Surgical Specialist, Urologists
10 years of experience
Video profile
Accepting new patients
East Side Pioneers
Mayo Clinic
200 1st St Sw
Rochester, MN 55905
507-284-2511
Locations and availability (2)

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Harvard University (2000)
  • Currently 4 of 4 apples
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
Castle Connolly's Top Doctors™ (2012 - 2013)
Associations
American Board of Urology
Society of Urologic Oncology
American Urological Association

Affiliations ?

Dr. Boorjian is affiliated with 4 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Rochester Methodist Hospital
    Urology
    201 W Center St, Rochester, MN 55902
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • St Marys Hospital - Rochester
    Urology
    1216 2nd St SW, Rochester, MN 55902
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Fox Chase Cancer Center
    333 Cottman Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19111
  • Mayo Clinic Rochester - Rochester Methodist *
    200 1st St Sw, Rochester, MN 55905
  • * This information was reported to Vitals by the doctor or doctor's office.

    Publications & Research

    Dr. Boorjian has contributed to 76 publications.
    Title The Androgen Receptor and Stem Cell Pathways in Prostate and Bladder Cancers (review).
    Date January 2012
    Journal International Journal of Oncology
    Excerpt

    Bladder cancer is three times more common in men than in women. However, the physiological basis of the male predominance of bladder cancer remains poorly understood. A higher than expected association of prostate and bladder cancers has also been reported which may indicate a common mechanism of carcinogenesis. Consistent with this, androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) play essential roles in prostate carcinogenesis and are believed to play a role in bladder carcinogenesis. There is also evidence implicating cancer stem cells in prostate and bladder cancers. Indeed putative prostate and bladder cancer stem cells share some common molecular features. We highlight key proteins (CD49f, CD133, PTEN, CD44) which are implicated in both prostate and bladder cancers and are enriched in putative prostate and bladder cancer stem cells. We examine published chromatin immuno-precipitation studies analyzing the genome-wide distribution of the AR to identify AR association with, and by inference potential AR-regulation of, these loci. We discuss recent evidence indicating a role for the AR in the splicing of the key urological stem cell protein CD44. We propose a model whereby aberrant AR regulation of these putative stem cell proteins contributes to malignant transformation of prostate and bladder cells. For these reasons we propose that the relationship between androgens and cancer stem cell associated proteins warrants further investigation.

    Title Dynamic Prediction of Metastases After Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer.
    Date December 2011
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? One of two problems plagues virtually are existing post-prostatectomy prediction tools: either (1) they predict PSA recurrences (which are of unclear importance) or (2) the predictions they make are anchored at the date of surgery and are not updated based on how patients evolve over the postoperative years. Our prediction tool is a significant improvement over existing prediction tools in that it predicts the development of metastases which is a very important clinical endpoint that indicates incurable prostate cancer. Additionally, our tool allows for updated predictions at any point following radical prostatectomy by considering commonly available postoperative information (postoperative serum PSA and use of adjuvant therapies) to modify its risk predictions. The net result is a dynamic tool that renders clinically relevant predictions that change as the patient's clinical status changes throughout the postoperative course.

    Title Outcomes and Clinicopathologic Variables Associated with Late Recurrence After Nephrectomy for Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma.
    Date December 2011
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    To characterize the incidence and clinicopathologic factors associated with late recurrence after surgical resection for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) because the recurrence patterns >5 years after nephrectomy have been poorly described.

    Title Routine Adrenalectomy in Patients with Locally Advanced Renal Cell Cancer Does Not Offer Oncologic Benefit and Places a Significant Portion of Patients at Risk for an Asynchronous Metastasis in a Solitary Adrenal Gland.
    Date December 2011
    Journal European Urology
    Excerpt

    The indications for the removal of the ipsilateral adrenal gland in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the long-term outcomes have not been well studied.

    Title A Multidisciplinary Evaluation of Inter-reviewer Agreement of the Nephrometry Score and the Prediction of Long-term Outcomes.
    Date November 2011
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    The nephrometry score was introduced in 2009 as a way to quantify renal tumor complexity in a systematic way. However, the reproducibility of scoring has not been rigorously validated across specialty or level of training, nor has it been evaluated with regard to meaningful clinical outcomes.

    Title Urinary Cytology Has a Poor Performance for Predicting Invasive or High-grade Upper-tract Urothelial Carcinoma.
    Date October 2011
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    • To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of urine cytology for detecting aggressive disease in a multi-institutional cohort of patients undergoing extirpative surgery for upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).

    Title Anatomic Features of Enhancing Renal Masses Predict Malignant and High-grade Pathology: a Preoperative Nomogram Using the Renal Nephrometry Score.
    Date October 2011
    Journal European Urology
    Excerpt

    Counseling patients with enhancing renal mass currently occurs in the context of significant uncertainty regarding tumor pathology.

    Title Survival After Complete Surgical Resection of Multiple Metastases from Renal Cell Carcinoma.
    Date August 2011
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    Although a role for resection of solitary metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been described, the utility of surgery in patients with multiple sites of disease has been less well defined. The authors report the survival of patients who underwent complete metastasectomy for multiple RCC metastases.

    Title Long-term Survival After Radical Prostatectomy Versus External-beam Radiotherapy for Patients with High-risk Prostate Cancer.
    Date August 2011
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    The long-term survival of patients with high-risk prostate cancer was compared after radical prostatectomy (RRP) and after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).

    Title Editorial Comment.
    Date July 2011
    Journal Urology
    Title Routine Adrenalectomy is Unnecessary During Surgery for Large And/or Upper Pole Renal Tumors when the Adrenal Gland is Radiographically Normal.
    Date May 2011
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Concurrent adrenalectomy during renal surgery for renal cell carcinoma was once routine. More recent data suggest that adrenalectomy should be reserved for tumors 7 cm or greater, particularly those involving the upper pole. We evaluated the radiographic and pathological incidence of adrenal involvement in patients undergoing renal surgery for renal cell carcinoma 7 cm or greater.

    Title Racial Differences in Prediction of Time to Prostate Cancer Diagnosis in a Prospective Screening Cohort of High-risk Men: Effect of Tmprss2 Met160val.
    Date March 2011
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    To evaluate the TMPRSS2-ERG gene polymorphism with respect to self-identified race or ethnicity (SIRE), time to prostate cancer (PCA) diagnosis, and screening parameters in the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program, a prospective screening program for high-risk men.

    Title Implantation of Electromagnetic Transponders Following Radical Prostatectomy for Delivery of Imrt.
    Date February 2011
    Journal The Canadian Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Radiation therapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) has been associated with a survival benefit in both the adjuvant and salvage setting. Nevertheless, optimal targeting of the prostate bed following surgery remains challenging. The Calypso 4D Localization System (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA, USA) is a target positioning device that continuously monitors the location of three implantable electromagnetic transponders. We describe our technique of ultrasound-guided placement of these transponders into the prostate bed for adjuvant and salvage RT.

    Title Comparison of Cold and Warm Ischemia During Partial Nephrectomy in 660 Solitary Kidneys Reveals Predominant Role of Nonmodifiable Factors in Determining Ultimate Renal Function.
    Date February 2011
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Factors that determine renal function after partial nephrectomy are not well-defined, including the impact of cold vs warm ischemia, and the relative importance of modifiable and nonmodifiable factors. We studied these determinants in a large cohort of patients with a solitary functioning kidney undergoing partial nephrectomy.

    Title Clinicopathological Outcomes After Radical Cystectomy for Clinical T2 Urothelial Carcinoma: Further Evidence to Support the Use of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
    Date February 2011
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    To evaluate the clinicopathological outcomes for patients with clinical T2 (cT2) urothelial carcinoma treated with radical cystectomy (RC) without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC).

    Title Baseline Renal Function Status Limits Patient Eligibility to Receive Perioperative Chemotherapy for Invasive Bladder Cancer and is Minimally Affected by Radical Cystectomy.
    Date January 2011
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    To evaluate the proportion of patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC) who would be eligible to receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy before and after radical cystectomy based on renal function.

    Title Ureteroileal Anastomosis with Intraluminal Visualization: Technique and Outcomes.
    Date January 2011
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    Although the ileal conduit is the most well-established urinary diversion, the optimal technique for ureteroileal anastomosis remains controversial. Here, we present a technique for anastomosis of the ureters from within the lumen of the ileal conduit, under direct visualization. We examine the rate of ureteral stricture using this method, and review the literature regarding ureteroenteric anastomotic complications with various techniques.

