Obstetricians & Gynecologists
6 years of experience

Accepting new patients
Oak Lawn
5303 Harry Hines Blvd
Dallas, TX 75390
214-645-3848
Locations and availability (7)

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
University of California at Davis (2004)
  • Currently 3 of 4 apples
Top 50%

Affiliations ?

Dr. Chao is affiliated with 9 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Multicare Good Samaritan Hospital
    407 14th Ave SE, Puyallup, WA 98372
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - Zale Lipshy
    5151 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - St. Paul
    5909 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Plano
    6200 W Parker Rd, Plano, TX 75093
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Tacoma General Hospital
    315 Martin Luther King Jr Way, Tacoma, WA 98405
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Of Dallas
    8200 Walnut Hill Ln, Dallas, TX 75231
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Parkland Health & Hospital System
    5201 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • UT Southwestern St. Paul Hospital
  • Mary Bridge Children's Hospital & Health Center
    315 Martin Luther King Jr Way, Tacoma, WA 98405
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Chao has contributed to 16 publications.
    Title Central Nervous System Findings on Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Outcomes in Children with Spina Bifida.
    Date August 2010
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    To estimate the relationship between fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of ventriculomegaly, cerebellar herniation, extraaxial space effacement and adverse outcomes in children with spina bifida.

    Title Effectiveness of an Instructional Dvd on Third- and Fourth-degree Laceration Repair for Obstetrics and Gynecology Postgraduate Trainees.
    Date May 2010
    Journal International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics: the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
    Excerpt

    To assess the effectiveness of an instructional DVD on the anatomy and repair of anal sphincter lacerations to improve postgraduate trainees' understanding.

    Title Removal of Iron Interferences by Solvent Extraction for Geochemical Analysis by Atomic-absorption Spectrophotometry.
    Date December 2009
    Journal Talanta
    Excerpt

    Iron is a common interferent in the determination of many elements in geochemical samples. Two approaches for its removal have been taken. The first involves removal of iron by extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) from hydrochloric acid medium, leaving the analytes in the aqueous phase. The second consists of reduction of iron(III) to iron(II) by ascorbic acid to minimize its extraction into MIBK, so that the analytes may be isolated by extraction. Elements of interest can then be determined using the aqueous solution or the organic extract, as appropriate. Operating factors such as the concentration of hydrochloric acid, amounts of iron present, number of extractions, the presence or absence of a salting-out agent, and the optimum ratio of ascorbic acid to iron have been determined. These factors have general applications in geochemical analysis by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry.

    Title Sumo Modification Modulates the Transrepression Activity of Plzf.
    Date July 2007
    Journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
    Excerpt

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification has recently been shown to associate with transcriptional regulation and nuclear body formation. Here, we show that transcription factor PLZF can be SUMO modified at lysine residue 242, 387 and 396. Converting these three SUMO acceptor Lys to Arg 3KR does not significantly affect PLZF nuclear body formation, which is distinct from the scenario of PML sumoylation in PML nuclear body formation. Furthermore, PLZF-3KR markedly reduced the transcriptional repression activity, correlating with a loss of PLZF-mediated growth suppression. These results reveal an important role of SUMO modification in PLZF-mediated transcriptional repression.

    Title Shrimp (penaeus Monodon) Anti-lipopolysaccharide Factor Reduces the Lethality of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Sepsis in Mice.
    Date June 2007
    Journal International Immunopharmacology
    Excerpt

    We investigated the efficacy of amino acids 55-76 of the synthetic shrimp anti-lipopolysaccharide factor peptide (SALF(55-76) cyclic peptide), the C-terminal part of the shrimp anti-lipopolysaccharide factor. This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of the antiseptic action of this peptide. The SALF(55-76) cyclic peptide was tested against bacterial clinical isolates and showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination of SALF(55-76) cyclic peptide-treated Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that severe swelling preceded cell death and breakage of the outer membrane; the intracellular inclusion was found to have effluxed extracellularly. When mice were treated with the SALF(55-76) cyclic peptide before bacterial challenge with P. aeruginosa, the peptide highly protected mice against death by sepsis. The P. aeruginosa recovered from SALF(55-76) cyclic peptide-treated mice after 4 h exhibited reduced bacterial growth similar to that recovered from vancomycin-treated mice. In addition, the syntheses of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, were significantly upregulated 4 h after SALF(55-76) cyclic peptide treatment except for IL-4 in the liver. The expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), Irf3, myd88, and Tram, were considerably elevated, but only Tlr4 existed in the spleen 4 h after SALF(55-76) cyclic peptide treatment. The prophylactic administration of SALF(55-76) cyclic peptide was begun the TNF-alpha response in comparison to untreated mice by an ELISA analysis. Due to its multifunctional properties, the SALF(55-76) cyclic peptide may become an important prophylaxis against and therapy for bacterial infectious diseases, as well as for septic shock.

