Oncologists
28 years of experience
Video profile
Accepting new patients
10005 E Osborn Rd
Scottsdale, AZ 85256
480-946-9066
Locations and availability (2)

Education ?

Medical School Score
University of Kansas (1982)
  • Currently 2 of 4 apples

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
Castle Connolly America's Top Doctors® (2010 - 2014)
Castle Connolly America's Top Doctors® for Cancer (2007, 2009 - 2012, 2014)
Appointments
Mayo Medical School
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Associations
American Society of Clinical Oncology
American Board of Internal Medicine

Affiliations ?

Dr. Fitch is affiliated with 4 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Scottsdale Healthcare-Shea
    Medical Oncology
    9003 E Shea Blvd, Scottsdale, AZ 85260
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Mayo Clinic Hospital
    Medical Oncology
    5777 E Mayo Blvd, Phoenix, AZ 85054
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Mayo Clinic - Arizona
    13400 E Shea Blvd, Scottsdale, AZ 85259
  • Mayo Clinic - Scottsdale *
  • * This information was reported to Vitals by the doctor or doctor's office.

    Publications & Research

    Dr. Fitch has contributed to 53 publications.
    Title Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Compared to Neoadjuvant Radiation Alone and Surgery Alone for Stage Ii and Iii Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Extremities.
    Date April 2012
    Journal Radiation Oncology (london, England)
    Excerpt

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NCR) prior to resection of extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS) has been studied, but data are limited. We present outcomes with NCR using a variety of chemotherapy regimens compared to neoadjuvant radiation without chemotherapy (NR) and surgery alone (SA).

    Title A Phase Ii Study of Cetuximab and Radiation in Elderly And/or Poor Performance Status Patients with Locally Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer (n0422).
    Date January 2011
    Journal Annals of Oncology : Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / Esmo
    Excerpt

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a disease of the elderly. Seeking a tolerable but effective regimen, we tested cetuximab + radiation in elderly and/or poor performance status patients with locally advanced NSCLC.

    Title Pilot Study Using Molecular Profiling of Patients' Tumors to Find Potential Targets and Select Treatments for Their Refractory Cancers.
    Date December 2010
    Journal Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    To compare the progression-free survival (PFS) using a treatment regimen selected by molecular profiling (MP) of a patient's tumor with the PFS for the most recent regimen on which the patient had experienced progression (ie, patient as his own control).

    Title A Phase I Study to Characterize the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Topotecan at 4 Mg/m2 Administered Weekly As a 30-minute Intravenous Infusion in Patients with Cancer.
    Date May 2010
    Journal Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
    Excerpt

    Topotecan pharmacokinetics at higher infusion rates (4 mg/m2 over 30 minutes) have not been studied. The authors report a pharmacokinetics and safety study of this dose in advanced cancer patients. Sixteen patients were given a 4-mg/m2 topotecan infusion intravenously (IV) over 30 minutes weekly for 3 weeks, repeated every 28 days. Pharmacokinetics were determined after the first dose. Plasma concentrations of total topotecan were measured to derive CL, V(ss), C(max), t(max), t(1/2), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity). Plasma total topotecan concentrations decreased biexponentially, with a mean CL value of 20.6 L/h, V(ss) value of 101 L, and t(1/2) value of 5.0 h. Nine significant adverse events (all hematologic) were topotecan related. Grade 3 or less adverse events included anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and fatigue. Pharmacokinetics of the 4-mg/m2 infusion of topotecan over 30 minutes are comparable to findings from studies of lower and higher doses. Toxicities are similar to previous reports.

    Title North Central Cancer Treatment Group (ncctg) N0432: Phase Ii Trial of Docetaxel with Capecitabine and Bevacizumab As First-line Chemotherapy for Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer.
    Date May 2010
    Journal Annals of Oncology : Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / Esmo
    Excerpt

    Docetaxel (T; Taxotere) with capecitabine (X) is active against metastatic breast cancer (MBC); bevacizumab (BV) has demonstrated efficacy with taxanes in the first-line setting. This study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of TX-BV in patients with MBC.

    Title Phase Iii Noninferiority Trial Comparing Irinotecan with Oxaliplatin, Fluorouracil, and Leucovorin in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Carcinoma Previously Treated with Fluorouracil: N9841.
    Date July 2009
    Journal Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    The primary goal of this multicenter phase III trial was to determine whether overall survival (OS) of fluorouracil (FU) -refractory patients was noninferior when treated with second-line infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4; arm B) versus irinotecan (arm A). Cross-over to the other treatment on disease progression was mandated.

    Title A Phase Iii Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of Gabapentin in the Management of Hot Flashes in Men (n00cb).
    Date May 2009
    Journal Annals of Oncology : Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / Esmo
    Excerpt

    Hot flashes represent a significant problem in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy.

