Surgeons
21 years of experience

427 Highway 51 N
Brookhaven, MS 39601
601-833-6011
Locations and availability (2)

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
University of Virginia (1989)
  • Currently 4 of 4 apples
Top 25%

Affiliations ?

Dr. Cox is affiliated with 6 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • CHRISTUS Santa Rosa Hospital
    333 N Santa Rosa St, San Antonio, TX 78207
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Austin Surgical Hospital
    3003 Bee Cave Rd, Austin, TX 78746
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • South Texas Regional Medical Center
    1905 Highway 97 E, Jourdanton, TX 78026
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Valley Baptist Hospital
  • Odessa Regional Hospital
  • Southwest General
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Cox has contributed to 31 publications.
    Title Molecular Diagnostics and Personalised Medicine in Wound Care: Assessment of Outcomes.
    Date September 2011
    Journal Journal of Wound Care
    Excerpt

    This large, level A, retrospective cohort study set out to compare healing outcomes in three large cohorts of wound patients managed universally for bioburden: standard of care group, who were prescribed systemic antibiotics on the basis of empiric and traditional culture-based methodologies; treatment group 1, who were prescribed an improved selection of systemic antibiotics based on the results of molecular diagnostics; treatment group 2 who received personalised topical therapeutics (including antibiotics) based on the results of molecular diagnostics.

    Title Photolytic Breakdown of Fullerene C60 Cages in an Aqueous Suspension.
    Date April 2011
    Journal Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
    Excerpt

    Fullerene C60, a class of carbon nanomaterials, is widely used and is likely to reach the environment. The degradation and transformation of C60 aqueous suspensions exposed to simulated sunlight were studied. C60 aqueous suspensions prepared by stirring pristine C60 in water under sunlight exposure undergo breakdown with formation of a mixture of compounds with unknown chemical structure. The mass and infrared spectrometric analysis of the breakdown products shows the presence of broken C60 cages, as well as of oxygen and hydrogen atoms in their structure. The presence of oxygen in the breakdown products indicates a possible interaction of C60 molecule with oxygen from the air as well as with water. Interaction with water could also explain the presence of H atoms in the breakdown products. This demonstrates that fullerenes C60 are not stable in the environment and that the breakdown products should be considered when evaluating the environmental impact of fullerenes C60.

    Title Spatial Distribution of Lead Concentrations in Urban Surface Soils of New Orleans, Louisiana Usa.
    Date January 2011
    Journal Environmental Geochemistry and Health
    Excerpt

    Immediately following hurricane Katrina concern was raised over the environmental impact of floodwaters on the city of New Orleans, especially in regard to human health. Several studies were conducted to determine the actual contaminant distribution throughout the city and surrounding wetlands by analyzing soil, sediment, and water for a variety of contaminants including organics, inorganics, and biologics. Preliminary investigations by The Institute of Environmental and Human Health at Texas Tech University concluded that soils and sediments contained pesticides, semi-volatiles, and metals, specifically arsenic, iron, and lead, at concentrations that could pose a significant risk to human health. Additional studies on New Orleans floodwaters revealed similar constituents as well as compounds commonly found in gasoline. More recently, it has been revealed that lead (Pb), arsenic, and vanadium are found intermittently throughout the city at concentrations greater than the human health soil screening levels (HHSSLs) of 400, 22 (non-cancer endpoint) and 390 μg/g, respectively. Of these, Pb appears to present the greatest exposure hazard to humans as a result of its extensive distribution in city soils. In this study, we spatially evaluated Pb concentrations across greater New Orleans surface soils. We established 128 sampling sites throughout New Orleans at approximately half-mile intervals. A soil sample was collected at each site and analyzed for Pb by ICP-AES. Soils from 19 (15%) of the sites had Pb concentrations exceeding the HHSSL threshold of 400 μg/g. It was determined that the highest concentrations of Pb were found in the south and west portions of the city. Pb concentrations found throughout New Orleans in this study were then incorporated into a geographic information system to create a spatial distribution model that can be further used to predict Pb exposure to humans in the city.

    Title Lead Distributions and Risks in New Orleans Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
    Date September 2010
    Journal Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry / Setac
    Excerpt

    During the last four years, significant effort has been devoted to understanding the effects that Hurricanes Katrina and Rita had on contaminant distribution and redistribution in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, and the surrounding Gulf Coast area. Elevated concentrations were found for inorganic contaminants (including As, Fe, Pb, and V), several organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and volatiles) and high concentration of bioaerosols, particularly Aeromonas and Vibrio. Data from different research groups confirm that some contaminant concentrations are elevated, that existing concentrations are similar to historical data, and that contaminants such as Pb and As may pose human health risks. Two data sets have been compiled in this article to serve as the foundation for preliminary risk assessments within greater New Orleans. Research from the present study suggests that children in highly contaminated areas of New Orleans may experience Pb exposure from soil ranging from 1.37 microg/d to 102 microg/d. These data are critical in the evaluation of children's health.

