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Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
University of Maryland (1997)
Top 50%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Patients' Choice Award (2008 - 2009)
American Board of Internal Medicine

Affiliations ?

Dr. Watkins is affiliated with 6 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations



  • Alaska Regional Hospital
    2801 Debarr Rd, Anchorage, AK 99508
    Top 50%
  • Valley Hospital
    2500 S Woodworth Loop, Palmer, AK 99645
    Top 50%
  • Providence Alaska Medical Center
    PO Box 196604, Anchorage, AK 99519
  • Providence Seward Wesley Care Center
    PO Box 365, Seward, AK 99664
  • Providence Extended Care Center
    4900 Eagle St, Anchorage, AK 99503
  • Mat Su Regional Medical Center
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Watkins has contributed to 19 publications.
    Title Effect of Carbon Tetrabromide on the Morphology of Gaas Nanowires.
    Date August 2011
    Journal Nanotechnology

    Carbon is a commonly used p-type dopant in planar III-V semiconductors, however its use in nanowire (NW) growth has been much less reported. In this work we show that the morphology of gold assisted GaAs NWs can be strongly modified by the presence of CBr(4) vapor during growth by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. GaAs NWs were grown under conditions which result in strong tapering and lateral growth at low growth temperatures by the use of triethylgallium (TEGa) instead of the more usual precursor, trimethylgallium (TMGa). Under these conditions, NWs grown in the presence of CBr(4) exhibit higher axial and lower radial growth rates, and negligible tapering compared with NWs grown in the absence of CBr(4) under the same conditions. We attribute this primarily to the suppression of the 2d growth rate by CBr(4), which enhances the axial growth rate of the nanowires. NWs grown with CBr(4) show stacking-fault-free zincblende structure, while the NWs grown without CBr(4) show a high density of stacking faults. This work underlines the striking effects which precursor chemistry can have on nanowire morphology.

    Title A Phase 2 Study of a Fixed Combination of Uracil and Ftorafur and Leucovorin Given Orally in a Twice-daily Regimen to Treat Patients with Recurrent Metastatic Breast Cancer.
    Date May 2010
    Journal Cancer

    UFT, a combination of uracil and ftorafur, was developed to combine the cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with convenient oral dosing. Leucovorin is combined with UFT to further potentiate the effect of 5-FU on tumor cells. Orally administered UFT and leucovorin provide higher peak plasma concentrations of 5-FU and prolonged therapeutic 5-FU concentrations compared with continuous infusion of 5-FU.

    Title X-ray- and Electron-induced Infrared Emission Spectroscopy.
    Date July 2009
    Journal The Review of Scientific Instruments

    We demonstrate the use of Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy for midinfrared emission measurements following x-ray or electron excitation. Spectra from an InAs low band-gap semiconductor film, which emits in the IR from 3000 to 3400 cm(-1), are presented. There is good agreement between the present results and previously published laser-excited spectra. Using focused beams, it should be possible to perform sub-diffraction-limited IR imaging. In addition, simultaneous structural and electronic analysis could be performed using the x-ray or electron excitation probes.

    Title Magnetic Resonance Assessment of the Substrate for Inducible Ventricular Tachycardia in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.
    Date March 2006
    Journal Circulation

    BACKGROUND: Patients with left ventricular dysfunction have an elevated risk of sudden cardiac death. However, the substrate for ventricular arrhythmia in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that the distribution of scar identified by MRI is predictive of inducible ventricular tachycardia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Short-axis cine steady-state free-precession and postcontrast inversion-recovery gradient-echo MRI sequences were obtained before electrophysiological study in 26 patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured from end-diastolic and end-systolic cine images. The transmural extent of scar as a percentage of wall thickness (percent scar transmurality) in each of 12 radial sectors per slice was calculated in all myocardial slices. The percentages of sectors with 1% to 25%, 26% to 50%, 51% to 75%, and 76% to 100% scar transmurality were determined for each patient. Predominance of scar distribution involving 26% to 75% of wall thickness was significantly predictive of inducible ventricular tachycardia and remained independently predictive in the multivariable model after adjustment for left ventricular ejection fraction (odds ratio, 9.125; P=0.020). CONCLUSIONS: MR assessment of scar distribution can identify the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia and may identify high-risk patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy currently missed by ejection fraction criteria.