    Title The Impact of Family History on Pathological and Clinical Outcomes in Non-syndromic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
    Date January 2011
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    To investigate the impact of family history on pathological and clinical outcomes after surgery for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) in patients with non-syndromic disease.

    Title The Sexual Dysfunction of Louis Xvi: a Consequence of International Politics, Anatomy, or Naïveté?
    Date September 2010
    Journal Bju International
    Title Treatment of the 2 to 3 Cm Renal Mass.
    Date August 2010
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Title The Effect of Gender on Response to Bacillus Calmette-guérin Therapy for Patients with Non-muscle-invasive Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder.
    Date August 2010
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    To determine the influence of gender on the outcome of patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy, as the role of hormone status in the pathogenesis of urothelial carcinoma and the response to treatment remains subject to debate.

    Title Use of Systemic Therapy and Factors Affecting Survival for Patients Undergoing Cytoreductive Nephrectomy.
    Date August 2010
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    To present a multi-institutional experience evaluating the use of systemic therapy in patients undergoing cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN), as prospective randomized trials showed a survival benefit for CN in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with immunotherapy, and these data have been extrapolated to support CN in the era of targeted therapy, but the likelihood that patients with metastatic kidney cancer who undergo CN will receive systemic treatment afterward remains poorly defined.

    Title Preoperative Hydronephrosis, Ureteroscopic Biopsy Grade and Urinary Cytology Can Improve Prediction of Advanced Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.
    Date July 2010
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    We evaluated the value of hydronephrosis, ureteroscopic biopsy grade and urinary cytology to predict advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

    Title The Effect of Gleason Score on the Predictive Value of Prostate-specific Antigen Doubling Time.
    Date June 2010
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    To evaluate the influence of the pathological Gleason score on the predictive value of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (DT), as this variable predicts a patient's risk of disease progression both before and after definitive therapy for prostate cancer, and there is an inverse correlation between the Gleason score and PSA production.

    Title Robot-assisted Partial Nephrectomy: a Large Single-institutional Experience.
    Date June 2010
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    To report experience with 100 robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) operations performed at our institution. Nephron-sparing surgery is an established treatment for patients with small renal masses. The laparoscopic approach has emerged as an alternative to open nephron-sparing surgery, but it is recognized to be technically challenging. The robotic surgical system may enable faster and greater technical proficiency, facilitating a minimally invasive approach to more difficult lesions while reducing ischemia time.

    Title Editorial Comment.
    Date May 2010
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Title Histological Subtype is an Independent Predictor of Outcome for Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.
    Date April 2010
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    There are significant differences in clinicopathological features among renal cell carcinoma histological subtypes but controversy exists regarding the independent impact of histological subtype on patient outcome after nephrectomy. We examined the significance of histological subtype on progression to distant metastasis and cancer specific death after nephrectomy.

    Title Evaluation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator in a High-risk Screening Population.
    Date March 2010
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    Study Type - Diagnostic (exploratory cohort) Level of Evidence 2b.

    Title The Impact of Positive Surgical Margins on Mortality Following Radical Prostatectomy During the Prostate Specific Antigen Era.
    Date March 2010
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    The presence of a positive surgical margin at radical prostatectomy has been linked to an increased risk of postoperative biochemical recurrence. We evaluated the impact of margin status on subsequent clinical progression and mortality.

    Title Editorial Comment.
    Date February 2010
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Title T-cell Co-regulatory Molecule Expression in Renal Angiomyolipoma and Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
    Date January 2010
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    To investigate the expression of B7-H3 and B7-H1 in renal angiomyolipoma (AML) tumors and the related, devastating syndrome of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). We recently reported the high expression of T-cell co-regulatory B7-H ligands in renal cell carcinoma tumor vasculature and tumor cells. AML is a highly vascular tumor that most frequently emanates from the kidney. Events leading to its pathogenesis remain enigmatic and understudied.

    Title Radiation Therapy After Radical Prostatectomy: Impact on Metastasis and Survival.
    Date November 2009
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Although secondary radiation therapy decreases the risk of biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy, its impact on metastasis and survival is less well established. We evaluated the impact of adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy on clinical progression and mortality.

    Title Surgery for Vena Caval Tumor Extension in Renal Cancer.
    Date November 2009
    Journal Current Opinion in Urology
    Excerpt

    We review recent efforts designed to improve the preoperative assessment, minimize the surgical morbidity, and develop multimodal treatments for patient with renal cell carcinoma and venous tumor thrombus.

    Title Fibrin Clot Inhibitor Medication and Efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-guerin for Bladder Urothelial Cancer.
    Date October 2009
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Studies suggest that the antitumor effect of bacillus Calmette-Guerin depends on bacillus Calmette-Guerin attachment to fibronectin at fibrin clot formation sites and medications that impact fibrin clot formation may modify bacillus activity. We evaluated the impact of fibrin clot inhibitors on the clinical efficacy of bacillus Calmette-Guerin.

    Title The Evolving Management of Small Renal Masses.
    Date September 2009
    Journal Current Oncology Reports
    Excerpt

    The incidence of small renal masses (SRMs) continues to rise, largely because of the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging for abdominal symptomatology. Clinical management must balance the risk of disease progression from renal cell carcinoma in these tumors against the potential morbidity of treatment, particularly in elderly patients or those with multiple comorbidities. Moreover, a significant minority of SRMs represent benign lesions. This article reviews the current data for surgical excision, cryoablation, radiofrequency ablation, and active surveillance of SRMs. Surgical excision, predominantly in the form of nephron-sparing surgery, remains the standard of care because of its durable oncologic and favorable functional outcomes. Active surveillance and ablative technologies have emerged as alternatives to surgery in select patients based on short-term oncologic data. Nevertheless, the extent to which treatment alters the natural history of SRMs has yet to be established.

    Title Carcinosarcoma of the Prostate Replacing the Entire Lower Genitourinary Tract.
    Date September 2009
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    Less than 100 cases of prostate carcinosarcoma have been described in published studies. Most of these cases describe symptoms due to bladder outlet obstruction that typically results in transurethral resection of the prostate. Our patient presented with tenesmus and stranguria due to prostate carcinosarcoma that developed years after being treated with external radiation and androgen deprivation for prostate adenocarcinoma. Because of the patient's escalating symptoms, a pelvic exenteration with creation of urinary and fecal diversions was performed. Despite the dismal survival associated with prostate carcinosarcoma, palliative surgical extirpation can be successful in patients with debilitating pain.

    Title Natural History, Growth Kinetics, and Outcomes of Untreated Clinically Localized Renal Tumors Under Active Surveillance.
    Date July 2009
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    The growth kinetics of untreated solid organ malignancies are not defined. Radiographic active surveillance (AS) of renal tumors in patients unfit or unwilling to undergo intervention provides an opportunity to quantify the natural history of untreated localized tumors. The authors report the radiographic growth kinetics of renal neoplasms during a period of surveillance.

    Title Expression and Significance of Androgen Receptor Coactivators in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder.
    Date May 2009
    Journal Endocrine-related Cancer
    Excerpt

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder is approximately three times more common in men than women. While the etiology for this gender difference in incidence remains unknown, a role for androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been suggested. The mechanisms by which AR activity is regulated in UC cells, however, are largely elusive. Here, we explore the significance of coregulators that are critical for the formation of a functional AR transcriptional complex, in UC cells. Using two AR-positive UC cell lines, TCC-SUP and UMUC3, we demonstrate the expression of the coactivators NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3, CREBBP, and EP300 in UC cells. small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of the AR or any of these coactivators markedly impacted cell viability and abrogated androgen-dependent cell proliferation. Noteworthy, contrary to AR-positive prostate cancer cells, expression of these AR-associated coactivators was not androgen regulated in UC cells. To assess the clinical relevance of coactivator expression, we performed immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections from 55 patients with UC of the bladder. We found that while 24 out of 55 (44%) of tumors expressed the AR, each of the coactivators was expressed by 85-100% of the bladder cancers. Moreover, we noted a significant downregulation of NCOA1 expression in tumors versus adjacent, non-tumor bladder urothelium, with a mean of 68% (range 0-100) of tumor cells demonstrating NCOA1 staining versus a mean of 81% (range 0-90) of non-tumor cells (P=0.03). Taken together, our data suggest an important role for AR-associated coactivators in UC and point toward differences in the regulation of AR activity between bladder and prostate cancer cells.