    Title Phase 2 Trial of Carboplatin, Weekly Paclitaxel, and Biweekly Bevacizumab in Patients with Unresectable Stage Iv Melanoma: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study, N047a.
    Date March 2009
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the growth and metastatic progression of melanoma. Exposure of melanoma cells to chemotherapy induces VEGF overproduction, which in turn may allow melanoma cells to evade cell death and become chemotherapy resistant. Therefore, in patients with metastatic melanoma, the combination of chemotherapy with an agent that specifically targets VEGF might be able to control tumor growth and progression more effectively than chemotherapy alone.

    Title Pemetrexed and Gemcitabine for Biliary Tract and Gallbladder Carcinomas: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group (ncctg) Phase I and Ii Trial, N9943.
    Date February 2009
    Journal Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
    Excerpt

    To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and efficacy of pemetrexed and gemcitabine in patients with either biliary tract or gallbladder carcinoma.

    Title Phase Ii Trial of Sorafenib in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer Previously Exposed to Anthracyclines or Taxanes: North Central Cancer Treatment Group and Mayo Clinic Trial N0336.
    Date January 2009
    Journal Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    We conducted a cooperative group phase II study to assess antitumor activity and toxicity of sorafenib in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who had received prior treatment for their disease.

    Title Phase Iii Randomized, Double-blind Study of Maintenance Cai or Placebo in Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (nsclc) After Completion of Initial Therapy (ncctg 97-24-51).
    Date September 2008
    Journal Lung Cancer (amsterdam, Netherlands)
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: This study assessed whether maintenance therapy with carboxyaminoimidazole (CAI), compared to placebo, prolonged overall survival in stage IIIB/IV NSCLC patients who had tumour regression or stable disease after treatment with one chemotherapy regimen. METHODS: After completion of chemotherapy, patients were randomized to receive daily oral CAI at 250mg or placebo. Treatment continued until patient refusal, disease progression or unacceptable adverse event (AE). Quality of life (QOL) was assessed by UNISCALE and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Lung Cancer (FACT-L). RESULTS: Registration was halted early for slow accrual (targeted 360, randomized 186: 94 CAI, 92 placebo). All patients were off active treatment at time of analyses. Non-haematologic AEs (primarily grade 1, 2) observed significantly more often in the CAI group included fatigue (54.5% versus 29.3%), anorexia (31.1% versus 13.0%), nausea (62.2% versus 30.4%), vomiting (32.2% versus 14.1%), neurosensory (60.0% versus 44.6%) and ataxia (33.3% versus 16.3%). Patients discontinued treatment for AEs, death on study or refusal more often in the CAI group (36.0% versus 8.7%, p<0.0001). No significant differences in survival or time to progression were observed (median: CAI versus placebo: 11.4 months versus 10.5 months, log rank p=0.54; 2.8 months versus 2.4 months, log rank p=0.50). More patients receiving CAI reported a clinically significant (10-point) decline in QOL particularly on the functional (58% versus 37%, p=0.05) construct of FACT-L and UNISCALE (72% versus 51%, p=0.04). CONCLUSION: The addition of CAI following chemotherapy does not provide clinical benefit or improvement in QOL over placebo in advanced NSCLC.

    Title Paclitaxel, Carboplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and Radiation for Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer: Phase Ii Results of Preliminary Pharmacologic and Molecular Efforts to Mitigate Toxicity and Predict Outcomes: North Central Cancer Treatment Group (n0044).
    Date November 2007
    Journal American Journal of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Locally advanced esophageal cancer is challenging to treat. This study tested a 3-drug, multimodality approach. Chemotherapy dose reductions, the addition of amifostine, and pharmacogenetics were tested in an effort to mitigate toxicity and predict outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This phase II trial tested chemotherapy (carboplatin area under the curve = 4 [lower dose than that from Meluch et al] on day 1 and 22, 5-fluorouracil 225 mg/m2 per day continuous infusion on days 1 to 42, and paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 on days 1 and 22) with concomitant radiation 4500 cG for locally advanced esophageal cancer. Esophagectomy was scheduled after radiation. Amifostine 500 mg subcutaneously before radiation was given to the first 19 patients. RESULTS: Among 54 eligible patients, the pathologic complete response rate was 35% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-49%). Median survival was 21.2 months (95% CI, 13.6-37.6 months), and median time to cancer recurrence/progression 19 months (95% CI, 11.4-44.6 months). Nearly all patients (94%) suffered at least one grade 3 or worse adverse event, including 3 treatment-related deaths. Amifostine was discontinued because of one of these deaths. There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of severe adverse events among patients who received amifostine and those who did not. Genotyping for polymorphisms of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, cytochrome P3A4, and glutathione-S-transferase did not predict tumor response or severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: This 3-drug, multimodality approach yielded a pathologic complete response rate of 35%, but the severe adverse event rate was high. Utilizing amifostine to reduce toxicity or employing molecular approaches to predict outcomes did not show promise.

