Otolaryngologist (ear, nose, throat)
13 years of experience
Video profile
Accepting new patients
Michigan Heart
18181 Oakwood Blvd
Ste 201
Dearborn, MI 48124
Locations and availability (7)

Education ?

Medical School Score
Northeastern Ohio Universities (1997)
  • Currently 1 of 4 apples

Awards & Distinctions ?

American Academy of Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery
American Board of Otolaryngology

Affiliations ?

Dr. Babu is affiliated with 18 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations



  • St Luke's Hospital
    5901 Monclova Rd, Maumee, OH 43537
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Beaumont Hospital, Grosse Pointe
    468 Cadieux Rd, Grosse Pointe, MI 48230
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • St John Detroit Riverview Hospital
    7733 E Jefferson Ave, Detroit, MI 48214
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Henry Ford Hospital
  • Oakwood Hospital and Medical Center
  • Beaumont Hospital,Troy
  • Royal Oak
  • William Beaumont Hospital
  • Providence Park Hospital
    47601 Grand River Ave, Novi, MI 48374
  • ProMedica North Region-Bixby Campus
  • Providence Hospital and Medical Center
  • Flower Memorial Hospital
  • Oakwood Hospital
  • Flower Hospital
  • Beaumont Affiliation & Years on StaffRoyal Oak
  • Royal Oak (7 Years
  • Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Babu has contributed to 17 publications.
    Title Ductal Carcinoma Arising from Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum in the External Auditory Canal.
    Date November 2007
    Journal Otology & Neurotology : Official Publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
    Title Cerebrovascular Events Associated with Infusion Through Arterially Malpositioned Triple-lumen Catheter: Report of Three Cases and Review of Literature.
    Date May 2006
    Journal Cardiology in Review

    Analysis of 10 adult patients treated from January 1998 to November 2004 for arterial misplacement of triple-lumen catheter (TLC) during internal jugular vein cannulation was performed. Three cases that developed neurologic symptoms occurring in the context of infusion through a TLC that was arterially malpositioned are presented, along with the review of literature. In 7 patients, the diagnosis of arterial misplacement was suspected by the color or flow characteristics of blood and confirmed by a combination of blood gas analysis, connecting catheter to transducer, and/or chest film. In the remaining 3 patients, intraarterial misplacement was not suspected. In these patients, the initial review of chest films by qualified physicians prior to starting infusion failed to detect malposition of the catheter. Retrospectively, subtle clues suggestive of arterially placed TLCs were found. All 3 patients developed neurologic symptoms. Initiation of neurologic workup delayed a correct diagnosis by 6 to >48 hours. A volumetric pump was used for infusion in all patients. Of the 3 patients with neurologic symptoms, 1 recovered completely, 1 became comatose, and 1 partially improved.Based on our observations and review of literature, we conclude that cursory examination of chest films to verify proper positioning of central venous catheter attempted through the internal jugular vein may fail to detect arterial malposition. Infusion by volumetric pump precludes backflow of blood in the intravenous tubing as an indicator. Neurologic symptoms concurrent with the infusion of fluids and medication should raise suspicion of accidental arterial infusion.

    Title Otologic Effects of Topical Mitomycin C: Phase I-evaluation of Ototoxicity.
    Date September 2005
    Journal Otology & Neurotology : Official Publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology

    HYPOTHESIS: To determine ototoxicity of topical mitomycin C when placed in the middle ear at varying concentrations. BACKGROUND: Despite meticulous surgical technique and diligent postoperative care, some patients develop excessive scar and granulation tissue in the middle ear or mastoid cavity. Poor wound healing may result in infection, tympanic membrane perforation, or conductive hearing loss, which may necessitate further surgery. Use of topical mitomycin C in the ear may be beneficial in reducing scar and granulation tissue formation. This phase of the study was developed to determine the safety of topical mitomycin C in the rat model relative to ototoxicity. METHODS: Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated with auditory brainstem response testing before and after treatments. Topical mitomycin C was injected in the middle ear of the right ear of eight animals. Varying concentrations of 0.125 to 0.5 mg/ml were used. Saline was injected in the left ear of each animal to serve as a control. Four separate animals were evaluated with placement of topical mitomycin C on Gelfoam into the middle ear. In two animals, Gelfoam was placed in the middle ear for 1 minute and then removed. In two animals, Gelfoam was placed in the middle ear and left in place. Auditory brainstem response testing was performed at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. RESULTS: Using a high concentration of mitomycin C (>0.25 mg/ml) resulted in ototoxicity, with an increase in the auditory brainstem response threshold at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. At low concentrations (<0.20 mg/ml), no change in auditory brainstem response threshold was noted. Animals treated with Gelfoam soaked in mitomycin C showed no change in auditory brainstem response threshold. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that topical mitomycin C on Gelfoam applied in the middle ear appears safe when low concentrations are used, even in the rat, which has a higher susceptibility to gentamycin toxicity than humans. Higher concentrations may lead to ototoxicity based on changes in Wave V on auditory brainstem response. This treatment may prove to be an important option for patients suffering from chronic granulation tissue or scar tissue in the external or middle ear.

    Title Arterial Misplacement of Large-caliber Cannulas During Jugular Vein Catheterization: Case for Surgical Management.
    Date July 2004
    Journal Journal of the American College of Surgeons

    BACKGROUND: Accidental placement of a large sheath or catheter in an artery during central venous cannulation, though rare, is a potentially devastating complication. The present study reviews our 14-year experience with this complication to determine appropriate role of surgical management. STUDY DESIGN: Review was conducted of all cases involving patients treated by the vascular surgery service from July 1989 to June 2003 for accidental placement of a large-caliber cannula (>or= 7 F) in an artery during catheterization of the jugular vein. Two management techniques were used during this period: removal of cannula followed by application of local pressure; and surgical exploration, removal of cannula under direct vision, and repair of artery. RESULTS: Eleven patients (5 men, 6 women) aged 35 to 73 years (mean age 56 years) were treated for cannulas placed accidentally in an artery. In nine patients, the cannula entered the carotid artery, and in two patients it entered the subclavian artery. Three patients had undergone placement of 8.5-F sheaths for monitoring cardiac hemodynamics, and 8 patients had triple-lumen catheters for fluid infusion or parenteral nutrition. Eight patients (three sheath, five catheter) were asymptomatic at the time of cannula removal. In three patients, the correct diagnosis was missed initially and infusion was started. All three developed neurologic symptoms. In two patients, the cannula (sheath) was pulled and pressure applied. One of them developed a stroke and the other developed a pseudoaneurysm that was treated surgically. Nine patients in whom the sheath or catheter was removed by surgical exploration had no new complications related to surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical management seems to be the most effective and safe treatment of arterial misplacement of cannulas during jugular vein catheterization. Further study is needed to determine the optimum management of this potentially devastating complication.

    Title Popliteal-crural Bypass Through the Posterior Approach with Lesser Saphenous Vein for Limb Salvage.
    Date November 2002
    Journal Journal of Vascular Surgery : Official Publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter

    PURPOSE: A review of popliteal-crural bypasses via the posterior approach was done to evaluate the results of this technique. METHODS: During a period of 36 months, 21 patients with limb-threatening ischemia underwent 21 popliteal-crural bypasses via the posterior approach in the prone position with reversed lesser saphenous vein. All patients had limb-threatening ischemia, with rest pain in five patients, ulceration in nine patients, and gangrene in seven patients. Diabetes mellitus was present in 17 patients. RESULTS: The inflow site was the supragenicular popliteal artery in 12 patients and the infragenicular popliteal artery in nine patients. The outflow sites were the tibioperoneal trunk in five patients, the posterior tibial artery in six patients, the peroneal artery in eight patients, and the anterior tibial artery in two patients. Of the seven patients with gangrene, three patients underwent transmetatarsal amputation and four underwent toe amputation. The limb salvage rate for the entire group was 100% at 24 months. No early graft failures were seen, and the 12-month and 24-month primary graft patency rates were 89% and 77%, respectively, with life-table analysis. The primary assisted patency rate was 95% at 12 and 24 months. Patency was determined with duplex scan graft surveillance. CONCLUSION: The posterior approach to popliteal-distal bypass is an acceptable alternative to traditional bypass procedure with excellent early patency and limb salvage results. The approach has the advantage of better utilization of lesser saphenous vein and easier operative exposure in patients with short segment infrapopliteal occlusive disease.