    Title Expression of Immunosuppresive B7-h3 Ligand by Hormone-treated Prostate Cancer Tumors and Metastases.
    Date April 2009
    Journal Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
    Excerpt

    Prostate cancer cells uniformly express the immune cell inhibitory B7-H3 ligand. Enhanced B7-H3 expression correlates with increased disease progression and cancer-specific death after radical prostatectomy (RP).

    Title Advances in Robotic Prostatectomy.
    Date January 2009
    Journal Current Urology Reports
    Excerpt

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) has emerged as an important treatment option for localized prostate cancer. As such, methods to improve instrumentation, technique, outcomes, and cost require continued investigation. For example, a recently introduced four-armed robotic system has limited the need for bedside assistants, while an enhanced understanding of pelvic anatomy as visualized robotically has led to valuable modifications in operative technique. Increased surgeon experience has decreased perioperative morbidity, and has resulted in short-term pathologic and functional outcomes that compare favorably with open radical prostatectomy. Meanwhile, quality-of-life studies using validated instruments are helping to define the time course of patient recovery. Nevertheless, costs associated with robotic surgery remain daunting. As the follow-up of patients treated with RALP matures, future studies, ideally with a prospective, randomized design, will be needed to establish the long-term oncologic efficacy of the procedure and to evaluate the overall advantages of RALP compared with open surgery.

    Title Outcomes Following Partial Nephrectomy by Tumor Size.
    Date November 2008
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Pathological evaluation of renal tumors treated with ablative and observational therapy is often limited and renal tumor size may be the only prognostic index available. We established long-term survival in patients following partial nephrectomy according to tumor size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of our nephrectomy registry was performed to identify patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for localized (NX/N0/cM0) solid renal tumors 7 cm or less at our institution between 1970 and 2004. Overall, cancer specific, distant metastasis-free and local recurrence-free survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and stratified according to tumor size in all tumors treated and in patients with pathologically confirmed renal cell carcinoma. RESULTS: We identified 798 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for a 7 cm or less renal tumor. Median patient age was 63.5 years and median tumor size was 3.0 cm. Renal cell carcinoma was present in 637 tumors (80%). Overall, cancer specific, metastasis-free and local recurrence-free survival significantly decreased with each 1 cm increase in size in all tumors treated and in those with pathologically confirmed renal cell carcinoma (each p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Partial nephrectomy is associated with durable cancer control in patients with renal tumors 7 cm or less, of which most represent renal cell carcinoma. Tumor size represents a valuable prognostic index in the absence of pathological evaluation of the entire tumor specimen. These results may be used for comparison against outcomes following ablative and observational therapy, for which tumor size is the only prognostic index available.

    Title Surgical Management of High Risk Prostate Cancer: the Mayo Clinic Experience.
    Date November 2008
    Journal Urologic Oncology
    Excerpt

    Although the prostate specific antigen (PSA) era has altered the clinical and demographic characteristics of men with newly-diagnosed prostate cancer, the impact on patients with high risk disease has been less predictable. We have long advocated aggressive surgical resection for patients with high risk prostate cancer at the Mayo Clinic, including patients with clinical T3 tumors, and have reported our results as well of radical prostatectomy with adjuvant hormonal therapy in the setting of lymph node positive disease. At the same time, multiple predictive models have been developed to assess the risk of disease progression following definitive therapy for prostate cancer. One such model is pretreatment risk group stratification, based on patients' PSA at diagnosis, biopsy Gleason score, and clinical stage. Here, we will review our institution's experience with surgical treatment for men with high risk prostate cancer, and will address the benefits and potential pitfalls of the pretreatment risk group classification model for high risk patients.

    Title Impact of Obesity on Clinicopathologic Outcomes After Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy.
    Date October 2008
    Journal Journal of Endourology / Endourological Society
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on pathologic and functional outcomes after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 400 consecutive patients who underwent RALP at the Mayo Clinic between 2002 and 2006. Patients were categorized as normal weight (BMI <25 kg/ m(2), n = 94), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2), n = 187), and obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2), n = 119). Clinicopathologic features of the groups were compared, and logistical regression analysis was used to assess the associations of BMI with pathologic and functional outcomes after RALP. RESULTS: Overweight and obese patients were more likely to have pT(3/4) disease (P = 0.0024) and pathologic Gleason 7 to 10 cancers (P < 0.0001). Overall, 9/94 (9.6%) normal-weight patients had a positive surgical margin (SM), compared with 25/187 (13.4%) overweight patients and 21/119 (17.6%) obese men (P = 0.087). On multivariate analysis, however, increasing BMI was not significantly associated with an increased risk of positive SM (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.72-1.76, P = 0.61). In addition, although obese men had longer operative times (P = 0.049) and greater intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.04), we found no association between BMI and transfusion requirement (P = 0.34), length of hospital stay (P = 0.54), or the rates of early (P = 0.37) or late (P = 0.86) complications. Moreover, in those patients with follow-up available at 1 year after RALP, obesity did not impact the return of continence (P = 0.62) or potency (P = 0.13). CONCLUSION: BMI was not an independent predictor of positive SM, complications, incontinence, or erectile dysfunction after RALP. These data suggest that RALP may offer equivalent margin rates and functional outcomes for patients across BMI.

    Title Tumor Cell and Tumor Vasculature Expression of B7-h3 Predict Survival in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Although the prognostic value of B7-H1 and B7-H4 expression by tumor cells in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has been established, the role of B7-H3 is unknown. As such, we evaluated the association of B7-H3 expression with clinicopathologic outcomes in patients treated for ccRCC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Nephrectomy specimens from 743 consecutive patients treated for ccRCC at our institution from 1990 to 1999 were evaluated for B7-H3 expression by immunohistochemical staining. Associations of B7-H3 expression with clinical and pathologic features were evaluated using chi2 and Fisher's exact tests. Associations of B7-H3 expression with death from RCC were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: B7-H3 expression by tumor cells or tumor vasculature was noted in 17% and 95% of specimens, respectively. The presence of either tumor cell or diffuse tumor vasculature expression of B7-H3 was present in 46% of specimens and was associated with multiple adverse clinical and pathologic features. After multivariable adjustment, the presence of either tumor cell or diffuse tumor vasculature B7-H3 expression was significantly associated with an increased risk of death from RCC (risk ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.84; P = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Both tumor cell and tumor vasculature B7-H3 expression convey important information to predict ccRCC outcomes. Collectively, our past and present studies pertaining to B7-H ligand expression indicate that ccRCC may use redundant mechanisms to compromise host antitumoral immunity. Future studies will focus on the effect of combined B7-H ligand expression in RCC.

    Title Predicting Disease Progression After Nephrectomy for Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma: the Utility of Prognostic Models and Molecular Biomarkers.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    Disease progression after nephrectomy for pathologically localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with a significant mortality rate, given the limited efficacy of available treatment regimens for metastatic disease. As such, several adjuvant trials have been designed to treat patients at particularly high risk for postsurgical RCC progression. Several different prognostic models designed to identify patients at high risk of disease progression are available. Although these available predictive models provide a reasonable assessment of patients' risks of disease progression, the accuracy of these models may further be improved via the incorporation of molecular prognostic biomarkers. Although numerous candidate molecules have been described, few have been specifically assessed for the association with disease progression after nephrectomy. IMP-3, CXCR3, p53, Survivin, cIAP1, B7-H1, and B7-H4 have all been associated with disease progression after nephrectomy. The incorporation of 1 or several of these biomarkers may increase the accuracy of currently available prognostic models and thereby facilitate the appropriate use of adjuvant therapies aimed at preventing future disease progression. As such, the authors review the current prognostic tools for predicting disease progression for localized RCC, and detail studies to date that have evaluated various biomarkers in this setting.