    Title A Placebo-controlled Double Blind Trial of Etanercept for the Cancer Anorexia/weight Loss Syndrome: Results from N00c1 from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group.
    Date October 2007
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a putative mediator of the cancer anorexia/weight loss syndrome. The current study was designed to determine whether etanercept (a dimeric fusion protein consisting of the extracellular ligand-binding portion of the human 75-kilodalton TNF receptor linked to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin [Ig] G1) could palliate this syndrome. METHODS: A total of 63 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to receive either etanercept at a dose of 25 mg subcutaneously twice weekly versus a comparably administered placebo. All patients had an incurable malignancy, acknowledged loss of weight and/or appetite as a concern, and reported a weight loss of >2.27 kg over 2 months and/or a daily intake of <20 calories/kg body weight. RESULTS: Over time, weight gain was found to be minimal in both treatment arms; no patient gained >or=10% of their baseline weight. Previously validated appetite questionnaires revealed negligible improvements in both treatment arms. The median survival was also comparable (175 days vs 148 days in etanercept-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively; P = .82). Finally, preliminary data regarding adverse events demonstrated that patients treated with etanercept had higher rates of neurotoxicity (29% vs 0%) but lower rates of anemia (0% vs 19%) and thrombocytopenia (0% vs 14%). Infection rates were negligible in both groups. Genotyping for TNF-alpha-238 and TNF-alpha-308 polymorphisms revealed no clinical significance for these genotypes, except for a preliminary association between presence of the -238 G/A genotype and relatively less favorable survival. CONCLUSIONS: Etanercept, as prescribed in the current trial, does not appear to palliate the cancer anorexia/weight loss syndrome in patients with advanced disease.

    Title A Phase Ii Trial of a Combination of Pemetrexed and Gemcitabine in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer: an Ncctg Study.
    Date June 2007
    Journal Annals of Oncology : Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / Esmo
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: This phase II study was undertaken to define the efficacy and toxicity of pemetrexed in combination with gemcitabine in patients with metastatic breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with measurable metastatic breast cancer who had previously received an anthracycline and a taxane in either the adjuvant or metastatic setting were treated with gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2 (intravenous; days 1 and 8) and pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 (intravenous; day 8) every 21 days. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients received a median of five cycles (range one to 22) of treatment and were followed until death or for a median of 28 months (range 19.4-36.6) among living patients. Fourteen partial responses for an overall response rate of 24% [95% confidence interval (CI) 16% to 39%] were documented. Nine (15%; CI 5% to 32%) patients had stable disease for >6 months. The median survival time was 10.3 months (95% CI 8.3-18.9) and the 1 year survival rate was 49% (95% CI 38% to 64%). The median time to progression was estimated to be 3.7 months (95% CI 2.3-5.3). The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicities were neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in 83% and 27% of patients, respectively. Fourteen percent of patients experienced febrile neutropenia. Other common grade 3 or 4 non-hematological toxicities included fatigue (17%), dyspnea (15%), rash (7%) and anorexia (5%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of pemetrexed and gemcitabine is clinically active, with an overall response rate of 24% in patients with metastatic breast cancer who have previously been treated with an anthracycline and a taxane. Myelosuppression (66% grade 4 neutropenia and 14% febrile neutropenia) was the major treatment-related toxicity observed for this combination.

    Title Flutamide in Men with Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia: a Randomized, Placebo-controlled Chemoprevention Trial.
    Date November 2006
    Journal American Journal of Therapeutics
    Excerpt

    High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) has been identified as a premalignant change in the prostate that indicates increased risk of the subsequent development of prostate adenocarcinoma. Prior studies have suggested that androgen deprivation therapy causes a regression of HGPIN. We therefore conducted a chemoprevention trial assessing the efficacy of flutamide in reducing the rate of prostate adenocarcinoma development in men with HGPIN. Men with biopsyproven HGPIN but no evidence of prostate adenocarcinoma were randomized in a double-blind manner to either flutamide 250 mg/d or a placebo. Treatment was continued for 1 year. Repeat biopsies were obtained at 12 and 24 months. Quality of life and toxicities related to treatment were also measured. Sixty patients were randomized and began therapy with either flutamide or placebo. At 1 year, 14% of men receiving flutamide and 10% of men receiving placebo had developed prostate adenocarcinoma. Flutamide-associated toxicities were mild to moderate in severity. Quality-of-life measures did not show any differences between the 2 groups. This study showed no evidence of benefit from flutamide as a chemoprevention agent in men with HGPIN.