    Title Malignant Renal Tumor with Extension to the Inferior Vena Cava.
    Date September 1998
    Journal American Journal of Surgery

    BACKGROUND: Management of malignant renal tumors involving the inferior vena cava (IVC) depends on tumor extension within the cava. METHODS: Of 295 patients treated for renal cancer, propagation of tumor mass through the renal vein to IVC was seen in 22 (7%) patients. Cephalad extension of the tumor was suprarenal: infrahepatic in 12, retrohepatic in 6, and within the right atrium in 4 patients. All patients had radical nephrectomy, cavotomy, and complete resection of tumors except 1 with diffuse peritoneal metastasis. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients had curative resections. No operative deaths and no instances of pulmonary embolism or exsanguination occurred. Seventeen patients were alive at 2 years and 12 at 5 years, resulting in 77% and 55% survival rates, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: An aggressive approach for vena cava involvement from malignant renal neoplasms resulted in prevention of tumor embolus, minimization of blood loss, and maintenance of venous return to the heart.

    Title Livedo Reticularis, Rhabdomyolysis, Massive Intestinal Infarction, and Death After Carbon Dioxide Arteriography.
    Date September 1997
    Journal Journal of Vascular Surgery : Official Publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter

    In patients with renal insufficiency or hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast material, carbon dioxide gas (CO2) is generally considered a safe alternative contrast media for digital subtraction angiography. However, we herein report a previously undescribed fatal complication of CO2 angiography in a patient with acute renal dysfunction and congestive heart failure. The possible pathogenetic mechanisms of this complication are discussed.

    Title Changing Patterns of Atheroembolism.
    Date March 1997
    Journal Cardiovascular Surgery (london, England)

    Among 1011 patients undergoing infrarenal aortic and infrainguinal vascular surgery in a 90-month period (1986-1993), 29 patients (2.9%) with clinical, angiographic and pathologic evidence of atheroembolism were identified. Over one-third (44.8%) of atheroemboli were iatrogenic and the rest spontaneous. All iatrogenic atheroemboli were precipitated by angiographic (n = 11; 84.6%) or operative manipulation (n = 2; 15.4%). The sources of emboli were in the abdominal arota (16), iliac (seven) and femoropopliteal (six) arteries. 'Trash foot' occurred in 19 patients (seven bilateral) and occlusions of tibioperoneal/digital arteries were seen in seven, renal and dermal microcirculation in two each, and calf muscles in one. Larger conduits were affected in three instances (common femoral, popliteal and in situ saphenous vein graft). The management consisted of 54 (43 surgical and 11 endovascular) procedures concurrently with thrombolytic, anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy. Three early (10.3%) and two late (6.9%) deaths (overall mortality rate 17.2%), eight major (27.6%) and five minor (17.2%) amputations, and four (13.8%) instances of renal failure occurred in 17 patients resulting in a 58.6% complication rate. Besides initial angiography, 53 invasive procedures were required in 25 patients. Among these, 12 patients could be managed with a single definitive procedure in contrast to a group of 13 patients that required 41 (average 3.2 per patient) procedures. The incidence of foot ischemia, reoperation and amputation was higher in the spontaneous group, whereas, the iatrogenic group incurred a higher incidence of endovascular interventions, greater mortality and new onset renal failure. The high morbidity and mortality of atheroemboli demand prompt recognition and treatment, as well as attempts at prevention to achieve good results.

