brain cytokines during a peripheral immune response since peripheral pathogens and cytokines rapidly stimulate brainstem catecholamine neurons via peripheral nerves and circumventricular pathways. Studies here examine the role of central beta-ADRs in regulating brain cytokine production following peripheral Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge. Rats were centrally administered propranolol (beta-ADR antagonist) or vehicle followed by peripheral E. coli or saline and sacrificed 6h later for measurement of cytokines. Pre-treatment with propranolol completely blocked the induction of brain IL-1 following E. coli. Surprisingly, central propranolol also attenuated E. coli-induced peripheral cytokines. To examine whether the attenuated peripheral cytokine response following central propranolol administration was due leakage of propranolol into the general circulation and blockade of peripheral beta-blockade, nadolol (beta-ADR antagonist that does not cross the BBB) was administered peripherally prior to E. coli. Nadolol administration did not block central cytokine production following E. coli, but instead enhanced both peripheral and central proinflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, central administration of isoproterenol (beta-ADR agonist) results in a time-dependent increase in brain IL-1 production. These data demonstrate central beta-ADRs may play a critical role to induce brain IL-1, while peripheral beta-ADRs inhibit cytokine response to bacterial challenge.

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