    Title Safety of Bivalirudin During Percutaneous Coronary Interventions in Patients with Abnormal Renal Function.
    Date November 2005
    Journal International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions

    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of ischemic and bleeding complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Bivalirudin, a direct thrombin inhibitor, has been shown to reduce adverse bleeding events compared to unfractionated heparin in patients undergoing PCI. However, the effect of diminished renal function on the safety and efficacy of bivalirudin for PCI is unknown. We aimed to test the safety of bivalirudin in routine practice and to assess whether this benefit was influenced by renal function. METHODS AND RESULTS: The interaction between renal impairment and benefit from bivalirudin was assessed in 115 consecutive patients (age 68.5+/-12.1, 45% female) undergoing PCI. Bivalirudin dosing was adjusted based on renal function. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) was calculated using the Cockroft-Gault formula. The composite endpoints of in-hospital death, myocardial infarction or revascularization and bleeding events were assessed. Overall, these events occurred in 10 (8.7%) patients. Patients with a CrCl<60 ml/min had a significantly increased risk for in-hospital complications (18.6 versus 2.78%, P = 0.011). Univariate analysis for MACE and bleeding were significant for CrCl<60 ml/min OR: 2.54 (95% CI: 1.61-39.7, P = 0.011), age OR: 3.29 (95% CI: 1.07-1.39, P<0.001) and female gender OR: 2.1 (95% CI: 0.036-0.89, P = 0.036). Risk of complications increased with decreasing renal function: 2.7, 14.2, and 37.5% for CrCl of >60, 30-60 or <30 ml/min, respectively, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Advanced age, renal dysfunction, and female gender remain important risk factors for ischemic and bleeding complications in patients undergoing PCI with bivalirudin.

    Title Magnetocardiogram Recordings in a Nonshielded Environment--reproducibility and Ischemia Detection.
    Date August 2005
    Journal Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology : the Official Journal of the International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrocardiology, Inc

    BACKGROUND: Magnetocardiography (MCG) is a noninvasive technology that measures the magnetic field of the heart by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID) sensors. The novelty of the present system is that the sensors can be operated without electromagnetic shielding of the examination room, thus allowing the system to be easily installed in the emergency department or chest pain unit. Studies in shielded rooms, found that this imaging modality may have better sensitivity as compared to ECG in detecting ischemia. We aimed (1) to assess the reproducibility, intra-observer, and interobserver interpretation variability and (2) to assess the MCG maps in the presence of coronary narrowings. METHODS AND RESULTS: All measurements were performed in a nonshielded room. For the first part of the study, two MCG maps were recorded in 24 otherwise healthy volunteers (age 20-44 years, median 24, 16 male) in an interval ranging from 2 to 48 hours. The maps were interpreted using the CardioMag software for contour maps, averaged MCG time traces, and waveform morphology of repolarization by two observers blinded to each other. The parameters tested had low disagreement between repeated measurements. The correlations of the intra-observer and interobserver interpretation were excellent. Secondly, MCG maps were obtained in 29 patients referred for angiography due to suspected coronary artery disease. Nineteen of them had coronary narrowings defined as more than 50%. In this group, 16 (84.2%) had abnormal MCG maps as compared to only 5 (26.3%) who had abnormal ECGs (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: MCG maps can be successfully obtained in a nonshielded room and allow feasible, accurate, and reproducible measurements with little intra-observer and interobserver variability. Ischemic changes in the heart's magnetic field may occur before electrical changes. Our pilot data suggests that this imaging modality may potentially offer better sensitivity as compared to rest ECG in detecting ischemia in a cohort of patients who had coronary narrowings identified by angiography.

    Title Relationship Between B-type Natriuretic Peptides and Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure in the Intensive Care Unit.
    Date June 2005
    Journal Journal of the American College of Cardiology