    Title T-cell Coregulatory Molecule Expression in Urothelial Cell Carcinoma: Clinicopathologic Correlations and Association with Survival.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Aberrant expression of T-cell coregulatory molecules has been investigated as a mechanism by which certain cancers may evade host immune surveillance. We evaluated expression of the T-cell coregulators B7-H1, B7-H3, and PD-1 in urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry for B7-H1, B7-H3, and PD-1 was done on paraffin-embedded sections from 318 consecutive patients with UCC who underwent radical cystectomy. Expression was correlated with clinicopathologic outcomes and postoperative survival. RESULTS: B7-H3 was widely expressed in UCC, as 222 of 314 (70.7%) tumors showed positive staining. Expression of B7-H3 in UCC was significantly increased compared with adjacent, nontumor urothelium, as a median of 70% of tumor cells expressed B7-H3, compared with 20% of cells in nontumor specimens (P < 0.001). The increase in B7-H3 expression was independent of tumor stage (P = 0.13). Expression of B7-H1 by UCC tumors (P < 0.001) and PD-1 by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (P = 0.012) were significantly associated with increased pathologic stage. Patients who had received intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin before cystectomy tended to show increased expression of B7-H3 (P = 0.023) and PD-1 (P = 0.071) but were less likely to express B7-H1 (P = 0.027). Moreover, for the subset of patients with organ-confined disease (n = 167), B7-H1 expression independently predicted all-cause mortality after cystectomy (hazard ratio, 3.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.74-5.79; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: B7-H3 is highly expressed in UCC across tumor stages, whereas B7-H1 and PD-1 expression are associated with advanced disease. B7-H1 expression predicts mortality after cystectomy for patients with organ-confined tumors. These molecules may represent novel diagnostic or prognostic markers, as well as therapeutic targets, for patients with UCC.

    Title Surgical Resection of Isolated Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Recurrence of Renal Cell Carcinoma Following Nephrectomy.
    Date August 2008
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Durable survival has been reported following the resection of solitary metachronous metastasis of renal cell carcinoma at sites including the lung, bone and adrenal. We report our experience with resection of isolated retroperitoneal lymph node recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent surgical resection of isolated metachronous recurrence of renal cell carcinoma in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes following radical nephrectomy for pT(any)N(any)M0 tumors were identified (group 1). Progression-free and cancer specific survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared to survival in patients who had pT(any)N+M0 disease at nephrectomy (group 2) and in patients who underwent complete resection of a solitary metachronous metastasis at other sites (group 3). RESULTS: A total of 15 patients underwent resection of isolated retroperitoneal lymph node recurrence of renal cell carcinoma. Median time from nephrectomy to resection was 10.3 months (range 3 to 159). No patient received systemic therapy before resection. Recurrence was asymptomatic in all except 1 patient. No intraoperative or postoperative mortality occurred. Six patients subsequently died of renal cell carcinoma at a median of 18 months (range 6 to 33.6) following resection. Median progression-free survival in groups 1 to 3 was 9.1, 8.7 and 15.6 months, while median cancer specific survival was 33.3, 20.8 and 46.9 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Resection of isolated retroperitoneal lymph node recurrence may be associated with survival rates approaching those of resection of solitary metastasis at other sites. The decreased time to progression relative to patients with resected metastasis at other sites likely reflects the aggressive biology of nodal disease.

    Title Surgical Management, Complications, and Outcome of Radical Nephrectomy with Inferior Vena Cava Tumor Thrombectomy Facilitated by Vascular Bypass.
    Date August 2008
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the technique, complications, and outcomes of vascular bypass during radical nephrectomy and tumor thrombectomy for patients with renal cell carcinoma and venous tumor thrombus. The indications and results for venovenous bypass (VVB) versus cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were reviewed as well. METHODS: We identified 41 patients who had undergone radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy requiring VVB (n = 13) or CPB (n = 28) at our institution from 1970 to 2005 for renal cell carcinoma with venous tumor thrombus. The clinicopathologic variables and complication rates were compared between the VVB and CPB patients. The postoperative cancer-specific survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: The patients undergoing VVB experienced significantly shorter median bypass times (P = 0.015), operative times (P <0.001), and anesthesia times (P <0.001) compared with those treated with CPB. In addition, VVB was associated with trends toward decreased median intraoperative blood loss (1200 mL versus 2725 mL, P = 0.336), decreased blood/blood products transfused (median 2300 mL versus 4275 mL, P = 0.256), and decreased length of hospitalization (median 7 days versus 9 days, P = 0.078). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was not significantly different for patients undergoing VVB (29.8%) versus those treated with CPB (36.4%; P = 0.989). CONCLUSIONS: VVB was associated with significantly shorter bypass, operative, and anesthesia times, as well as trends toward decreased blood loss and hospital stay. Although the choice of bypass technique must be individualized according to the assessment of the bulk of thrombus to be resected, our results support the continued use of VVB in the management of renal cell carcinoma with extensive venous tumor thrombus, when appropriate.

    Title Timing of Androgen Deprivation Therapy and Its Impact on Survival After Radical Prostatectomy: a Matched Cohort Study.
    Date May 2008
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    We assessed the impact of the timing of androgen deprivation on disease progression after radical prostatectomy for patients with localized prostate cancer.

    Title Mayo Clinic Validation of the D'amico Risk Group Classification for Predicting Survival Following Radical Prostatectomy.
    Date March 2008
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    The D'Amico risk group classification was originally developed to estimate the risk of biochemical recurrence following treatment for localized prostate cancer. We externally validated the ability of the risk groups to predict clinical progression, and cancer specific and overall survival following radical prostatectomy, and identify predictors of outcome in patients with high risk disease.

    Title Impact of Prostate-specific Antigen Testing on the Clinical and Pathological Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy for Gleason 8-10 Cancers.
    Date February 2008
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the clinical and pathological outcomes after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) have changed since the advent of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for patients with Gleason 8-10 cancers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 584 men treated with RRP between 1988 and 2001 for pathological Gleason 8-10 tumours. Patients were divided for analysis by year of surgery, i.e. early (1988-93), mid (1994-97) and late PSA era (1998-2001). Survival rates after RRP were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the effect of clinicopathological factors on outcome was analysed using Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: The median preoperative PSA level decreased from 15 ng/mL in the early to 10 ng/mL in the late PSA era (P < 0.001), while the rate of organ-confined disease increased from 22.9% to 35.1% (P = 0.007). However, the 7-year biochemical recurrence-free (37% vs 45%, P = 0.087) and cancer-specific survival (89% to 91%, P = 0.73) did not change significantly from the early to the late PSA era. Increased preoperative PSA level (P < 0.001), seminal vesicle invasion (P < 0.001) and positive lymph nodes (P = 0.02) were associated with biochemical recurrence. Seminal vesicle invasion (P = 0.005), positive nodes (P < 0.001) and positive surgical margins (P = 0.03) predicted death from cancer. CONCLUSION: Although the pathological features of Gleason 8-10 cancers have become more favourable over the PSA era, survival has not changed. This lack of improvement in clinical outcome probably reflects the inherent biological aggressiveness of these cancers. While RRP provides long-term cancer control in a subset of these patients, continued investigation of multi-modal treatment options is warranted.

    Title Radical Nephrectomy for Pt1a Renal Masses May Be Associated with Decreased Overall Survival Compared with Partial Nephrectomy.
    Date February 2008
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We reviewed our surgical experience with small renal tumors, comparing overall survival in patients treated with radical and partial nephrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using our nephrectomy registry we identified patients with sporadic, unilateral, solitary and localized renal masses 4 cm or less who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy between 1989 and 2003. Patients with a solitary kidney or impaired renal function at presentation were excluded, leaving 648 available for analysis. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and associations with death were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: At last followup 146 patients had died of any cause and 502 were alive at a median of 7.1 years. Radical and partial nephrectomy was performed in 290 and 358 patients, respectively. In all patients radical nephrectomy was not significantly associated with death from any cause compared with partial nephrectomy (RR 1.12, p = 0.52). However, there was a significant interaction with age, leading us to stratify our analysis at the median age of 65 years. In 327 patients younger than 65 years radical nephrectomy was significantly associated with death from any cause compared with partial nephrectomy (RR 2.16, p = 0.02). The increased risk of death persisted after adjusting for year of surgery (p = 0.02), preoperative creatinine (p = 0.03), Charlson-Romano index (p = 0.04), symptoms at presentation (p = 0.02), diabetes at presentation (p = 0.03) and histology (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that, compared with partial nephrectomy, radical nephrectomy is associated with decreased overall survival in younger patients with small renal masses.