    Title Role of Sumo-interacting Motif in Daxx Sumo Modification, Subnuclear Localization, and Repression of Sumoylated Transcription Factors.
    Date December 2006
    Journal Molecular Cell
    Excerpt

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification has emerged as an important posttranslational control of protein functions. Daxx, a transcriptional corepressor, was reported to repress the transcriptional potential of several transcription factors and target to PML oncogenic domains (PODs) via SUMO-dependent interactions. The mechanism by which Daxx binds to sumoylated factors mediating transcriptional and subnuclear compartmental regulation remains unclear. Here, we define a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) within Daxx and show it to be crucial for targeting Daxx to PODs and for transrepression of several sumoylated transcription factors, including glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In addition, the capability of Daxx SIM to bind SUMO also controls Daxx sumoylation. We further demonstrate that arsenic trioxide-induced sumoylation of PML correlates with a change of endogenous Daxx partitioning from GR-regulated gene promoter to PODs and a relief of Daxx repression on GR target gene expression. Our results provide mechanistic insights into Daxx in SUMO-dependent transcriptional control and subnuclear compartmentalization.

    Title The Physiological Role of Ctgf/ccn2 in Zebrafish Notochond Development and Biological Analysis of the Proximal Promoter Region.
    Date October 2006
    Journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
    Excerpt

    During mouse embryogenesis, CTGF/CCN2 is expressed in zones containing hypertrophic chondroctyes and calcifying cartilage such as long bones, ribs, vertebral column, and phalanges. But in fish, its expression is yet unclear. Development of the vertebrae is morphologically similar among vertebrates, indicating that the underlying mechanism regulating the process is highly conserved during evolution. Analysis of 3.2kb of the CTGF/CCN2 proximal promoter sequence revealed a consensus TATAA box, putative AP1, Brn-2, CdxA, C/EBP alpha, C/EBP beta, C-Ets-, delta E, HFH-2, and HSF2 binding sites. Transient expression experiments with a 5'-deletion revealed at least 4 regulatory regions in the zebrafish CTGF/CCN2 gene, 2 with a stimulatory effect on transcription and 2 with an apparent inhibitory effect after IGF-I treatment in the ZFL cell line. To study the promoter-specific expression, we constructed a series of CTGF/CCN2 (3.0-, 2.5-, 2.0-, 1.5-, 1.0-, and 0.4-kb) promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) fragments encoding the GFP cDNA transgene which was microinjected into zebrafish embryos. Morphological studies of transgenic zebrafish indicated that the CTGF/CCN2 promoter-driven GFP transcripts appeared in the notochord. Targeted knockdown of the CTGF/CCN2 gene by two antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in disruptions to notochord development. From a comparative point of view, this study of the CTGF/CCN2 gene in zebrafish may correlate well with those previously published on the mouse. These molecular results suggest that CTGF/CCN2 plays an important role in notochord development and is required for general embryonic development.

    Title Identification of a Dengue Virus Type 2 (den-2) Serotype-specific B-cell Epitope and Detection of Den-2-immunized Animal Serum Samples Using an Epitope-based Peptide Antigen.
    Date October 2003
    Journal The Journal of General Virology
    Excerpt

    In this study, a serotype-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), D(2) 16-1 (Ab4), against dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2) was generated. The specificity of Ab4, which recognized DEN-2 non-structural protein 1, was determined by ELISA, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses. The serotype-specific B-cell epitope of Ab4 was identified further from a random phage-displayed peptide library; selected phage clones reacted specifically with Ab4 and did not react with other mAbs. Immunopositive phage clones displayed a consensus motif, His-Arg/Lys-Leu/Ile, and a synthetic peptide corresponding to the phage-displayed peptide bound specifically to Ab4. The His and Arg residues in this epitope were found to be crucial for peptide binding to Ab4 and binding activity decreased dramatically when these residues were changed to Leu. The epitope-based synthetic peptide not only identified serum samples from DEN-2-immunized mice and rabbits by ELISA but also differentiated clearly between serum samples from DEN-2- and Japanese encephalitis virus-immunized mice. This mAb and its epitope-based peptide antigen will be useful for serologic diagnosis of DEN-2 infection. Furthermore, DEN-2 epitope identification makes it feasible to dissect antibody responses to DEN and to address the role of antibodies in the pathogenesis of primary and secondary DEN-2 infections.