    Title Bacterial Community Dynamics in High and Low Bioavailability Soils Following Laboratory Exposure to a Range of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine Concentrations.
    Date September 2010
    Journal Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry / Setac
    Excerpt

    Few studies have examined the potential long-term effects of high concentrations of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triaxine (RDX) on bacterial communities in soil. In the present study, a sandy loam soil and a silt loam soil (high and low bioavailability, respectively) were artificially contaminated with RDX (0, 50, 500, 1,500, 5,000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg soil). Bacterial communities from each treatment were monitored over 63 d to characterize the effects of RDX exposure on bacterial activity, biomass, functional diversity (Biolog microtiter plates), and structural diversity (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA). Bacterial communities native to the high bioavailability soil were inherently different than bacterial communities native to the silt loam soil, not only in terms of bacterial activity and biomass, but also in terms of bacterial community functional and structural diversity. Soil RDX contamination was correlated with decreased bacterial biomass in the silt loam soil treatments and with decreased bacterial activity in the sandy loam soil treatments on day 7. Soil RDX contamination did not cause a significant shift in the functional diversity of the bacterial communities native to the silt loam soil, but was correlated with a shift in identities of substrates used by bacterial communities native to the sandy loam soil on day 7. Bacterial community structure was insensitive to the gradient of RDX concentrations at the beginning of the incubation. However, the identities of carbon substrates used by bacterial communities in both soil types were affected by long-term incubation with RDX.

    Title Healing and Healing Rates of Chronic Wounds in the Age of Molecular Pathogen Diagnostics.
    Date September 2010
    Journal Journal of Wound Care
    Excerpt

    To compare healing outcomes at a wound healing centre both before and after the introduction of molecular pathogen diagnostics.

    Title Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Northern Bobwhite Quail (colinus Virginianus).
    Date April 2010
    Journal Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
    Excerpt

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous contaminants of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and are known to induce biochemical alterations in exposed organisms. Aside from a variety of adverse physiological effects associated with exposure to petroleum products, oils, and oil sludges, little is known about the effects of individual PAH on birds. Acute toxicity of naphthalene, pyrene, and benz[a]anthracene (BAA) was examined in adult northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). Additionally, subacute (8 d) and subchronic (60 d) studies were conducted to assess alterations in metabolic enzyme activity. Neither naphthalene, nor pyrene, nor BAA exposure via oral gavage produced acute toxicity up to the limit dose of 2 g/kg body weight. In the subacute study, quail provided feed containing the highest concentration of BAA for 5 d had significantly increased renal ethoxyresorufin O-deeththylase (EROD) activity compared to controls. Following a 3-d recovery period, significant increases between 10 and 100 mg/kg of BAA in feed existed for both hepatic EROD and pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase (PROD) activity compared to controls. Subchronic exposure to BAA (ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg/kg) also resulted in a significant rise of EROD and PROD in both kidney and liver tissue compared to controls. Though the individual PAH used in this study were not acutely toxic, these results confirm that these individual PAH induce alterations in metabolic enzyme activity in northern bobwhite quail.

    Title Responses of Glutamate Cysteine Ligase and Glutathione to Oxidants in Deer Mice (peromyscus Maniculatus).
    Date August 2009
    Journal Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
    Excerpt

    Sensitivities of a wildlife species, deer mice, to oxidants were evaluated. A single dose (1589 mg/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection) of carbon tetrachloride, a typical hepatotoxicant, caused changes in GCL activity and GSH content in multiple organs of deer mice. Hepatic GCL activity and GSH content were depleted substantially (P<0.01), renal GCL activity increased (P<0.05). Blood, brain and heart GCL activities increased (P<0.05), whereas GSH contents decreased significantly. Deer mice were exposed to Pb, or Pb together with Cu and Zn via drinking water for 4 weeks. GCL activities were not significantly affected by treatments. GSH contents were increased significantly by Pb alone, Pb with medium and high concentrations of Cu and Zn. Effects of multi-metal-contaminated soil were investigated via lactational, juvenile and lifelong exposure to feed supplemented with soils. Metal-contaminated soils did not lead to significant effects in pups via lactation, 50-day exposure altered GSH content marginally, while 100-day exposure resulted in marked GCL activity depletion. After 100-day exposure, GCL activities of the medium soil-, high soil- and Pb-treated deer mice were only 53%, 40% and 46% of the control, respectively (P<0.0001).