    Title The Role of Partial Nephrectomy for the Management of Sporadic Renal Angiomyolipoma.
    Date January 2008
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: Angiomyolipoma is a benign renal tumor that has a propensity to grow over time and may cause local complications. Given the benign nature of these lesions, renal-preserving treatments are favored. We evaluated our experience with nephron-sparing surgery for renal angiomyolipoma. METHODS: We reviewed our institutional nephrectomy registry to identify patients treated with nephron-sparing surgery for renal angiomyolipoma between 1970 and 2004. Patients with a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis were excluded. Patient demographics, perioperative complications, and postoperative outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: We identified 58 patients treated with nephron-sparing surgery for sporadic renal angiomyolipoma, including 44 women and 14 men. The median tumor size was 3.9 cm (range, 0.8-12.5 cm). In 7 patients (12%), several ipsilateral angiomyolipomas were resected, whereas 2 patients were treated with nephron-sparing surgery for bilateral angiomyolipomas. The overall early complication rate was 12%, including a urine leak in 3 (5%) patients. At a median postoperative follow-up of 8 years (range, 1-31 years), 2 (3.4%) patients had radiographic evidence of local recurrence, although no patient experienced symptom recurrence. The median preoperative serum creatinine level was 1.0 mg/dL (range, 0.5-3.9 mg/dL), and the median creatinine level at last follow-up was 1.1 mg/dL (range, 0.6-3.6 mg/dL). No patient developed de novo chronic renal insufficiency after nephron-sparing surgery, including 4 patients treated for angiomyolipomas in a solitary kidney. CONCLUSIONS: Nephron-sparing surgery for sporadic renal angiomyolipomas offers preservation of renal function and is associated with acceptable complication and low local recurrence rates. The results of this study support nephron-sparing surgery for these lesions.

    Title Long-term Outcome After Radical Prostatectomy for Patients with Lymph Node Positive Prostate Cancer in the Prostate Specific Antigen Era.
    Date October 2007
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: While the incidence of lymph node positive prostate cancer has decreased during the prostate specific antigen era, the optimal treatment of these patients remains in question. We examined the impact of lymph node metastases on the outcome of patients following radical prostatectomy and investigated prognostic factors that affect survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 507 men treated with radical prostatectomy between 1988 and 2001 who had lymph node positive disease. Of the 507 patients 455 (89.7%) were treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy. Median followup was 10.3 years (IQR 6.1-13.5). Postoperative survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the impact of various clinicopathological factors on outcome was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: Ten-year cancer specific survival for patients with positive lymph nodes was 85.8% with 56% of the men free from biochemical recurrence at last followup. On multivariate analysis pathological Gleason score 8-10 (p = 0.004), positive surgical margins (p = 0.016), nondiploid tumor ploidy (p = 0.023) and 2 or greater positive nodes (p = 0.001) were adverse predictors of cancer specific survival. Tumor stage, year of surgery and total number of nodes removed did not significantly affect outcome. Adjuvant hormonal therapy decreased the risk of biochemical recurrence (p <0.001) and local recurrence (p = 0.004) but it was not associated with systemic progression (p = 0.4) or cancer specific survival (p = 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Radical prostatectomy may offer long-term survival to patients with lymph node positive prostate cancer. Gleason score, margin status, tumor ploidy and the number of involved nodes predict survival, while the role of adjuvant hormonal therapy continues to be defined.

    Title Phase 1/2 Clinical Trial of Interferon Alpha2b and Weekly Liposome-encapsulated All-trans Retinoic Acid in Patients with Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma.
    Date September 2007
    Journal Journal of Immunotherapy (hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
    Excerpt

    To evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and biologic effects of weekly liposome-encapsulated all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA-IV) plus interferon alpha2b (IFN) in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Twenty-six patients with metastatic RCC were treated on a phase 1/2 trial with weekly ATRA-IV and IFN SQ daily 5 d/wk. Twelve patients received ATRA-IV at three dose levels (60, 75, and 90 mg/m2) according to phase 1 methodology, and 14 additional patients received 90 mg/m2. Response was assessed according to an intention-to-treat analysis. Serum retinoic acid (RA) concentrations were assayed and peripheral blood mononuclear cell mRNA expression of RA and IFN-inducible genes (RARalpha, RARbeta2, IRF1, CRABP2, and TRAIL) were examined. No dose limiting toxicities occurred at 60 mg/m2; grade 3 leukopenia affected 1/6 patients at 75 mg/m2, whereas 3 patients received 90 mg/m2 without a dose limiting toxicities. Fourteen additional patients received 90 mg/m2 ATRA-IV without grade 3/4 toxicity. Five of 26 (19%) patients achieved a major response, with a median duration of 14 months (range 9 to 23); 9 additional patients (41%) demonstrated stable disease or minor response lasting > or =4 months. No significant differences in serum (RA) after ATRA infusion were detected between weeks 1 and 8 of treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell mRNA expression did not correlate with clinical response. The addition of weekly ATRA-IV to IFN therapy is feasible and well tolerated, resulting in sustainable increased serum (RA). This regimen demonstrates antitumor activity in metastatic RCC, and suggests ATRA-IV augments IFN therapy.

    Title Results of Inferior Vena Caval Interruption by Greenfield Filter, Ligation or Resection During Radical Nephrectomy and Tumor Thrombectomy.
    Date August 2007
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Surgical resection for patients with renal cell carcinoma and venous tumor thrombus may require interruption of the inferior vena cava using a Greenfield filter, ligation or resection. We describe the indications, technique, complications and outcomes of vena caval interruption during nephrectomy with tumor thrombectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 160 patients treated for level II-IV tumor thrombus at our institution between 1970 and 2004. Operative reports were reviewed to establish vena caval interruption. All patients who underwent interruption were assessed for postoperative disability according to the American Venous Forum International Consensus Committee. RESULTS: Vena caval interruption was performed in 40 of 160 cases (25%), including 14 level II, 10 level III and 16 level IV thrombi. A total of 34 patients (85%) were symptomatic at presentation. A Greenfield filter was deployed before cavotomy closure in 4 of 160 patients (2.5%) for bland thrombus of the infrarenal vena cava. Vena caval ligation was used for bland thrombus that completely occluded the infrarenal vena cava in 23 of 160 patients (14.4%), while segmental vena caval resection was performed for tumor thrombus growing into the wall of the vena cava or for tumor thrombus that interfaced with bland thrombus in 13 of 160 (8.1%). Postoperatively no case was class 3 disability, 12 of 40 (30%) were class 2, 12 of 40 (30%) were class 1 and 16 of 40 (40%) showed no disability. CONCLUSIONS: The need to interrupt the inferior vena cava is not infrequent in patients undergoing radical nephrectomy and tumor thrombectomy, and it may be well tolerated postoperatively. Management should be based on the degree of venous occlusion and the presence of bland thrombus.

    Title Hand-assisted Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy for Upper Urinary Tract Transitional Cell Carcinoma.
    Date July 2007
    Journal Jsls : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: We report our experience with hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (HALN) for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma and compare our results with a contemporary series of open nephroureterectomy (ON) performed at our institution. METHODS: Between August 1996 and May 2003, 90 patients underwent nephroureterectomy for upper-tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Thirty-eight patients underwent HALN, while 52 had an ON. End-points of comparison included operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), intraoperative and postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, pathologic grade and stage of tumor, and tumor recurrence. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 72.3 and 70.6 years in the ON and HALN groups, respectively. Mean operative duration was 243 minutes (ON) and 244 minutes (HALN), with an EBL of 478mL in the open group versus 191 mL in the hand-assisted group (P<0.001). No intraoperative complications occurred, but postoperative complications occurred in 4% and 11% of the ON and HALN groups, respectively (P=0.21). The mean hospital duration was 7.1 days (ON) versus 4.6 days (HALN) (P<0.01). No difference existed in the pathologic grade or stage distribution of urothelial tumors between the 2 groups. The mean follow-up was 51.0 months in the ON group and 31.7 months in the HALN group. Recurrence of urothelial carcinoma occurred in 50% of patients who underwent ON and 40% treated by HALN (P=0.38) at a median interval of 9.1 and 7.7 months, respectively, after surgery. CONCLUSION: Hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy is an effective modality for the treatment of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Patients benefited from less intraoperative blood loss and a shorter hospitalization with an equivalent intermediate-term oncologic outcome compared with that of the open approach.