    Title Phase Ii Trial of Oral Vinorelbine for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in Patients > or = 65 Years of Age: an Ncctg Study.
    Date September 2006
    Journal Annals of Oncology : Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / Esmo
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: A one-stage phase II trial was conducted to assess the tumor response rate and toxicity profile of single agent oral vinorelbine as first or second-line chemotherapy for women at least 65 years of age with metastatic breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with metastatic breast cancer aged > or = 65 years of age were enrolled to receive oral vinorelbine on a weekly basis. The oral vinorelbine was given at 60 mg/m2 weekly for the first four doses and was increased to 70 mg/m2 for the subsequent administrations if there was no grade 4 neutropenia or no more than one episode of grade 3 neutropenia. Therapy was continued until progression or intolerable toxicity. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were included and evaluable for analysis. One patient (4%) achieved a partial response (PR) that lasted for more than 13 months. Two additional patients remained stable for at least 6 months for a clinical benefit rate (PR + stable disease) of 12%. The 1-year survival rate was estimated to be 48% (95% CI 30% to 74.5%). Median time to progression was estimated to be 4.7 months (95% CI 2.0-5.5 months) and the 9-month disease progression-free rate was estimated to be 8% (95% CI 30.9% to 74.5%). The treatment was fairly well tolerated with grade 3 neutropenia in 12.5%, fatigue in 12.5% of the patients, and grade 2 neuromotor and neurosensory toxicities in 12.5% and 8.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Oral vinorelbine as a single agent at these dose and schedule in this population of women > or = 65 years is well tolerated but has a low level of objective efficacy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

    Title Flavopiridol in Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma: a Phase 2 Trial with Clinical and Pharmacodynamic End-points.
    Date August 2006
    Journal Haematologica
    Excerpt

    Flavopiridol downregulates anti-apoptotic regulators including Mcl-1, upregulates p53, globally attenuates transcription through inhibition of P-TEFb, binds to DNA, and inhibits angiogenesis. Eighteen myeloma patients were treated with 1-hour flavopiridol infusions for 3 consecutive days every 21 days. Immunoblotting for Mcl-1, Bcl-2, p53, cyclin D, phosphoRNA polymerase II and phosphoSTAT 3 was conducted on myeloma cells. Ex vivo flavopiridol treatment of cells resulted in cytotoxicity, but only after longer exposure times at higher flavopiridol concentrations than were anticipated to be achieved in vivo. No anti-myeloma activity was observed in vivo. As administered, flavopiridol has disappointing activity as a single agent in advanced myeloma.

    Title Results of a Phase I Trial of Concurrent Chemotherapy and Escalating Doses of Radiation for Unresectable Non-small-cell Lung Cancer.
    Date August 2006
    Journal International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: This trial was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of radiation that can be administered with carboplatin and paclitaxel. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This trial included 15 patients with unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer. Paclitaxel (50 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under the curve=2) were given weekly during radiation therapy (RT). The RT included 2 Gy daily to an initial dose of 70 Gy, and the dose was increased in 4 Gy increments until determining the MTD. The MTD was defined as the highest safely tolerated dose where at most 1 patient of 6 experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) with the next higher dose having at least 2 of 6 patients experiencing DLT. Three-dimensional treatment planning techniques were used without prophylactic nodal RT. RESULTS: Two patients were not evaluable because they did not receive therapy according to the protocol. No DLTs occurred in the 3 patients who received 70 Gy, 1 DLT occurred in the 6 patients who received 74 Gy, and 2 DLTs occurred in the 4 patients who received 78 Gy. The DLTs included Grade 3 pneumonitis (n=2) and Grade 4 pneumonitis (n=1). There have been 3 deaths during follow-up ranging from 14 to 38 months (median, 28 months). CONCLUSIONS: The MTD of the RT was 74 Gy with weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel. The Phase II portion of this trial is currently under way. The goal is to improve local control and survival with higher doses of RT delivered with this combined modality approach.