    Title Molecular and Functional Assessment of Bacterial Community Convergence in Metal-amended Soils.
    Date June 2009
    Journal Microbial Ecology
    Excerpt

    Species diversity and the structure of microbial communities in soils are thought to be a function of the cumulative selective pressures within the local environment. Shifts in microbial community structure, as a result of metal stress, may have lasting negative effects on soil ecosystem dynamics if critical microbial community functions are compromised. Three soils in the vicinity of a copper smelter, previously contaminated with background, low and high levels of aerially deposited metals, were amended with metal-salts to determine the potential for metal contamination to shape the structural and functional diversity of microbial communities in soils. We hypothesized that the microbial communities native to the three soils would initially be unique to each site, but would converge on a microbial community with similar structure and function, as a result of metal stress. Initially, the three different sites supported microbial communities with unique structural and functional diversity, and the nonimpacted site supported inherently higher levels of microbial activity and biomass, relative to the metal-contaminated sites. Amendment of the soils with metal-salts resulted in a decrease in microbial activity and biomass, as well as shifts in microbial community structure and function at each site. Soil microbial communities from each site were also observed to be sensitive to changes in soil pH as a result of metal-salt amendment; however, the magnitude of these pH-associated effects varied between soils. Microbial communities from each site did not converge on a structurally or functionally similar community following metal-salt amendment, indicating that other factors may be equally important in shaping microbial communities in soils. Among these factors, soil physiochemical parameters like organic matter and soil pH, which can both influence the bioavailability and toxicity of metals in soils, may be critical.

    Title Multigenerational Effects in Deer Mice (peromyscus Maniculatus) Exposed to Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (tnx).
    Date June 2009
    Journal Chemosphere
    Excerpt

    Contamination by hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has been identified at areas of explosive manufacturing, processing, storage, and usage. Anaerobic conversion of RDX to N-nitroso metabolites (hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX)) has been demonstrated in the environment and in gastrointestinal tracts of mammals in vivo. Thus, potential exists for exposure to these N-nitroso compounds. While exposed to TNX via drinking water ad libitum, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were bred in three generations to produce cohorts F1A-D, F2A-B, and F3A. TNX was administered at four exposure levels: control (0 microg L(-1)), 10 microg L(-1), 100 microg L(-1), and 1000 microg L(-1). Endpoints investigated include: offspring production, offspring survival, offspring weight gain, and offspring organ weights. TNX exposure decreased litter size and increased postpartum mortality of offspring at the highest exposure level.

    Title Characterization of the Structural and Functional Diversity of Indigenous Soil Microbial Communities in Smelter-impacted and Nonimpacted Soils.
    Date June 2009
    Journal Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry / Setac
    Excerpt

    A century of mining and smelting activity at the Anaconda Smelter site in Anaconda, Montana, USA, has contaminated the surrounding soils and groundwater with metals. Soil microbial communities from six smelter-impacted sites and a nonimpacted site were compared to determine the long-term effects of a gradient of metal concentrations on microbial activity, biomass, functional diversity (Biolog microtiter plates), and structural diversity (denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S ribosomal DNA). Microbial activity and biomass were decreased in the smelter-impacted soils. Likewise, the functional and structural diversity of the microbial communities native to the smelter-impacted soils were shifted, relative to the microbial community, from the nonimpacted site. These shifts were significantly correlated with soil metal concentration and several soil physicochemical properties (pH, organic matter, NO(3), NH(4), etc.), which provides evidence of the importance of many environmental variables on microbial community dynamics in soils. Preliminary evidence of functional redundancy was observed within microbial communities native to the smelter-impacted sites, based on overlapping carbon substrate utilization patterns. However, due to culture-based selection bias, redundancy pertains only to a subset of the community and may not be ecologically relevant. Nevertheless, the effects of metal contamination on microbial communities in the present study are pronounced and results provide preliminary insight into the complex relationship between soil microbial community structure and function in anthropogenically disturbed soils.

    Title Effects of Hmx Exposure Upon Metabolic Rate of Northern Bobwhite Quail (colinus Virginianus) in Ovo.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Chemosphere
    Excerpt

    We evaluated the use of the gas exchange rate as an ecologically relevant indicator of chemical stress in avian embryos/eggs. Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were exposed to octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) via feed containing nominal concentrations of 0, 12.5, 50.0, and 125.0 mg kg(-1). Metabolic rates (oxygen consumption) of developing quail eggs were then measured via respirometry to examine potential effects of HMX exposure. Metabolic rates were examined on 5, 9, and 21 d of incubation. Next, concentrations of HMX in embryos/eggs were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mean (+/-SE) concentrations of HMX in eggs were 21.0+/-5.9, 1113+/-79.0, 3864+/-154.0, and 7426+/-301.1 ng g(-1) in control, low, medium and high dose groups, respectively. There were significant differences in oxygen consumption among the three embryo ages, however differences among the ages were not consistent among dose groups (age x dose group interaction p<0.0001). Oxygen consumption rates did not vary as a function of HMX in embryos (p=0.18). No evidence was observed for alterations of in ovo metabolic rates associated with HMX exposure.