    Title Renal Cell Carcinoma: Vena Caval Involvement.
    Date June 2007
    Journal Bju International
    Title A Case of Incidental Adrenocortical Oncocytoma.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Nature Clinical Practice. Urology
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: A 39-year-old female presented with an incidentally discovered left adrenal mass. She denied any history of hypertension, headaches, palpitations, muscle weakness, bruising easily, or fatigue. Physical examination was unremarkable. INVESTIGATIONS: Physical examination, laboratory analyses, CT scan and MRI. DIAGNOSIS: Oncocytic adrenocortical tumor, or adrenal oncocytoma. MANAGEMENT: Adrenalectomy, gross and histopathologic examination, and follow-up radiologic imaging.

    Title Increased Expression of the Polycomb Group Gene, Ezh2, in Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: The Polycomb group gene, EZH2, functions as a transcriptional repressor involved in gene silencing. Amplification of EZH2 has been reported in several malignancies, including prostate, breast, and lymphoma. We evaluated EZH2 mRNA and protein expression in bladder specimens from patients and the EZH2 mRNA expression in five bladder cancer cell lines. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: EZH2 mRNA expression was assessed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) in 38 bladder tissue specimens. We also evaluated 39 bladder cancer specimens for EZH2 protein expression using immunohistochemistry with affinity-purified antibodies to human EZH2. In addition, five human bladder cancer cell lines were analyzed by RT-PCR for EZH2 mRNA expression. RESULTS: Five of 14 (36%) nontumor bladder specimens versus 21 of 24 (88%) bladder tumors showed EZH2 mRNA expression (P=0.003). All of the invasive tumors (10 of 10) had detectable EZH2 mRNA expression, compared with 11 of 14 (79%) superficial tumors. In addition, EZH2 mRNA expression was noted in 100% (16 of 16) of high-grade bladder tumors versus 50% (4 of 8) of low-grade tumors (P=0.01). EZH2 protein expression, meanwhile, was increased in neoplastic tissue compared with nontumor urothelium (78% versus 69% of nuclei, P<0.005). There were no differences in EZH2 protein levels between superficial and invasive tumors. High-grade tumors had increased EZH2 staining compared with normal urothelium (78% versus 68%, P<0.005), whereas low-grade lesions did not. Four of five human bladder cancer cell lines expressed high levels of EZH2, whereas only low levels were detected in one cell line. CONCLUSIONS: We report a significant increase in EZH2 expression in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder compared with normal urothelium. These data suggest that similar to other human malignancies, increased EZH2 expression correlates with oncogenesis of the bladder.

    Title Five-alpha-reductase Expression in Benign and Malignant Urothelium: Correlation with Disease Characteristics and Outcome.
    Date December 2005
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate 5-alpha-reductase (5alphaR) expression in benign and malignant urothelium and to assess the relationship between 5alphaR expression and tumor stage, tumor grade, and clinical outcome in patients with urothelial carcinoma/transitional cell carcinoma. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry for 5alphaR on 53 urothelial specimens from 36 patients with transitional cell carcinoma treated at our institution between June 2002 and July 2003. For each tumor and the adjacent nontumor urothelium, a semiquantitative staining score was calculated. We used t tests and analysis of variance to compare the staining score across groups. Kaplan-Meier and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between 5alphaR expression and clinical outcome. RESULTS: 5alphaR was expressed throughout the non-neoplastic urothelium. Nontumor urothelium had greater mean staining scores than did tumor specimens (160.1 versus 105.5, P <0.01). Low staining scores were associated with high grade (P <0.05), Stage pT3, pT4, and pTis (P <0.05), and disease progression (P <0.05). A staining score less than the median was a risk factor for progression (odds ratio 6.2, P <0.01) on univariate regression analysis. Patients with a staining score less than the median had a greater likelihood of disease progression (log-rank P <0.05) and cause-specific mortality (log-rank P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated 5alphaR expression in human urothelium and found that expression is decreased in transitional cell carcinoma in relation to tumor grade and stage. Decreased 5alphaR expression was associated with disease progression and cause-specific mortality.

    Title Bladder Cancer After Managing Upper Urinary Tract Transitional Cell Carcinoma: Predictive Factors and Pathology.
    Date November 2005
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patients with a history of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract (UUT) to determine the incidence, pathological distribution, and risk factors for developing subsequent bladder tumours. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1993 and 2003, 103 patients were treated at our institution for UUT-TCC. We reviewed demographic, clinical, surgical, and pathological data from these patients at a median follow-up of 38.7 months, and used univariate and multivariate analyses with logistic regression modelling to determine prognostic variables for bladder recurrences. RESULTS: In all, 51 (49.5%) patients developed bladder tumours after treatment for UUT-TCC, at a mean interval of 13.2 months. Patient age (P = 0.01), UUT tumour size (P = 0.03), UUT tumour multifocality (P = 0.05), a history of bladder tumours (P = 0.03), and the number of previous bladder tumours (P = 0.05) predicted the development of bladder recurrences on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, only a previous history of bladder tumours (odds ratio 2.6, P = 0.05) remained significant. Over 90% of the recurrent bladder tumours were superficial, with two-thirds of these being low to moderate grade. Six patients had muscle-invasive disease, and five had a cystectomy. CONCLUSION: Bladder tumours occurred in half the patients after treatment for UUT-TCC; > 60% of these subsequent bladder tumours were superficial, low- to moderate-grade lesions. Neither the pathology of the UUT tumours nor the method of treatment for the UUT disease was associated with recurrent bladder tumours. Only a history of bladder cancer predicted the development of subsequent bladder tumours.

    Title Does the Time from Biopsy to Surgery Affect Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy?
    Date October 2005
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the time from biopsy to radical prostatectomy (RP) predicts the biochemical recurrence (BCR) after RP, as men diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer have several available treatment options and investigating these alternatives may delay the initiation of definitive therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 3969 consecutive patients who had RP for clinically localized prostate cancer from 1987 to 2002; those eligible for the study had RP within a year of diagnosis. The interval between biopsy and RP was analysed both as a continuous and as a dichotomous variable (divided at 3 months). Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the impact of time to RP on BCR. Subsets were also analysed for the effect of time to RP in patients considered to be at high risk of recurrence, with group 1 having a prostate specific antigen (PSA) level of > or = 20 ng/mL, a biopsy Gleason score of > or = 8, or clinical stage > or = T2c; and group 2 assessed as having a >40% probability of BCR using a preoperative nomogram. RESULTS: In all, 3149 patients met the inclusion criteria and had a mean (interquartile range) follow-up after RP of 5.4 (2.2-7.9) years. Multivariate analysis showed that the year of biopsy, PSA level before biopsy, clinical stage and biopsy Gleason score (all P < 0.001) were significantly associated with BCR after RP. The time to RP, treated either as a continuous variable (P = 0.252) or when categorized at 3 months (P = 0.939), failed to predict BCR. Further, the time to RP was not an independent predictor of BCR for patients at high risk of recurrence in group 1 (P = 0.147) or group 2 (P = 0.548). CONCLUSIONS: The time from biopsy to RP did not influence the probability of BCR for men who had RP within a year of diagnosis, even for those considered to be at high risk of BCR. Instead, the clinical and pathological features of the cancer provided the best estimate of the risk of BCR.

    Title Sperm Cryopreservation and in Vitro Fertilization/intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in Men with Congenital Bilateral Absence of the Vas Deferens: a Success Story.
    Date December 2004
    Journal Fertility and Sterility
    Excerpt

    In this study we evaluate the use of cryopreservation of sperm obtained at the time of surgical exploration in men with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. We assess the impact of cryopreservation on pregnancy rates after IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Intraoperative cryopreservation of sperm at the time of microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration in men with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens resulted in a 100% live delivery rate per couple, providing the highest pregnancy rates of any infertility treatment.