    OBJECTIVES: We examined whether B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP) can serve as noninvasive markers of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in the setting of critical illness. BACKGROUND: The BNP and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are highly correlated with left ventricular (LV) filling pressures in patients with depressed LV systolic function. However, their relationship to PCWP in a heterogeneous intensive care unit (ICU) population has not been established. METHODS: We prospectively studied 40 patients in the ICU requiring invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Hemodynamics were recorded simultaneously with blood sampling for BNP and NT-proBNP. RESULTS: The BNP (median 420 pg/ml) and NT-proBNP (median 3,304 pg/ml) levels were markedly elevated, but weakly correlated with PCWP (BNP, r = 0.40, NT-proBNP, r = 0.32) and other cardiac parameters. Peptide levels were approximately four-fold greater in patients with impaired (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 ml/min) versus normal (eGFR >60 ml/min) renal function, despite similar PCWP, cardiac index, and LV ejection fraction. In addition, both BNP and NT-proBNP showed stronger correlations with PCWP in patients with preserved (BNP, r = 0.58, NT-proBNP, r = 0.73) versus impaired renal function (BNP, r = 0.48, NT-proBNP, r = 0.34). Interaction terms between eGFR and BNP (p = 0.06) and NT-proBNP (p = 0.04) suggest that eGFR modulates the relationship of these peptides to filling pressures. CONCLUSIONS: The BNPs are markedly elevated, yet show only weak correlations to PCWP in ICU patients requiring invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Thus, a single value for BNP or NT-proBNP may not be a clinically useful noninvasive marker of filling pressures in the critically ill patient. This appears to be especially true in patients with impaired renal function.

    Title Layer Perfection in Ultrathin Movpe-grown Inas Layers Buried in Gaas(001) Studied by X-ray Standing Waves and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy.
    Date May 2005
    Journal Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
    Title Guidelines for Interpretation of Electron Beam Computed Tomography Calcium Scores from the Dallas Heart Disease Prevention Project.
    Date July 2001
    Journal The American Journal of Cardiology
    Title Re: Melanoma in the Gi Tract.
    Date August 2000
    Journal The American Journal of Gastroenterology
    Title Ovine Trophoblast Protein-one: Evidence for Possible Glycosylation.
    Date March 1992
    Journal The International Journal of Biochemistry

    1. The polymerase chain reaction has been used to amplify specifically the cDNA coding for the secreted form of ovine trophoblast protein-one from a preparation of total cellular RNA extracted from sheep embryos removed from ewes 16 days after mating. 2. Cloning and sequencing of the amplified cDNA revealed two new sequence variants: SPW49 having 93% similarity with deduced amino acid sequences from published cDNA data, and SPW27 a variant coding for a deleted form of ovine trophoblast protein-one. 3. The gene for ovine trophoblast protein-one is intronless. 4. This study provides further evidence for the existence of an ovine trophoblast protein-one gene family. 5. Both variants contain a potential N-glycosylation site not apparent in published sequences for ovine trophoblast protein-one.

    Title Demonstration of the Effectiveness of the Professional Education Component of a Comprehensive Cancer Control Project Using Serial "patterns of Care" (poc) Studies.
    Date November 1983
    Journal Progress in Clinical and Biological Research
    Title Patterns of Care in Oncology: an Approach to Medical and Utilization Audit.
    Date September 1983
    Journal Progress in Clinical and Biological Research
    Title Platelet Cold Agglutinins.
    Date August 1970
    Journal Blood
    Title Evidence That the Spleen Retains the Youngest and Hemostatically Most Effective Platelets.
    Date June 1969
    Journal Transactions of the Association of American Physicians
    Title Relationships Between Spleen, Platelets and Factor 8 Levels.
    Date May 1968
    Journal Blood
    Title Excitation Spectroscopy of the In-related Isoelectronic Bound Exciton Under Uniaxial Stress and Magnetic-field Perturbations.
    Journal Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter
    Title Thermal-donor-related Isoelectronic Center in Silicon Which Can Bind Up to Four Excitons.
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Title Antiplatelet Therapy in Ami: Combining Gp Iib/iiia Inhibition with Reduced-dose Fibrinolytic Therapy.
    Journal Current Interventional Cardiology Reports

    In the therapy of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI), the close relationship between early reperfusion of the infarct-related artery and improved outcomes has focused research on improving the speed and efficacy of pharmacologic reperfusion therapy. Recently, it has become appreciated that even among patients who achieve normal epicardial reperfusion after reperfusion therapy, myocardial and microvascular perfusion may be inadequate. Such patients are at increased risk for the development of death and congestive heart failure. The addition of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antagonists to standard fibrinolytic therapy has been shown to improve both epicardial and myocardial reperfusion. This article focuses on emerging data regarding the combination of GP IIb/IIa antagonists and standard fibrinolytic agents for the treatment of acute ST-segment elevation MI.

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