    Title Effect of Two Major N-nitroso Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (rdx) Metabolites on Earthworm Reproductive Success.
    Date August 2008
    Journal Environmental Pollution (barking, Essex : 1987)
    Excerpt

    Soil and topical tests were employed to investigate the effect of two N-nitroso metabolites of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) on earthworm reproduction. The lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for cocoon production and hatching was 50mg/kg for both hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) in soil. MNX and TNX also significantly affected cocoon hatching in soil (p<0.001) and in topical tests (p=0.001). The LOECs for cocoon hatching were 1 and 10mg/kg for MNX and TNX in soil, respectively, and 10mg/L in the topical test. Greater than 100mg/kg MNX and TNX completely inhibited cocoon hatching. In soil, the EC20 values for MNX were 8.7 and 8.8mg/kg for cocoon and juvenile production, respectively, compared to 9.2 and 9.1mg/kg for TNX, respectively. The EC20 values for the total number of cocoon hatchlings were 3.1 and 4.7mg/kg for MNX and TNX, respectively, in soil and 4.5 and 3.1mg/L in the topical test. Both MNX and TNX inhibited cocoon production and hatching, suggesting that they may have a negative affect on soil ecosystems at contaminated sites.

    Title Modulation of Aflatoxin Biomarkers in Human Blood and Urine by Green Tea Polyphenols Intervention.
    Date March 2008
    Journal Carcinogenesis
    Excerpt

    To evaluate the efficacy of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) in modulating aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) biomarkers, a total of 352 serum samples and 352 urine samples collected from a 3 month chemoprevention trial with 500 mg GTPs, 1000 mg GTPs and a placebo were measured for AFB(1)-albumin adducts (AFB-AA), aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) and aflatoxin B(1)-mercapturic acid (AFB-NAC). Levels of AFB-AA at baseline were comparable for all three dose groups (P = 0.506). No significant differences were observed in AFB-AA levels in the placebo group over the 3 month period (P = 0.252). However, a significant reduction in AFB-AA levels was observed in the 500 mg group (P = 0.002). A marginally significant reduction in AFB-AA levels was also found in the 1000 mg group over the 3 month intervention period (P = 0.051). An analysis using a mixed-effects model indicated that the reduction in AFB-AA levels over time was dose and time dependent (dose-time interaction P = 0.049). There were no significant differences in median AFM(1) levels among the three study groups at the baseline (P = 0.832), 1 month (P = 0.188) and 3 months (P = 0.132) of the GTP intervention; however, reduction of 42 and 43% in median AFM(1) levels, as compared with the placebo, were found in 500 mg (P = 0.096) and 1000 mg (P = 0.072) groups at 3 months of the intervention. Significant elevations in median AFB-NAC levels and the ratio of AFB-NAC:AFM(1) were found in both 500 and 1000 mg groups compared with the placebo group at both 1 month (P < 0.001) and 3 months (P < 0.001) of GTPs intervention. These results demonstrate that GTPs effectively modulate AFB(1) metabolism and metabolic activation.

    Title Spatial and Temporal Evaluation of Metal Concentrations in Soils and Sediments from New Orleans, Louisiana, Usa, Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
    Date January 2008
    Journal Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry / Setac
    Excerpt

    During January 2006, soil and sediment samples from 75 sites in the New Orleans (LA, USA) area were collected and tested for 26 inorganic elements. The study design was intended to provide a spatial pattern of metal concentrations within the city following hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The sampling design included four transects that traversed the city in a north-south direction and three transects that traversed the city in an east-west direction. Contaminant concentrations were determined at multiple sites within each transect and compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency soil screening criteria pertaining to human health. Concentrations of Pb and As exceeded the criteria indiscriminately throughout the city. Of the 75 sites, 14 (19%) exceeded the soil screening criteria for Pb, and 73 (97%) exceeded the criteria for As. Forty-three of the 75 sites coincided with a previous sampling event in October 2005. Metal concentrations were evaluated for temporal comparisons using a pair sampled t test. Arsenic concentrations differed significantly over time, but Pb concentrations did not.

    Title Examination of the Mutagenicity of Rdx and Its N-nitroso Metabolites Using the Salmonella Reverse Mutation Assay.
    Date May 2007
    Journal Mutation Research
    Excerpt

    The mutagenicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and its N-nitroso derivatives hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) were evaluated using the Salmonella tryphimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames assay) with strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102. Using a preincubation procedure and high S9 activation (9%), RDX was observed to induce weak mutagenesis to strain TA97a with a mutagenicity index (MI) of 1.5-2.0 at a dose range of 32.7-1090microg/plate. MNX induced moderate mutagenesis to strain TA97a with an MI of 1.6-2.8 at a dose range of 21.7-878microg/plate. TNX also induced moderate mutagenesis in strain TA97a with an MI of 2.0-3.5 to TA97a at a dose range of 22.7-1120microg/plate. TNX also caused weak mutagenesis to strain TA100 with S9 activation at the dose of 1200microg/plate. MNX and TNX induced weak to moderate mutagenesis to strain TA102. Strain TA97a was found to be the most sensitive strain among these four strains. No cytotoxicity of RDX, MNX, and TNX was observed at the concentrations used in this study. Doses were verified by HPLC.