    Title Identification of B-cell Epitope of Dengue Virus Type 1 and Its Application in Diagnosis of Patients.
    Date July 2001
    Journal Journal of Clinical Microbiology
    Excerpt

    Using a serotype-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) of dengue virus type 1 (DEN-1), 15F3-1, we identified the B-cell epitope of DEN-1 from a random peptide library displayed on phage. Fourteen immunopositive phage clones that bound specifically to MAb 15F3-1 were selected. These phage-borne peptides had a consensus motif of HxYaWb (a = S/T, b = K/H/R) that mimicked the sequence HKYSWK, which corresponded to amino acid residues 111 to 116 of the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of DEN-1. Among the four synthetic peptides corresponding to amino acid residues 110 to 117 of the NS1 of DEN-1, -2, -3, and -4, only one peptide, EHKYSWKS (P14M) of DEN-1, was found to bind to 15F3-1 specifically. Furthermore, P14M was shown to inhibit the binding of phage particles to 15F3-1 in a competitive inhibition assay. Histidine(111) (His(111)) was crucial to the binding of P14M to 15F3-1, since its binding activity dramatically reduced when it changed to leucine(111) (Leu(111)). This epitope-based peptide demonstrated its clinical diagnostic potential when it reacted with a high degree of specificity with serum samples obtained from both DEN-1-infected rabbits and patients. Based on these observations, our DEN-1 epitope-based serologic test could be useful in laboratory viral diagnosis and in understanding the pathogenesis of DEN-1.

    Title X-linked Agammaglobulinemia: a Case Report.
    Date December 1996
    Journal Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi = Chinese Medical Journal; Free China Ed
    Excerpt

    A 20-year-old male was admitted with fever and hemoptysis. Agammaglobulinemia was found, with bronchiectasis and sinusitis. Clinical and laboratory evidence included immunological examinations, bone marrow and small intestinal biopsies. Results suggested a diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. After treatment with antibiotics and intravenous human immunoglobuline, the clinical symptoms demonstrated progressive improvement. The case is reported along with a review of the literature.

    Title Biomechanical Effect of a Two-segment Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft with Separate Femoral Attachments and Differing Levels of Prescribed Load Sharing.
    Date November 1992
    Journal Journal of Orthopaedic Research : Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
    Excerpt

    The objective of this study was to analyze the biomechanical effect of varying the level of prescribed load sharing between two segments of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft, and of separating the femoral attachments of these segments. Total anterior-posterior (AP) laxity was measured using an instrumented spatial linkage. Forces in graft segments were measured using buckle transducers. The two-segment graft was formed using the middle third of the patellar tendon with bone blocks and a synthetic augmentation device. Proximal fixation was obtained using a fixture which allowed changing the individual locations of the femoral attachments of the tendon and augmentation segments. Distal fixation was achieved using a force-setting device which allowed the loads in each segment to be set to prescribed levels. Total graft force, load sharing, and total AP laxity were recorded during the application of 100-N AP tibial loads at 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 110 degrees flexion, for various combinations of load sharing set at extension and locations of femoral attachment sites. The load sharing, total graft force, and AP laxity during AP loading at the five test flexion angles were not significantly affected by changing the prescribed level of load sharing set at extension for a given femoral attachment configuration. However, varying the separate hole locations of the graft segments for a given level of load sharing significantly affected load sharing, total graft force, and AP laxity. If the tendon graft was located posteriorly (on the medial surface of the lateral femoral condyle) and the augmentation segment proximally, the augmentation carried a greater portion of the total force in flexion. If the augmentation segment was changed to a more posterosuperior location and the tendon posteroinferior, the tendon carried a higher percentage of the total force in flexion. AP laxity in most reconstruction states was significantly greater than in the normal joint with an intact ACL. The nature of the load sharing between the graft segments under AP tibial load over the flexion range can be controlled by the appropriate choice of the segments' femoral attachment locations.

    Title Ultrastructural Alterations in Skeletal Muscle Fibers of Streptozotocin-diabetic Rats.
    Date August 1976
    Journal Cell and Tissue Research
    Excerpt

    The ultrastructure of fast-twitch-oxidative-glycolytic (FOG), fast-twitch-glycolytic (FG) and slow-twitch-oxidative (SO) fibers in plantaris and soleus muscles of normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats was studied. In the diabetic animals, the mitochondria of FOG and SO fibers showed a loss of cristae and an increase in electron-dense granules. There was also an increased number of lipid droplets in close proximity to the mitochondria and the nuclei, and a separation of individual muscle nuclei to form satellite cells. Higher incidences of surface projections and sarcoplasmic splittings at the nuclear region were noticed in SO fibers. The FG fibers showed some disorientation of the T-tubular system. It is concluded that streptozotocin-diabetes has differential effects on the fine structure of the three fiber types of rat skeletal muscle.