    Title Preconditioning with Ischemia or Adenosine Protects Skeletal Muscle from Ischemic Tissue Reperfusion Injury.
    Date August 1996
    Journal The Journal of Surgical Research

    Prolonged tissue ischemia and subsequent reperfusion results in significant tissue injury due to the ischemic-reperfusion (IR) syndrome. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) or adenosine (ADO) pretreatment are known to protect IR injury in cardiac muscle. Our aim was to determine whether IPC or ADO pretreatment attenuates and protects against ischemic tissue reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. Rats were anesthetized and global hindlimb ischemia was induced by 60 min of suprarenal aortic clamping followed by 30 min of reperfusion period. The degree of skeletal muscle dysfunction was determined by decreases in maximum contractile force, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP) levels of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. The distal tendon of the EDL was attached to a force transducer for maximum isometric force measurement. Samples were taken from the EDL for measurement of ATP and CP levels. The following were protective protocols prior to the IR challenge: (1) four consecutive 5-min periods of ischemia separated by 5-min reperfusion periods (PC/I) or (2) i.v. adenosine infusion (350 microg/kg/min x 10 min, PC/A). Our data suggest that pretreatment with brief periods of ischemia or systemic ADO infusion attenuates ischemic tissue reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. [Table: see text]

    Title Popliteal Vein Compression Due to Popliteal Artery Aneurysm: Effects of Aneurysm Size.
    Date February 1996
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

    Unlike the venous compression associated with larger popliteal artery aneurysms, which frequently is associated with deep vein thrombosis, the venous compression caused by the moderate sized (greater than 2 cm and less than 3 cm) aneurysms in the reported cases is not associated with thrombosis. The extrinsic compressive effect of these moderate sized popliteal artery aneurysms on the adjacent vein is shown to vary with the patient's leg position. Three of the four patients with unilateral leg swelling discussed here had bilateral popliteal artery aneurysms. In these cases, the contralateral leg had a small popliteal aneurysm (less than 2 cm) and no leg swelling was present. The cases suggest that popliteal artery aneurysm size is an important factor in determining the type of venous obstruction that results from the extrinsic compression of the ipsilateral popliteal vein. The described phenomenon of a popliteal artery aneurysm having the effect of restricting flow in the ipsilateral popliteal vein must be included as a differential diagnosis among the causes of unilateral leg swelling in the absence of deep vein thrombosis.

    Title Acute Aortic Occlusion--factors That Influence Outcome.
    Date May 1995
    Journal Journal of Vascular Surgery : Official Publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in the management of acute aortic occlusion and to analyze factors that influenced the outcome.

    Title Celiac Territory Ischemic Syndrome in Visceral Artery Occlusion.
    Date September 1993
    Journal American Journal of Surgery

    Abdominal angina that is characterized by postprandial pain, and often associated with weight loss, is a well-recognized symptom complex of mesenteric artery insufficiency (mesenteric territory symptoms). In the past 5 years, we have observed six patients with atypical symptoms who had mesenteric artery occlusion combined with stenosis or occlusion of the celiac artery. Atypical symptoms included severe nausea and vomiting at the sight or smell of food, anorexia, weight loss, and right upper quadrant or epigastric discomfort (celiac territory symptoms). An extensive work-up to rule out gastric, pancreatic, biliary, or colonic pathology was undertaken in these patients. The findings included gallbladder dysfunction, diffuse micro-ulceration of gastric mucosa, and colonic mucosal ulceration. The diagnosis of visceral artery occlusion was initially missed in all six patients. Four patients had cholecystectomy. Visceral angiography confirmed occlusion of the celiac, superior, and inferior mesenteric arteries. Five patients had dramatic resolution of symptoms after restoration of visceral circulation. One patient who developed intestinal infarction before revascularization died. Symptoms suggesting upper abdominal visceral pathology may be a manifestation of celiac artery stenosis/occlusion coexisting with mesenteric artery occlusive disease. Visceral angiography should be part of the work-up in these patients for early diagnosis and prompt management.