    Title Metal Distributions in New Orleans Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: A Continuation Study.
    Date March 2007
    Journal Environmental Science & Technology
    Excerpt

    In late October 2005, twenty-seven metals were determined in soils and sediment layers deposited by floodwaters (flood sediments) within New Orleans, Louisiana. Samples originated from 43 sites along four transects, at an industrial canal, and near the Superdome. The sampling design encompassed flooded and nonflooded areas as well as differing economic strata within the city. Results from this effort confirmed findings of our previous study designed to quantify contaminant profiles in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. The expanded sampling from this most recent investigation revealed that arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) concentrations exceeded United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) soil screening criteria indiscriminately throughout the city. However, As and Pb concentrations were lower along St. Charles Avenue, an area largely unaffected by hurricane related flooding. Toxicant concentrations did not exceed soil screening criteria values for lead within any flood sediments or for 32 of 37 soil samples, but arsenic concentrations in 40 of 43 samples exceeded screening criteria.

    Title Etiological Study of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in an Endemic Region: a Population-based Case Control Study in Huaian, China.
    Date February 2007
    Journal Bmc Cancer
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC in this area. The aims of this study is to evaluate the etiological roles of demographic parameters, environmental and food-borne carcinogens exposure, and XME polymorphisms in formation of ESCC, and to investigate possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with ESCC in Huaian, China. METHODS: A population based case-control study was conducted in 107 ESCC newly diagnosed cases and 107 residency- age-, and sex-matched controls in 5 townships of Huaian. In addition to regular epidemiological and food frequency questionnaire analyses, genetic polymorphisms of phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, and phase II enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX) were assessed from genomic DNA using PCR based techniques. RESULTS: Consuming acrid food, fatty meat, moldy food, salted and pickled vegetables, eating fast, introverted personality, passive smoking, a family history of cancer, esophageal lesion, and infection with Helicobacter pylori were significant risk factors for ESCC (P < 0.05). Regular clean up of food storage utensils, green tea consumption, and alcohol abstinence were protective factors for ESCC (P < 0.01). The frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype was higher in cases (59.4%) compared to controls (47.2%) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.68 and 95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.96 to 2.97 (P = 0.07), especially in males (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.22-6.25; P = 0.01). No associations were found between polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and EPHX and ESCC (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that dietary and environmental exposures, some demographic parameters and genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 may play important roles in the development of ESCC in Huaian area, China.

    Title Age-dependent Characterization of Pendrin Gene Expression in Various Tissues of Deer Mice.
    Date February 2007
    Journal Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
    Excerpt

    Pendrin is a membrane transport protein which functions as the transporter of chloride, bicarbonate, formate, and iodide. In this study, we characterized pendrin gene expression in various tissues of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), a sentinel wildlife species. Deer mice were euthanized at post-natal day (PND) 21 (day of weaning) and PND 45 (24 days post-weaning) for tissue collection. A deer mouse-specific partial pendrin cDNA sequence was generated, from which Taqman-specific probe and primers were designed for quantification of mRNA equivalents of pendrin gene expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression profile was standardized to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Results indicate that the pendrin gene was expressed at different levels in the different tissues of developing deer mice relative to GAPDH expression. Expression in the tissues was determined to be age-dependent. Pendrin gene was highly expressed in the kidney, lungs and reproductive tissues. PND 21 expression in the kidney and testes was significantly lower than PND 45. This study represents the first identification of differential expression of pendrin gene in various deer mouse tissues.

    Title Assessment of Pathogens and Toxicants in New Orleans, La Following Hurricane Katrina.
    Date July 2006
    Journal Environmental Science & Technology
    Excerpt

    Storm surge associated with Hurricane Katrina and the breach of levees protecting New Orleans, Louisiana allowed floodwaters from Lake Pontchartrain to inundate 80% of the city. Environmental samples were collected during September 16-18, 2005 to determine immediate human and wildlife health hazards from pathogens and toxicants in the floodwaters. Baseline information on potential long-term environmental damage resulting from contaminants in water and sediments pumped into Lake Pontchartrain was also collected. Concentrations of aldrin, arsenic, lead, and seven semivolatile organic compounds in sediments/soils exceeded one or more United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) thresholds for human health soil screening levels and high priority bright line screening levels. High numbers of Aeromonas spp., pathogenic Vibrio spp., and other coliform bacteria were found in floodwater samples. Alligator and snake tissues did not contain excessive toxicant concentrations. Initial findings suggest numerous environmental contaminants are present in New Orleans and support the need for further evaluation of the extent of those threats.