    Title Low-molecular-weight Heparin in Patients with Advanced Cancer: a Phase 3 Clinical Trial.
    Date July 2006
    Journal Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Mayo Clinic
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess whether low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) provides a survival benefit in patients with advanced cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between December 1998 and June 2001, we performed a randomized controlled study of patients with advanced cancer. Initially, the study was double blinded and placebo controlled, with the patients receiving daily injections of 5000 U of LMWH or saline. However, because of low accrual midway through the study, the placebo injection arm was eliminated, and the study became open labeled, with patients receiving either LMWH injections plus standard clinical care or standard clinical care alone. The primary study end point was overall survival. RESULTS: Of 141 patients randomized to this clinical trial, 3 dropped out, leaving 138 patients. The median survival time was 10.5 months (95% confidence interval, 7.6-12.2 months) for the combined standard care and placebo groups. The median survival time for the combined LMWH arms was 7.3 months (95% confidence interval, 4.8-12.2 months). These median survival times were not significantly different (log-rank P = .46). The median survival times for the blinded and unblinded LMWH groups were 6.2 months and 9.0 months, respectively. The median survival times were 10.3 months for the blinded placebo arm and 10.5 months for the standard care arm. The rate of severe or life-threatening venous thromboembolism was 6% in the LMWH arms and 7% in the control arms. The rate of severe or life-threatening bleeding was 3% in the LMWH arms and 7% in the control arms.

    Title Phase Iii Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Crossover Trial of Black Cohosh in the Management of Hot Flashes: Ncctg Trial N01cc1.
    Date July 2006
    Journal Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Hot flashes can cause significant morbidity in postmenopausal women undergoing or finished with breast cancer treatment. Black cohosh has been used to treat hot flashes, but definitive clinical data about efficacy have been equivocal. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, cross-over clinical trial with two 4-week periods, was used to study the efficacy of black cohosh (1 capsule, Cimicifuga racemosa 20 mg BID) for the treatment of hot flashes in women. Participants kept a daily hot flash diary during a baseline week and then during two 4-week crossover treatment periods. Hot flash scores were measured by assigning points (1 to 4 for mild to very severe) to each hot flash based on severity and then adding the points for a given time period. RESULTS: Between October 31, 2003, to March 4, 2004, 132 patients were randomly assigned. Toxicity was minimal and not different by treatment group. Patients receiving black cohosh reported a mean decrease in hot flash score of 20% (comparing the fourth treatment week to the baseline week) compared with a 27% decrease for patients on placebo (P = .53). Mean hot flash frequency was reduced 17% on black cohosh and 26% on placebo (P = .36). Patient treatment preferences were measured after completion of both treatment periods by ascertaining which treatment period, if any, the patient preferred. Thirty-four percent of patients preferred the black cohosh treatment, 38% preferred the placebo, and 28% did not prefer either treatment. CONCLUSION: This trial failed to provide any evidence that black cohosh reduced hot flashes more than the placebo.

    Title Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma Mimicking Meningioma: Case Report and Review of the Literature.
    Date May 2006
    Journal The Neurologist
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial dural-based lesions can be due to benign or malignant processes. Imaging characteristics cannot always discern between different pathologic conditions. A thorough clinical evaluation may reveal likely diagnostic possibilities. However, in certain cases, the etiology of the underlying lesion may require biopsy or resection to appropriately treat the patient. REVIEW SUMMARY: We report the case of a large dural-based adenocarcinoma of the prostate clinically and radiographically mimicking a meningioma. We review the history and physical evaluation of the patient and subsequent treatment and response. We discuss the implications of dural-based intracranial lesions in patients with prostate cancer and review the literature of dural metastases, including the pathogenesis, tumor types, and clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: The differential diagnosis of dural-based lesions in the brain varies from incidental and benign to symptomatic and malignant. Careful vigilance in patients with a history of cancer and presenting with new symptoms or imaging evidence of dural-based lesions is critically important to provide timely intervention.

    Title Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine in Patients with Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus, Gastroesophageal Junction and Gastric Cardia: a Phase Ii Study from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group.
    Date May 2006
    Journal Annals of Oncology : Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / Esmo
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: The synergic combination of oxaliplatin and capecitabine has demonstrated activity against various gastrointestinal cancers, including colon cancer. We therefore undertook this phase II study to test this first-line combination in patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction and gastric cardia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with histologic or cytologic confirmation of the above malignancy were recruited. The cohort had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance statuses of 0, 1 and 2 in 47%, 51%, and 2%, respectively. Median age was 61 years (range 32-80). All had adequate organ function. Initially, patients were prescribed 130 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1 and capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 orally twice a day, on days 1-14 of a 21-day cycle. Four treatment-related deaths in the first 24 patients led to a reduction in capecitabine to 850 mg/m2 orally twice a day, days 1-14, for the remainder of the cohort. RESULTS: The tumor response rate was 35% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 23% to 50%]. All responses were partial; seven of 24 occurred before the capecitabine dose reduction, and eight of 19 after. Median time to tumor progression was 4 months (95% CI 3.1-4.6), and median survival 6.4 months (95% CI 4.6-10). To date, there have been 36 deaths. Four were treatment-related (one infection, two myocardial infarctions, one respiratory failure), and all occurred before the capecitabine dose reduction. Notable grade 4 events from the entire cohort included diarrhea (two patients), vomiting (three), dyspnea (one), thrombosis (two) and anorexia (two). Grade 3 events included nausea (12 patients), diarrhea (12), fatigue (10), abdominal pain (seven), vomiting (six), dyspnea (six), hypokalemia (six), dehydration (five), hypokalemia (five) and infection (four). CONCLUSIONS: Oxaliplatin and capecitabine in combination demonstrates activity in metastatic adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction and gastric cardia. The lower dose (capecitabine 850 mg/m2 orally twice a day, days 1-14, and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1) yielded an acceptable toxicity profile and merits further study.