    Title Matrix Effects on the Determination of Manganese in Geological Materials by Atomic-absorption Spectrophotometry Under Different Flame Conditions.
    Date
    Journal Talanta
    Excerpt

    Suppression caused by five of the seven matrix elements studied (Si, Al, Fe, Ca and Mg) was observed in the atomic-absorption determination of manganese in geological materials, when synthetic solutions and the recommended oxidizing air-acetylene flame were used. The magnitude of the suppression effects depends on (1) the kind and concentration of the interfering elements, (2) the type of acid medium, and (3) the concentration of manganese to be determined. All interferences noted are removed or alleviated by using a reducing nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The atomic-absorption method using this flame can be applied to the determination of total and extractable manganese in a wide range of geological materials without interferences. Analyses of six U.S. Geological Survey rock standards for manganese gave results in agreement with the reported values.

    Title Determination of Total Tin in Geological Materials by Electrothermal Atomic-absorption Spectrophotometry Using a Tungsten-impregnated Graphite Furnace.
    Date
    Journal Talanta
    Excerpt

    An electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of total tin in geological materials, with use of a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace. The sample is decomposed by fusion with lithium metaborate and the melt is dissolved in 10% hydrochloric acid. Tin is then extracted into trioctylphosphine oxide-methyl isobutyl ketone prior to atomization. Impregnation of the furnace with a sodium tungstate solution increases the sensitivity of the determination and improves the precision of the results. The limits of determination are 0.5-20 ppm of tin in the sample. Higher tin values can be determined by dilution of the extract. Replicate analyses of eighteen geological reference samples with diverse matrices gave relative standard deviations ranging from 2.0 to 10.8% with an average of 4.6%. Average tin values for reference samples were in general agreement with, but more precise than, those reported by others. Apparent recoveries of tin added to various samples ranged from 95 to 111% with an average of 102%.

    Title Determination of Gold, Indium, Tellurium and Thallium in the Same Sample Digest of Geological Materials by Atomic-absorption Spectroscopy and Two-step Solvent Extraction.
    Date
    Journal Talanta
    Excerpt

    A rock, soil, or stream-sediment sample is decomposed with hydrofluoric acid, aqua regia, and hydrobromic acid-bromine solution. Gold, thallium, indium and tellurium are separated and concentrated from the sample digest by a two-step MIBK extraction at two concentrations of hydrobromic add. Gold and thallium are first extracted from 0.1M hydrobromic acid medium, then indium and tellurium are extracted from 3M hydrobromic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid to eliminate iron interference. The elements are then determined by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The two-step solvent extraction can also be used in conjunction with electrothermal atomic-absorption methods to lower the detection limits for all four metals in geological materials.

    Title Hypoxia Enhances the Stemness Markers of Cochlear Stem/progenitor Cells and Expands Sphere Formation Through Activation of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1alpha.
    Date
    Journal Hearing Research
    Excerpt

    Unlike neural stem cells that maintain populations in the adult brains of both rodents and humans, cochlear stem cells appear to diminish in number after birth and may become quiescent in adult mammalian cochleae. Hypoxia has been observed to promote an undifferentiated cell state in various stem cell populations; however, little is known about such an effect on cochlear stem/progenitor cells (SPCs). The aims of this study were to assess the effect of hypoxia on cochlear SPCs and to examine the impact of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (Hif-1a) on regulating such an effect. Our data demonstrate that hypoxic culturing for 24 h significantly increased sphere formation and viability of cochlear SPCs compared with those cultured under normoxic conditions. Concurrent with these proliferation promotion effects are changes in the expression of multiple stemness and cell-cycle quiescent associated gene targets, including Abcg2, nestin, p27(Kip1)and Vegf. Knockdown of Hif-1a expression by small-interfering RNA inhibited hypoxia-induced cochlear SPC expansion and resulted in downregulation of Vegf, Abcg2, and nestin and upregulation of p27(Kip1) gene expression. These results suggest that Hif-1a plays an important role in the stimulation of the proliferation of cochlear SPCs, which confers a great benefit of expanding cochlear SPCs via hypoxic conditions.


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