    Title Reproductive Effects of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine in Deer Mice (peromyscus Maniculatus) During a Controlled Exposure Study.
    Date June 2006
    Journal Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry / Setac
    Excerpt

    Contamination with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (Royal Demolition Explosive [RDX]) has been identified at areas of explosive manufacturing, processing, storage, and usage. Thus, the potential exists for exposure to N-nitroso compounds, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), formed via anaerobic transformation of RDX. Following exposure, reproductive toxicity of TNX was evaluated in three consecutive litters of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine was administered ad libitum via drinking water at four doses: 0 (control), 1, 10, and 100 microg/L. Endpoints investigated included reproductive success, offspring survival, offspring weight gain, offspring organ weights, and liver TNX residues. Data from the present study indicate that TNX bioaccumulates in the liver and is associated with postpartum mortality, dose-dependent decrease in body weight from birth to weaning, and decrease in kidney weight of deer mice offspring.

    Title Determination of N-nitroso Derivatives of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (rdx) in Soils by Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.
    Date May 2006
    Journal Journal of Chromatography. A
    Excerpt

    To aid in the evaluation of the potential toxicity of N-nitroso derivatives of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), we describe a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method for determination of RDX and its N-nitroso derivatives: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) in soils. Sandy loam soil was spiked with RDX and its N-nitroso derivatives (MNX, DNX, and TNX). Acetonitrile was used as the PLE extraction solvent at 100 degrees C and 1500 psi for 15 min. Florisil was used to cleanup extracts following PLE. Instrumental analysis employed LC-ESI-MS, in which 1mM acetic acid was added to the mobile phase to facilitate formation of acetate adduct ions [M+CH(3)COO](-). The method detection limits (MDLs) for RDX, MNX, DNX, and TNX were 1.46, 1.46, 1.69, and 1.93 ng/g, respectively. High recovery (91.1-108.3%), good precision (RSD: 3.2-12.4%), and reproducibility were achieved. This method proved effective and was applied to monitor the reductive biotransformation of MNX in soils with the presence of earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Title Evidence That Mirnas Are Different from Other Rnas.
    Date March 2006
    Journal Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : Cmls
    Excerpt

    An examination of 513 known pre-miRNAs and 237 other RNAs (tRNA, rRNA, and mRNA) revealed that miRNAs were significantly different from other RNAs (p < 0.001). miRNA genes were less conserved than other RNA genes, although their mature miRNA sequences were highly conserved. The A+U content of pre-miRNAs was higher than non-coding RNA (p < 0.001), but lower than mRNAs. The nucleotides in pre-miRNAs formed more hydrogen bonds and base pairs than in other RNAs. miRNAs had higher negative adjusted minimal folding free energies than other RNAs except tRNAs (p < 0.001). The MFE index (MFEI) was a sufficient criterion to distinguish miRNAs from all coding and non-coding RNAs (p < 0.001). The MFEI for miRNAs was 0.97, significantly higher than tRNAs (0.64), rRNAs (0.59), or mRNAs (0.65). Our findings should facilitate the prediction and identification of new miRNAs using computational and experimental strategies.

    Title Monitoring Perchlorate Exposure and Thyroid Hormone Status Among Raccoons Inhabiting a Perchlorate-contaminated Site.
    Date August 2005
    Journal Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
    Excerpt

    Perchlorate is a water soluble anion that is readily accumulated in vegetation. It inhibits uptake of iodide into thyroid gland tissue, thereby reducing production of thyroid hormones. Potential raccoon food items including berries, fish, and vegetation collected at a contaminated site contained quantifiable concentrations of perchlorate as determined by ion chromatography. Therefore, we monitored resident raccoons for exposure to perchlorate by examining plasma perchlorate and thyroid hormone concentrations. Resulting analytical data failed to demonstrate perchlorate exposure among raccoons that likely consumed food items collected along perchlorate-contaminated water bodies. There were no correlations between triiodothyronine or thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations, but triiodothyronine concentrations in raccoon plasma were significantly higher in 2000 than in 2001 (p = 0.0081). These data suggest that natural attenuation and remedial efforts initiated in January of 2001 may have reduced perchlorate exposure among raccoons inhabiting this site from 2000 to 2001. Temporal, spatial, and analytical factors limited our ability to quantify exposure among raccoons, however, our data do not indicate that raccoons currently inhabiting this site are at risk for significant exposure to perchlorate and subsequent effects.