    Title Phase Iii Comparison of Depomedroxyprogesterone Acetate to Venlafaxine for Managing Hot Flashes: North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial N99c7.
    Date April 2006
    Journal Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Vasomotor hot flashes are a common problem in menopausal women. Given concerns regarding estrogen and/or combined hormonal therapy, other treatment options are desired. Prior trials have confirmed that progestational agents and newer antidepressants effectively reduce hot flashes. This current trial compared a single intramuscular dose of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), depot preparation, versus daily oral venlafaxine as treatment for hot flashes. METHODS: Women with bothersome hot flashes were entered onto this trial, were randomly assigned to treatment, and then had a baseline week where hot flash scores were recorded without treatment. They were then treated and observed for 6 weeks; daily diaries were used to measure hot flash frequencies and severities. There were 109 patients per each arm randomly assigned to receive MPA 400 mg intramuscularly for a single dose versus venlafaxine 37.5 mg per day for a week, then 75 mg per day. RESULTS: During the sixth week after random assignment, hot flash scores were reduced by 55% in the venlafaxine arm versus 79% in the MPA arm (P < .0001). In an intention-to-treat analysis, 46% of venlafaxine patients (50 of 109) compared with 74% of the MPA patients (81 of 109) had a decrease in hot flashes by more than 50% from baseline (P < .0001). Less toxicity was reported in the MPA arm. CONCLUSION: A single MPA dose seems to be well tolerated and more effectively reduces hot flashes than does venlafaxine.

    Title Ps-341 and Gemcitabine in Patients with Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group (ncctg) Randomized Phase Ii Study.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Annals of Oncology : Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / Esmo
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: PS-341 is a proteasome inhibitor with preclinical activity in pancreatic cancer tumor models and synergistic activity with gemcitabine. This randomized phase II study determined the tumor response rate (RR) for PS-341 alone and the 6-month survival and RR for the combination of gemcitabine and PS-341 in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive 3-week cycles of either arm A: PS-341 1.5 mg/m(2) i.v. bolus (over 3--5 s) on days 1, 4, 8 and 11 or arm B: PS-341 1.0 mg/m(2) (same as arm A otherwise) plus gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) i.v. on days 1 and 8. Patients progressing on arm A were allowed to receive arm B treatment. RESULTS: Arm A: 42 evaluable patients were enrolled with a confirmed RR of 0% (95% CI 0% to 8%), median survival of 2.5 months (95% CI 2.0-3.3), and median time to progression (TTP) of 1.2 months (95% CI 1.1--1.3). Twelve of 43 evaluable patients (28%) experienced at least one grade 4+ AE. Arm B: 39 evaluable patients yielded a 6-month survival rate of 41% (16/39, 95% CI 29.8% to 67.0%), median survival of 4.8 months (95% CI 2.4--7.4), median TTP of 2.4 months (95% CI 1.5--3.1), and confirmed RR of 10% (4 partial responses/0 complete responses, 95% CI 3% to 24%). Eleven of 43 evaluable patients (26%) experienced at least one grade 4+ AE. One patient had grade 5 hypotension. CONCLUSION: The use of PS-341 alone or in combination with gemcitabine did not result in an overall survival and RR better than that expected for gemcitabine alone. Based on the lack of efficacy and the toxicity seen in our trial, there does not appear to be a role for PS-341 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma with either of the schedules used in this trial.

