Browse Health
37 years of experience
Accepting new patients


Education ?

Medical School Score
University of Louisville (1975)

Awards & Distinctions ?

American Board of Internal Medicine

Affiliations ?

Dr. Livingston is affiliated with 1 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations



  • Alaska Native Medical Center, Phs
    4315 Diplomacy Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Livingston has contributed to 8 publications.
    Title Factors Associated with the Progression of Fibrosis on Liver Biopsy in Alaska Native and American Indian Persons with Chronic Hepatitis C.
    Date September 2010
    Journal Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology = Journal Canadien De Gastroenterologie

    Various factors influence the development and rate of fibrosis progression in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

    Title Clearance of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Cohort Chronically Infected with Hepatitis B Virus.
    Date May 2010
    Journal Hepatology (baltimore, Md.)

    Some individuals who are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) eventually lose hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been demonstrated to occur in a few patients after loss of HBsAg. Neither factors associated with loss of HBsAg nor the incidence of HCC thereafter have been clearly elucidated. We performed a prospective population-based cohort study in 1,271 Alaska Native persons with chronic HBV infection followed for an average of 19.6 years to determine factors associated with loss of HBsAg and risk of developing HCC thereafter. HBsAg loss occurred in 158 persons for a rate of HBsAg clearance of 0.7%/year. Older age, but not sex, was associated with clearance of HBsAg, and loss of HBsAg was not associated with any particular HBV genotypes (A, B, C, D, and F) found in this population. Participants were followed for an average of 108.9 months after HBsAg loss. Six patients, two with cirrhosis and four without, developed HCC a mean of 7.3 years after HBsAg clearance (range, 2.0-15.5 years). The incidence of HCC after clearance of HBsAg was 36.8 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 13.5-80.0) which was significantly lower than the rate in those who remained HBsAg-positive (195.7 cases per 100,000 person-years of follow-up [95% CI 141.1-264.5; P < 0.001]). After loss of HBsAg, HBV DNA was detected in the sera of 28 (18%) of those who cleared a median of 3.6 years after clearance. CONCLUSION: HCC can occur in persons with chronic hepatitis B who have lost HBsAg, even in the absence of cirrhosis. These persons should still be followed with periodic liver ultrasound to detect HCC early.

    Title Chronic Liver Disease Among Alaska-native People, 2003-2004.
    Date March 2009
    Journal The American Journal of Gastroenterology

    A higher proportion of deaths among American-Indian/Alaska-Native (AI/AN) people has been attributed to chronic liver disease (CLD) compared with other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. The objectives of this study were to determine CLD prevalence and to define its etiologies and complications among AN and AI people, who received health care from an urban hospital center.

    Title Clinical Significance of Elevated Alpha-fetoprotein in Alaskan Native Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C.
    Date March 2008
    Journal Journal of Viral Hepatitis

    The clinical significance of elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is not well defined. We analysed data from a population-based cohort of patients with HCV infection to assess the prevalence of elevated serum AFP, to determine its association with clinical and virologic parameters and with clinical outcomes. We defined a slightly elevated serum AFP level as 8 to <15 and a high-AFP level as > or =15 microg/L. Among 541 HCV-RNA-positive persons, 61 (11%) had a slightly elevated or high AFP at the time of consent. AFP > or =8 microg/L was associated with the older age, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio >1, and higher alkaline phosphatase levels, but not with heavy alcohol use, IV drug use, genotype, viral load or duration of HCV infection. Among 192 persons with an AFP at liver biopsy, 17% had an AFP > or =8 microg/L. The sensitivity/specificity of an AFP level > or =8 in detecting Ishak 3-6 fibrosis was 39%/95%. Among 372 persons with a minimum of four AFP measurements over 6 years, 5% had persistently elevated AFP >8 microg/L, 19% had both elevated and normal AFP measurements, and 76% had persistently normal AFP. Elevated AFP at consent was associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and end-stage liver disease. Over 6 years of follow-up, persistently elevated AFP was associated with the development of HCC; no person with AFP persistently <8 microg/mL developed HCC. Serial AFP measurements appear to be useful in identifying persons with advanced fibrosis and help to determine who needs periodic screening with liver ultrasound to detect HCC.