    Title Use of the Centrifugal Flow Pump for Vena Caval Shunting.
    Date August 1990
    Journal The Annals of Thoracic Surgery

    We have used the Bio-Medicus centrifugal flow pump for vena cava shunting during surgical resection of renal cell carcinoma with extension of the tumor into the inferior vena cava. The active shunt can provide optimal blood return to the heart to promote hemodynamic stability, help provide an isolated field for resection of the involved kidney and its tumor extension into the vena cava, and avoid use of full-dose heparin to minimize blood loss in this extensive operation.

    Title Is Limb Loss Avoidable in Civilian Vascular Injuries?
    Date October 1987
    Journal American Journal of Surgery

    Limb salvage is virtually guaranteed when arterial injury is associated with a gunshot or stab wound. In this setting, associated injury is limited, and arterial injury is uniformly suspected, deliberately sought, and expeditiously repaired. Blunt trauma and massive injuries to the soft tissue, bones, and joints of the extremities augur amputation. In a patient with blunt trauma and loss of distal pulses, liberal, early use of angiography helps to avoid amputations secondary to missed or delayed diagnosis. Deliberate local anticoagulation and effective venous drainage is recommended in the management of dual-complex popliteal injuries. Discriminate amputation merits consideration when arterial trauma is accompanied by massive soft tissue and bony injuries with extensive loss of soft tissue.

    Title Adequacy of Central Hemodynamics Versus Restoration of Circulation in the Survival of Patients with Acute Aortic Thrombosis.
    Date October 1987
    Journal American Journal of Surgery

    Acute aortic thrombosis is an infrequent clinical occurrence, but when it does occur, it is a true cardiovascular catastrophe. Our experience with 34 patients over a 12 year period was reviewed and factors influencing outcome were analyzed. Seventeen women and 17 men had various clinical presentations, although 74 percent of the patients had the classic picture of ischemia. Preoperative assessment of left ventricular function was carried out in all but one patient with intraoperative and perioperative monitoring to guide therapy in addition to revascularization procedures. While extent of the preexisting disease and number of additional operations did influence the outcome, the predominant factor for survival was the left ventricular functional state perioperatively. Fifteen of the 16 patients with adequate left ventricular function survived, whereas 15 of the 17 patients with a failing myocardium died (88 percent). Extraanatomic operations are preferable in patients with demonstrated inadequate left ventricular function. Expeditious restoration of circulation alone does not ensure a favorable outcome. The key to successful therapy is understanding, preventing, and effectively treating the mechanical and metabolic dysfunction of the heart. Review of the literature on acute aortic thrombosis revealed only few isolated case reports except for a recent report of eight patients. Our report of 34 patients over a 12 year period represents the largest experience to date from a single institution. Detailed analysis of hemodynamic parameters and the significance of determination of left ventricular function has not been reported so far in this subset of critically ill patients.

    Title Simultaneous Bilateral Carotid Endarterectomy Operations.
    Date July 1985
    Journal The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery

    Clinical reasoning and sound physiologic data have been the bases for performing bilateral simultaneous carotid endarterectomy operations in 25 patients recently. The results have compared favorably with unilateral carotid endarterectomy operations in 100 patients over the same time span. Thus, there is ample basis for performing operations simultaneously when bilateral carotid endarterectomy operations are indicated.

    Title Safety and Efficacy of Thrombin-jmi: a Multidisciplinary Expert Group Consensus.
    Journal Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis : Official Journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis

    The use of bovine thrombin has been an effective approach to aiding hemostasis during surgery for over 60 years. Its use has a reported association with the development of antibodies to coagulation factors with limited evidence to the clinical significance.

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