    Title Pilot Evaluation of Citalopram for the Treatment of Hot Flashes in Women with Inadequate Benefit from Venlafaxine.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Journal of Palliative Medicine
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: While newer antidepressants, such as venlafaxine and paroxetine, substantially decrease hot flashes, there is no published information with regards to whether a different antidepressant will be effective when one antidepressant does not adequately relieve hot flashes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this trial was to provide pilot information with regards to whether citalopram would effectively reduce hot flashes in patients who did not receive adequate enough hot flash reduction with venlafaxine. DESIGN: This was a prospective pilot trial. MEASUREMENTS: Validated patient-completed hot flash diary questionnaires were utilized for measuring hot flashes. SUBJECTS: Thirty patients were recruited to this trial, 22 of whom were fully evaluable. RESULTS: Compared to a baseline week, hot flash scores were reduced by 53% 4 weeks later. The citalopram appeared to be well tolerated with many quality-of-life and potential toxicity symptoms much improved compared to the baseline week. At the end of the 4-week treatment, 19 patients (63% of patients entering the study and 86% of the patient completing the study treatment) chose to continue to use citalopram. CONCLUSION: This pilot information supports the hypothesis that citalopram will reduce hot flashes in patients with inadequate hot flash relief while taking venlafaxine.

    Title 5-hydroxytryptamine-receptor Antagonists Versus Prochlorperazine for Control of Delayed Nausea Caused by Doxorubicin: a Urcc Ccop Randomised Controlled Trial.
    Date October 2005
    Journal The Lancet Oncology
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Despite widespread use of short-acting antagonists for the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor, about 50% of patients given moderately emetogenic chemotherapy have delayed nausea. We aimed to assess whether a 5-HT-receptor antagonist was more effective than was prochlorperazine for control of delayed nausea and delayed vomiting caused by doxorubicin. METHODS: 691 patients who previously had not had chemotherapy and who were scheduled to receive doxorubicin were given a short-acting 5-HT-receptor antagonist and dexamethasone before doxorubicin (day 1), and were randomly assigned to one of three regimens for days 2 and 3: 10 mg prochlorperazine taken orally every 8 h; any first-generation 5-HT-receptor antagonist (except palonosetron) taken as standard dose intravenously or orally; or 10 mg prochlorperazine taken as needed. Nausea and vomiting were assessed by use of a home record. The primary endpoint was mean severity of delayed nausea. The secondary endpoint was quality of life. Analyses were done by intention to treat. FINDINGS: 519 (77%) of the 671 evaluable patients had delayed nausea, with a mean severity of 3.33 (95% CI 3.22-3.44). 161 (71%) of 226 patients assigned prochlorperazine every 8 h reported delayed nausea (mean severity 3.37 [3.16-3.58]), as did 179 (79%) of 226 patients assigned 5-HT-receptor antagonists (3.29 [3.09-3.48]) and 179 (82%) of 219 patients assigned prochlorperazine as needed (3.33 [3.15-3.50]); groups did not differ in mean severity (p=0.853, one-way ANOVA). Patients allocated prochlorperazine every 8 h had less delayed nausea than did those allocated 5-HT-receptor antagonists (p=0.05, t test) and those allocated prochlorperazine as needed (p=0.009, t test). INTERPRETATION: Short-acting 5-HT-receptor antagonists are no better than is prochlorperazine in control of delayed nausea caused by doxorubicin. Although fewer patients taking prochlorperazine report delayed nausea, the proportion was unacceptably high.

    Title A Phase Ii Trial of Docetaxel and Carboplatin As First-line Chemotherapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer: Ncctg Study N9932.
    Date October 2005
    Journal Oncology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: A phase II multi-institutional clinical trial conducted to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of docetaxel and carboplatin as first-line therapy for women with metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: Patients had histologically confirmed metastatic breast cancer with at least one measurable lesion. Prior adjuvant chemotherapy was permitted, provided that at least 12 months had elapsed between any prior taxane and platinum therapy. Patients received docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) with carboplatin AUC 6 mg/ml.min every 21 days until disease progression or prohibitive toxicity. RESULTS: All 53 patients enrolled were evaluable for response and toxicity. Median number of cycles delivered was 6. Overall response rate was 60%, with 3 complete responses (6%) and 29 partial responses (54%). Median time to disease progression was 9.6 months. Median survival time was 20.4 months. Myelosuppression was the predominant toxicity, with grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurring in 94% of patients and 15% of patients experiencing febrile neutropenia. The overall incidence (grades 1-3) of neurosensory toxicity was 57% and neuromotor toxicity was 25%, respectively, with grade 3 toxicity occurring in 4% of patients each. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of docetaxel and carboplatin is highly active in metastatic breast cancer. Prophylactic growth factor support is recommended in any further evaluation of this combination in the treatment of patients with breast cancer.