    Title Vapor-phase Analysis of Isobutyl Acetate, Isopropyl Acetate, N-propyl Acetate and Their Respective Alcohols Using Solid-phase Microextraction-gas Chromatography with a Mass Selective Detector.
    Date August 2005
    Journal Journal of Chromatography. A
    Excerpt

    A solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-MS method for three esters and the corresponding alcohols was tested for responses in accuracy, within-run precision (repeatability), and between-run precision (reproducibility) due to individual operators, individual analysis days, and differing analyte concentrations. At 5 ppm (v/v) [ppmv], three of the six analytes showed significant (p < 0.05) operator effects, while five of six analytes gave a significant effect due to the days of analysis. At 20 ppmv, five of the six analytes gave significant operator and daily effects. At 100 ppmv, all the analytes showed significant daily effects but no operator effects were observed. The repeatability was concentration dependent, with all six analytes combining for an average RSD of 12.1 +/- 6.1% at 1 ppmv, becoming most precise at 50 ppmv at 1.01 +/- 0.45%, then increasing at 100 ppmv to 4.12 +/- 1.88%. The contributors to error trended as: concentration > daily effects > operator.

    Title Evaluation and Management. Female Urinary Incontinence.
    Date November 2004
    Journal Awhonn Lifelines / Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses
    Title Neuronal Units Linked to Microvascular Modules in Cerebral Cortex: Response Elements for Imaging the Brain.
    Date February 1997
    Journal Cerebral Cortex (new York, N.y. : 1991)
    Excerpt

    How neuronal activity changes cerebral blood flow is of biological and practical importance. The rodent whisker-barrel system has special merits as a model for studies of changes in local cerebral blood flow (LCBF). Stimulus-evoked changes in neural firing and 'intrinsic signals' recorded through a cranial window were used to define regions of interest for repeated flow measurements. Whisker-activated changes in flow were measured with intravascular markers at the pia. LCBF changes were always prompt and localized over the appropriate barrel. Stimulus-related changes in parenchymal flow monitored continuously with H2 electrodes recorded short latency flow changes initiated in middle cortical layers. Activation that increased flow to particular barrels often led to reduced flow to adjacent cortex. Dye was injected into single penetrating arterioles from the pia of the fixed brain and injected into arterioles in slices of cortex where barrels were evident without stains. Arteriolar and venular domains at the surface were not directly related to underlying barrels. Capillary tufts in layer IV were mainly coincident with barrels. The matching between a capillary plexus (a vascular module) and a barrel (a functional neuronal unit) is a spatial organization of neurons and blood vessels that optimizes local interactions between the two. The paths of communication probably include: neurons to neurons, neurons to glia, neurons to vessels, glia to vessels, vessels to vessels and vessels to brain. Matching a functional grouping of neurons with a vascular module is an elegant means of reducing the risk of embarrassment for energy-expensive neuronal activity (ion pumping) while minimizing energy spent for delivery of the energy (cardiac output). For imaging studies this organization sets biological limits to spatial, temporal and magnitude resolution. Reduced flow to nearby inactive cortex enhances local differences.

    Title Localized Dynamic Changes in Cortical Blood Flow with Whisker Stimulation Corresponds to Matched Vascular and Neuronal Architecture of Rat Barrels.
    Date November 1993
    Journal Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
    Excerpt

    The hypothesis that functional groups of neurons in whisker barrels are linked to a modular organization of cortical vessels was tested. Endovascular casts demonstrated cortical capillary networks resembling the whisker barrel pattern that were fed from the middle cerebral artery. In histological sections, dense capillaries apparently were confined to single barrels and were supplied by one or a few penetrating arterioles. The barrel field in cortical layer IV was localized in relation to surface arteriovenous patterns. Living vessels were imaged through a closed cranial window under anesthesia with a fluorescence microscope and SIT or ICCD cameras. After intracarotid injections of fluorescein isothiocyanatedextrans, saline, or 3 microns latex beads, changes in arteriolar diameter, arteriovenous transit times (AVTTs), and bead velocities were measured. When row C whiskers were stroked at 4-5 Hz for 1 min, blood flow increased in arterioles that supplied contralateral row C barrels as demonstrated by postmortem histology. AVTTs slowed significantly in vessels supplying adjacent cortex. We hypothesize that cerebral vascular units supply individual whisker barrels and are functionally linked to them for precise focal regulation of cerebral blood flow.