    Title Subjective and Objective Analysis of the Prevalence of Peyronie's Disease in a Population of Men Presenting for Prostate Cancer Screening.
    Date July 2004
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: In this study we defined the prevalence of Peyronie's disease in a cohort of men being screened for prostate cancer in the United States. The association between Peyronie's disease, and medical comorbidities and patient self-reported erectile dysfunction was also defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 534 men presenting to 1 of 3 prostate cancer screening centers provided a complete medical history, underwent physical examination performed in all by a urologist and completed the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) questionnaire. This population was chosen because of the access to a large number of subjects combined with the fact that subjects were not presenting with a specific urological complaint. The diagnosis of Peyronie's disease was based on a palpable penile plaque. Data were assessed using univariate analysis, multivariate logistic regression and Pearson chi-square analysis. RESULTS: A total of 48 patients were found to have a palpable penile plaque on physical examination for a prevalence rate of 8.9%. The mean age of men with Peyronie's disease was 68.2 years compared to a mean of 61.8 years in men without Peyronie's disease (p <0.0001). On univariate analysis hypertension (p = 0.02) and diabetes (p = 0.007) were present with significantly increased frequency in patients with Peyronie's disease. Patients diagnosed with Peyronie's disease had significantly lower values for responses to each of the 5 questions on the SHIM survey. An increase in age and decrease in total SHIM score remained significantly associated with a greater probability of Peyronie's disease on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We found the prevalence of Peyronie's disease to be greater than in most previously reported series. We also noted a significant association between Peyronie's disease aging, hypertension, diabetes and self-reported erectile dysfunction.

    Title Hormone Receptor Expression in Renal Angiomyolipoma: Clinicopathologic Correlation.
    Date
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: Although renal angiomyolipoma (AML) occurs more commonly in females than males, the origin of this difference in incidence by sex is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the expression of the androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta), progesterone receptor, and the enzyme aromatase in renal AML. METHODS: We evaluated specimens from 110 patients who had undergone resection of a renal AML, including 90 women and 20 men. Immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies on paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Expression was correlated with patient demographics and tumor pathologic features. RESULTS: ERbeta was expressed in 100% (106 of 106) of the AML specimens evaluated. Of the 104 specimens that could be assessed for the AR, 82 (79%) demonstrated staining. Of 110 lesions, 31 (28%), 42 (38%), and 11 (10%) expressed ERalpha, progesterone receptor, and aromatase, respectively. The level of ERbeta expression was not associated with patient age (P = 0.92), sex (P = 0.82), a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis (P = 0.56), or histologic subtype of AML (P = 0.94). A trend was found toward increased AR expression in men (P = 0.069) and younger patients (P = 0.052), and ERalpha was expressed in the AML specimens from 5 (71%) of 7 patients with tuberous sclerosis compared with 26 (25%) of 103 without tuberous sclerosis (P = 0.018). Both AR and ERalpha expression were more common in the triphasic subtype of AML than in the lipomatous tumors (P = 0.046 for both). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study have shown that ERbeta expression is ubiquitous in renal AML, and the AR is found in most tumors. ERalpha and progesterone receptor were expressed in approximately one third of cases. These data suggest a potential role for hormones in the pathogenesis and management of renal AML.

    Title The Impact of Temporal Presentation on Clinical and Pathological Outcomes for Patients with Sporadic Bilateral Renal Masses.
    Date
    Journal European Urology
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: The origin of bilateral renal masses has not been definitively established to date. As limited studies on the genetics of bilateral tumors exist, defining the clinical behavior of these lesions remains important. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of synchronous versus metachronous presentation on clinicopathological outcomes of patients with bilateral renal masses. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 310 patients who were treated at the Mayo Clinic for sporadic bilateral renal masses between 1970-2003, including 148 (47.7%) with synchronous tumors and 162 (52.3%) with metachronous lesions. INTERVENTION: Patients underwent surgical resection of bilateral renal tumors. MEASUREMENTS: Clinicopathological features of synchronous and metachronous tumors were compared. Survival rates for patients with synchronous (n=92) and metachronous (n=100) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log rank test. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Metachronous tumors had a greater degree of pathological concordance than synchronous lesions, with 87.7% of metachronous tumors representing bilateral RCC, compared to 69.2% of synchronous masses (p=0.002). Patients with synchronous RCC tended to have an increased incidence of papillary RCC compared to patients with metachronous RCC, who were more likely to have bilateral clear-cell RCC (p=0.076). A longer interval between tumors was inversely associated with the risk of cancer death for patients with metachronous RCC (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99, p=0.039). Compared to patients with metachronous RCC, patients with synchronous bilateral RCC had similar 10-yr CSS (70.5% vs. 69.4%, p=0.51) and OS (47.5% vs. 51.2%, p=0.58). We nevertheless recognize that these findings may be limited by the study's retrospective, single-institution design. CONCLUSIONS: Metachronous bilateral solid renal masses have a greater degree of pathological concordance and were more likely to represent malignancy. Surgical resection may provide durable cancer control for patients with bilateral RCC, with no difference in survival noted between synchronous and metachronous cancers.

    Title Functional and Oncological Outcomes After Orthotopic Neobladder Reconstruction in Women.
    Date
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To review our experience with orthotopic neobladder reconstruction (ONR) in women, highlighting functional and oncological outcomes, as ONR has been used increasingly for urinary diversion in women after radical cystectomy (RC), largely due to a better understanding of the natural history of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) and of the anatomy underlying the female continence mechanism, but defining the safety and long-term efficacy of ONR remain important to expanding its use. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 59 women who had RC with ONR between 1995 and 2006 at the Mayo Clinic. Their records were reviewed for clinicopathological demographics, and functional and oncological outcomes. RESULTS: The median (range) age at surgery of the women was 62 (20-82) years, and the median follow-up was 29.2 (1-141) months. Fifty-three women had RC for malignant disease, including UCC in 47. Five women (8.5%) required resection of the anterior vaginal wall during surgery, while 39 (66%) had concurrent hysterectomy. One patient had a positive surgical margin, at the left distal ureter, on final pathology. Thirteen (22%) patients had perioperative complications, including two (3%) who required reoperation. In addition, three patients (5%) developed a neobladder-vaginal fistula after RC with ONR, requiring surgical repair. At the last follow-up, daytime urinary continence (defined as needing no pads) was reported by 44/49 (90%) patients, while 28/49 (57%) had achieved continence at night. Seventeen (31%) patients required intermittent self-catheterization to facilitate emptying of the neobladder. Fifteen (28%) women had recurrence of disease, at a median of 8 (2-36) months after ONR, including seven (13%) who developed a pelvic recurrence. Twelve (20%) patients died during the follow-up, with four (8%) dying from UCC at a median of 14 (11-65) months after surgery. CONCLUSION: ONR provides a safe and effective option for urinary diversion in women, with oncological and functional outcomes similar to those for men. Thus, the technique remains a preferred option for urinary diversion in appropriately selected women treated with RC.

    Title The Impact of Discordance Between Biopsy and Pathological Gleason Scores on Survival After Radical Prostatectomy.
    Date
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Although discordance in the Gleason score between biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens has been well recognized, the prognostic importance of this discrepancy has not been definitively established. We investigated the association of Gleason score discordance with postoperative systemic progression and death from prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the records of 8,054 consecutive patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between 1987 and 2003. Gleason score at biopsy and prostatectomy was categorized as 6 or less, 3 + 4, 4 + 3 and 8 to 10. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyze the impact of biopsy Gleason score on postoperative survival in patients in each pathological Gleason score stratum. RESULTS: Discordance in Gleason score was associated with adverse pathological features, including advanced tumor stage, lymph node metastasis and positive surgical margins (each p <0.001). On multivariate analysis increasing biopsy Gleason score was significantly associated with systemic progression in patients with pathological 3 + 4 and 8 to 10 cancer (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.17-1.76, p <0.001 and HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.48, p = 0.023, respectively). It was also an independent predictor of death from prostate cancer in patients with pathological Gleason 3 + 4 tumors (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.23-2.15, p <0.001). However, adding biopsy Gleason score to our institutional Gleason score, prostate specific antigen, and seminal vesicle and margin status scoring algorithm minimally increased the concordance statistic for the association of that algorithm with cancer specific mortality from 0.827 to 0.842. CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy Gleason score predicts systemic progression and cancer death in patients with pathological Gleason 3 + 4 tumors. Nevertheless, adding biopsy Gleason score to Gleason score, prostate specific antigen, and seminal vesicle and margin status did little to increase the predictive value of the model, which emphasizes the relative importance of pathological criteria for risk stratification.