    Title Clearance of Hepatitis B E Antigen in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and Genotypes A, B, C, D, and F.
    Date December 2007
    Journal Gastroenterology

    Persistence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in chronic hepatitis B has been associated with increased risk for development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Five hepatitis B virus genotypes were identified in Alaska Native persons; we analyzed clearance of HBeAg by age and genotype.

    Title Hepatitis B-associated Vasculitis in Alaska Natives: Viral Genotype, Clinical and Serologic Outcome.
    Date August 2007
    Journal Liver International : Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver

    BACKGROUND: The highest incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated vasculitis in the world has been reported in Alaska Natives. We examined the incidence of HBV-associated vasculitis before and after mass HBV vaccine immunization and the association between HBV genotype and vasculitis in a population-based cohort study in Alaska natives chronically infected with HBV. METHODS: Genotyping was performed in vasculitis cases and 644 hepatitis B-positive controls without vasculitis using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the S gene. Occurrence of HBV vasculitis from 1974 to 2004 was calculated. HBV vasculitis patients and controls were also tested for basal core promoter and precore mutations. RESULTS: Fifteen cases of HBV-associated vasculitis were identified: 13 (86%) had genotype D and one each genotype A and F. Genotype D was more commonly found in patients with vasculitis than controls [odd ratio (OR)=5.9, confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2, 21.8; P<0.015). CONCLUSIONS: HBV-associated vasculitis was associated with genotype D.

    Title Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes in Alaska Native People with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Preponderance of Genotype F.
    Date February 2007
    Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases

    BACKGROUND: The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been associated with specific HBV genotypes and the presence of specific mutations. METHODS: From a cohort of Alaska Native people with chronic HBV infection, we genotyped 47 patients with HCC and 1129 patients without HCC, and we tested patients with HCC and control patients for mutations in the basal core promoter and precore regions. RESULTS: Genotype F was found in 68% of patients with HCC, versus 18% of those without HCC (P<.001). For patients with genotype F, the median age at diagnosis of HCC was lower than that for patients with other genotypes (22.5 vs. 60 years, respectively; P=.002). Overall, there were no significant differences in the number of basal core promoter and precore region mutations between patients with HCC and control patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found a significant association between genotype F and the development of HCC among Alaska Native people with chronic HBV infection but no significant association between HCC and basal core promoter or precore mutations in genotype F.

    Title Steatosis and Hepatitis C in an Alaska Native/american Indian Population.
    Date August 2006
    Journal International Journal of Circumpolar Health

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of steatosis in Alaska Natives/American Indians (AN/AI) with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. STUDY DESIGN: This outcomes study began in 1994, and 988 AN/AI have been enrolled, including 222 study patients with a positive HCV RNA who underwent liver biopsy. METHODS: Study patients were analyzed for sex, age at biopsy, estimated length of infection, body mass index (BMI), genotype, ethanol use, HCV RNA and alanine aminotransferase levels. A pathologist blinded to patient identity and clinical data reviewed all biopsy slides for histologic activity and fibrosis. RESULTS: Moderate to severe steatosis was found significantly more often in genotype 3 than in genotypes 1 and 2 (p = 0.008). On multivariate analysis, BMI > 30 and Ishak fibrosis score > or = 2 were significantly associated with steatosis (p = 0.0013 and 0.0002, respectively), but only genotype 3 was associated with presence of moderate to severe steatosis (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings in a cohort of AN/AI are consistent with results of previous studies in other groups that steatosis is associated with fibrosis in HCV and infection with genotype 3 is associated with more severe steatosis.

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