    Title The Effect of Pancreatic Polypeptide on Glucose Disposal After Surgical Alterations of the Pancreas.
    Date December 1992
    Journal Annals of Surgery
    Excerpt

    Surgical alterations of the pancreas result in anatomic changes that can affect postoperative glucose metabolism. Pancreas transplantation results in reduction of beta-cell mass, systemic release of insulin, and denervation. The authors hypothesized that such alterations affect peripheral glucose disposal to induce an "insensitivity" to endogenously (systemically) released insulin. Additionally, they hypothesized that surgically induced deficiency of the postprandial hormone, pancreatic polypeptide, might contribute to altered glucose disposal. The authors studied two surgical models in dogs known to be devoid of pancreatic polypeptide--70% proximal pancreatectomy (PPx) and PPx plus distal pancreas autotransplantation (PAT/B). Oral glucose challenge and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies were performed before and after a 16-day "pulsed" infusion of pancreatic polypeptide. Both surgical procedures resulted in elevations in the integrated glucose response after oral glucose, which was not affected by pancreatic polypeptide infusion. Euglycemic clamp studies showed decreased hepatic glucose output (Ra) and overall glucose disposal (Rd) in the fasted state for both surgical groups. The transplant animals demonstrated significant decreases in Rd during the hyperinsulinemic challenge (3.2 +/- 0.01 versus 5.7 +/- 0.01 mg/kg/minute at 60 to 120 minutes for PAT/B versus control). After 16 days of pancreatic polypeptide infusion, however, basal Ra, as well as basal and 60- to 120-minute Rd values, were returned to control values in the transplant group. The authors conclude that pancreas transplantation results in altered glucose disposal, possibly due to an altered effectiveness of systemically released insulin. They conclude that pancreatic polypeptide is an important modulator of peripheral insulin action. Therefore, the role of pancreatic polypeptide must be taken into account when evaluating postoperative glucose metabolism in canine models of pancreas transplantation.

    Title Scale-dependent Responses of Plant Biodiversity to Nitrogen Enrichment.
    Date
    Journal Ecology
    Excerpt

    Experimental studies demonstrating that nitrogen (N) enrichment reduces plant diversity within individual plots have led to the conclusion that anthropogenic N enrichment is a threat to global biodiversity. These conclusions overlook the influence of spatial scale, however, as N enrichment may alter beta diversity (i.e., how similar plots are in their species composition), which would likely alter the degree to which N-induced changes in diversity within localities translate to changes in diversity at larger scales that are relevant to policy and management. Currently, it is unclear how N enrichment affects biodiversity at scales larger than a small plot. We synthesized data from 18 N-enrichment experiments across North America to examine the effects of N enrichment on plant species diversity at three spatial scales: small (within plots), intermediate (among plots), and large (within and among plots). We found that N enrichment reduced plant diversity within plots by an average of 25% (ranging from a reduction of 61% to an increase of 5%) and frequently enhanced beta diversity. The extent to which N enrichment altered beta diversity, however, varied substantially among sites (from a 22% increase to an 18% reduction) and was contingent on site productivity. Specifically, N enrichment enhanced beta diversity at low-productivity sites but reduced beta diversity at high-productivity sites. N-induced changes in beta diversity generally reduced the extent of species loss at larger scales to an average of 22% (ranging from a reduction of 54% to an increase of 18%). Our results demonstrate that N enrichment often reduces biodiversity at both local and regional scales, but that a focus on the effects of N enrichment on biodiversity at small spatial scales may often overestimate (and sometimes underestimate) declines in regional biodiversity by failing to recognize the effects of N on beta diversity.

    Title Pacific Ocean-wide Profile of Cyp1a1 Expression, Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios, and Organic Contaminant Burden in Sperm Whale Skin Biopsies.
    Date
    Journal Environmental Health Perspectives
    Excerpt

    Background: Ocean pollution affects marine organisms and ecosystems as well as humans. The International Oceanographic Commission recommends ocean health monitoring programs to investigate the presence of marine contaminants and the health of threatened species and the use of multiple and early-warning biomarker approaches.Objective: We explored the hypothesis that biomarker and contaminant analyses in skin biopsies of the threatened sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) could reveal geographical trends in exposure on an oceanwide scale.Methods: We analyzed cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression (by immunohistochemistry), stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (as general indicators of trophic position and latitude, respectively), and contaminant burdens in skin biopsies to explore regional trends in the Pacific Ocean.Results: Biomarker analyses revealed significant regional differences within the Pacific Ocean. CYP1A1 expression was highest in whales from the Galapagos, a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization World Heritage marine reserve, and was lowest in the sampling sites farthest away from continents. We examined the possible influence of the whales' sex, diet, or range and other parameters on regional variation in CYP1A1 expression, but data were inconclusive. In general, CYP1A1 expression was not significantly correlated with contaminant burdens in blubber. However, small sample sizes precluded detailed chemical analyses, and power to detect significant associations was limited.Conclusions: Our large-scale monitoring study was successful at identifying regional differences in CYP1A1 expression, providing a baseline for this known biomarker of exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. However, we could not identify factors that explained this variation. Future oceanwide CYP1A1 expression profiles in cetacean skin biopsies are warranted and could reveal whether globally distributed chemicals occur at biochemically relevant concentrations on a global basis, which may provide a measure of ocean integrity.


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