    Title The Mtor Pathway Affects Proliferation and Chemosensitivity of Urothelial Carcinoma Cells and is Upregulated in a Subset of Human Bladder Cancers.
    Date
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition by rapamycin is therapeutically efficacious in combination with cisplatin for bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a panel of human urothelial carcinoma cell lines, we determined the effect of rapamycin on cell viability, cell-cycle progression, signalling and apoptosis. The effect of mTOR inhibition on chemosensitivity was investigated by treating cells with rapamycin, alone, or with cisplatin. The effect of rapamycin or cisplatin treatment was assessed in xenograft mice inoculated with urothelial carcinoma cells. Expression of p-mTOR in human bladder cancer specimens was assessed using a tissue microarray. RESULTS: Treatment with rapamycin significantly decreased cell viability in UMUC3 (P= 0.004) and 253J (P < 0.001) cells. It induced arrest in the G(0) -G(1) phase and decreased activation of p-mTOR and its downstream effector, p-S6K, in both cell lines. Treatment with rapamycin increased the ability of cisplatin to inhibit cell viability in UMUC3 (P= 0.002) and 253J (P= 0.03) cells. No evidence for apoptosis induction was noted after treatment with rapamycin alone. Mouse xenografts of UMUC3 cells revealed that rapamycin significantly prolonged survival and enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin. In patient urothelial carcinoma specimens, p-mTOR expression was increased in cancer vs non-tumour bladder tissue in 65/203 (32.0%) tumours. CONCLUSION: mTOR blockade inhibits urothelial carcinoma cell proliferation and enhances the effectiveness of cisplatin. Suppression of the mTOR pathway has the potential to be a therapeutic target in bladder cancer for selected patients.

    Title Percutaneous Vs Surgical Cryoablation of the Small Renal Mass: is Efficacy Compromised?
    Date
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    Study Type - Therapy (systematic review)
Level of Evidence 1b OBJECTIVE: To review and analyse the cumulative literature to compare surgical and percutaneous cryoablation of small renal masses (SRMs). METHODS: A MEDLINE search was performed (1966 to February 2010) of the published literature in which cryoablation was used as therapy for localized renal masses. Residual disease was defined as persistent enhancement on the first post-ablation imaging study, while recurrent disease was defined as enhancement after an initially negative postoperative imaging study, consistent with the consensus definition by the Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation. Data were collated and analysed using the two-sample Mann-Whitney test and random-effects Poisson regression, where appropriate. RESULTS: In all, 42 studies, representing 1447 lesions treated by surgical (n= 28) or percutaneous (n= 14) cryoablation were pooled and analysed. No significant differences were detected between approaches regarding patient age (median 67 vs 66 years, P= 0.55), tumour size (median 2.6 vs 2.7 cm, P= 0.24),or duration of follow-up (median 14.9 vs 13.3 months, P= 0.40). Differences in rates of unknown pathology also failed to reach statistical significance (14 vs 21%, P= 0.76). The difference in the rate of residual tumour was not statistically different (0.033 vs 0.046, P= 0.25), nor was the rate of recurrent tumour (0.008 vs 0.009, P= 0.44). The reported rate of metastases was negligible in both groups, precluding statistical analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Cryoablation has shown acceptable short-term oncological results as a viable strategy for SRMs. Analysis of the cumulative literature to date shows that surgical and percutaneous cryoablation have similar oncological outcomes.

    Title Long-term Survival After Radical Prostatectomy Versus External-beam Radiotherapy for Patients with High-risk Prostate Cancer.
    Date
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND:: The long-term survival of patients with high-risk prostate cancer was compared after radical prostatectomy (RRP) and after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS:: In total, 1238 patients underwent RRP, and 609 patients received with EBRT (344 received EBRT plus ADT, and 265 received EBRT alone) between 1988 and 2004 who had a pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level ≥ 20 ng/mL, a biopsy Gleason score between 8 and 10, or clinical tumor classification ≥ T3. The median follow-up was 10.2 years, 6.0 years, and 7.2 years after RRP, EBRT plus ADT, and EBRT alone, respectively. The impact of treatment modality on systemic progression, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival was evaluated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis and a competing risk-regression model. RESULTS:: The 10-year cancer-specific survival rate was 92%, 92%, and 88% after RRP, EBRT plus ADT, and EBRT alone, respectively (P = .06). After adjustment for case mix, no significant differences in the risks of systemic progression (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-1.18; P = .23) or prostate cancer death (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.68-1.91; P = .61) were observed between patients who received EBRT plus ADT and patients who underwent RRP. The risk of all-cause mortality, however, was greater after EBRT plus ADT than after RRP (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.25-2.05; P = .0002). CONCLUSIONS:: RRP alone and EBRT plus ADT provided similar long-term cancer control for patients with high-risk prostate cancer. The authors concluded that continued investigation into the differing impact of treatments on quality-of-life and noncancer mortality will be necessary to determine the optimal management approach for these patients. Cancer 2011. © 2011 American Cancer Society.

    Title Clinicopathological Predictors of Systemic Progression and Prostate Cancer Mortality in Patients with a Positive Surgical Margin at Radical Prostatectomy.
    Date
    Journal Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
    Excerpt

    Although a positive surgical margin (PSM) at radical prostatectomy (RRP) has been consistently linked to an increased risk of biochemical recurrence, the impact of margin status on patient survival continues to be debated. We evaluated long-term outcomes of patients with a PSM at RRP and determined predictors of systemic progression (SP) and mortality in these men.

    Title Multi-institutional Validation of the Ability of Preoperative Hydronephrosis to Predict Advanced Pathologic Tumor Stage in Upper-tract Urothelial Carcinoma.
    Date
    Journal Urologic Oncology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The presence of hydronephrosis (HN) has been implicated as a predictor of poor outcomes for patients diagnosed with bladder cancer. Small, single institution preliminary reports suggest a similar negative relationship may exist for upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Herein, we attempt to validate the prognostic value of preoperative HN in a large, multi-institutional cohort of UTUC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 469 patients with localized UTUC from 5 tertiary referral centers who underwent a radical nephroureterectomy (91%) or distal ureterectomy (9%) without neoadjuvant chemotherapy were integrated into a relational database. Preoperative HN data, including presence vs. absence and high vs. low grade, were available in 408 patients. The association of HN with pathologic features was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 254 men and 154 women with a median age of 69 years (IQR 15) were analyzed. Overall, 192 patients (47%) had ≥pT2 disease, 145 (36%) had non-organ-confined (NOC) cancers (≥pT3 and/or positive lymph nodes), and 298 (73%) had high grade UTUC on final pathology. Forty-six percent of patients had tumors in the renal pelvis, 27% in the ureter, and 27% in both locations. Preoperatively, 223 patients (55%) were noted to have ipsilateral HN (39% low grade and 61% high grade). Hydronephrosis was associated with ≥pT2 stage (P < 0.001), NOC disease (P < 0.001), and high grade cancers (P = 0.04). On multivariate analysis adjusting for gender, age, and tumor location, HN was an independent predictor of muscle invasive (HR 7.4, P < 0.001), NOC (HR 5.5, P < 0.001), and high pathologic grade (HR 1.6, P = 0.03) UTUC disease. CONCLUSION: The presence of preoperative HN was associated with advanced stage UTUC. This readily available imaging modality may improve preoperative risk stratification for UTUC patients thereby guiding use of endoscopic versus extirpative surgery as well as the need for neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens.

    Title Detection of Asymptomatic Recurrence During Routine Oncological Followup After Radical Cystectomy is Associated with Improved Patient Survival.
    Date
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Whether routine surveillance to detect tumor recurrence after radical cystectomy improves patient survival remains in debate. We determined the impact on all cause mortality of symptoms at recurrence after cystectomy.

    Title Renal Function Outcomes in Patients Treated with Partial Nephrectomy Versus Percutaneous Ablation for Renal Tumors in a Solitary Kidney.
    Date
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Partial nephrectomy is the recommended management for small renal masses. Percutaneous ablation is safe and effective with comparable short-term cancer specific survival. Currently to our knowledge data are lacking on the impact of thermal ablation on renal function preservation. We examined the impact on renal function of partial nephrectomy vs percutaneous ablation in patients with a solitary kidney.


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