    Title Randomized Phase Ii Trial of Three Schedules of Pemetrexed and Gemcitabine As Front-line Therapy for Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer.
    Date September 2005
    Journal Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: A randomized three-arm phase II study was undertaken to evaluate the optimum administration schedule of pemetrexed and gemcitabine in chemotherapy-naïve patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to three schedules of pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 plus gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m2, separated by a 90-minute interval, on a 21-day cycle as follows: schedule A, pemetrexed followed by gemcitabine on day 1 and gemcitabine on day 8; schedule B, gemcitabine followed by pemetrexed on day 1 and gemcitabine on day 8; and schedule C, gemcitabine on day 1 and pemetrexed followed by gemcitabine on day 8. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two eligible patients (schedule A, n = 59; schedule B, n = 31, and schedule C, n = 62) received a median of five (schedule A), two (schedule B), and four (schedule C) treatment cycles. Overall, 66% of patients experienced grade 3 or 4 neutropenia. Common grade 3 and 4 nonhematologic toxicities were dyspnea (11%), fatigue (16%), and transaminase elevation (9%). Schedule A seemed less toxic compared with schedule C (grade 3 or 4 events: 86% v 94%, respectively; P = .19; grade 4 events: 39% v 48%, respectively; P = .30). Schedule B was closed at interim analysis for inferior efficacy. Schedule A, with a confirmed response rate of 31% (95% CI, 20% to 45%), met the protocol-defined efficacy criteria, whereas schedule C, with a confirmed response rate of 16.1% (95% CI, 11% to 34%), did not. Median survival time and time to progression were 11.4 and 4.4 months, respectively, with no observable difference between the arms. CONCLUSION: Pemetrexed and gemcitabine administered as outlined for schedule A met the protocol-defined efficacy criteria, was less toxic compared with the other treatment schedules, and should be further evaluated.

    Title Rituximab Therapy for Patients with Newly Diagnosed, Advanced-stage, Follicular Grade I Non-hodgkin's Lymphoma: a Phase Ii Trial in the North Central Cancer Treatment Group.
    Date March 2005
    Journal Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Patients with newly diagnosed, advanced-stage, follicular grade 1 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are often asymptomatic and can be observed without immediate chemotherapy. The goals of this study were to assess the overall response rate (ORR) to rituximab in this patient population and to determine the time-to-progression (TTP) and time-to-subsequent-chemotherapy (TTSC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had untreated follicular grade 1 NHL, and measurable stage III/IV disease. Patients received rituximab 375 mg/m(2) intravenous weekly x 4 doses and were then followed for response and progression; no maintenance therapy was provided. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients were accrued; one patient was ineligible. The median age was 59 years (range, 29 to 83 years). Six patients (18%) had elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels. The ORR was 72%, with 36% complete remissions. Fourteen (39%) of 36 patients remain in unmaintained remission, two died without disease progression, and three died with disease progression. Twenty (56%) of 36 patients have disease progression. The median TTP was 2.2 years (95% CI, 1.3 to not yet reached). Eighteen patients have subsequently been treated with chemotherapy, with a median TTSC of 2.3 years (95% CI, 1.6 to not yet reached). Patients with a high lactate dehydrogenase level had a lower ORR of 33% and a short TTP of only 6 months. CONCLUSION: Rituximab can be safely administered to patients with advanced-stage follicular grade 1 NHL with efficacy and minimal toxicity. This therapy is highly active and offers an acceptable alternative to observation in this patient population. Patients with high LDH should not be considered for rituximab monotherapy.

    Title Phase Ii Trial of Carmustine, Cisplatin, and Oral Etoposide Chemotherapy Before Radiotherapy for Grade 3 Astrocytoma (anaplastic Astrocytoma): Results of North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial 98-72-51.
    Date March 2005
    Journal International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of preradiotherapy (RT) chemotherapy with carmustine, cisplatin, and oral etoposide combined with RT in the treatment of newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Therapy consisted of carmustine (40 mg/m(2)/d) on Days 1-3, oral etoposide (50 mg/d) on Days 1-21 and 29-49, and cisplatin (20 mg/m(2)/d i.v.) on Days 1-3 and 29-31. The regimen was repeated every 8 weeks for three cycles, with conventionally fractionated RT (5000 cGy with a 1000-cGy boost) delivered concurrently with the third cycle. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients were enrolled between December 1999 and March 2001. For varying reasons (e.g., progression, refusal, death, or toxicity), only 48% completed the chemotherapy regimen and 76% completed RT. Grade 3-4 toxicities were observed in 14 patients (48%). The primary study endpoint was the 23-month (700-day) survival, the median survival of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma in a previous North Central Cancer Treatment Group trial. To be considered an active treatment, a maximum of 9 patient deaths (of the first 25) were allowed before 700 days. However, 14 patients had died by 700 days after therapy. CONCLUSION: Our results have demonstrated that pre-RT chemotherapy with this regimen is insufficiently active in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma.

    Title Gemcitabine and Isis-2503 for Patients with Locally Advanced or Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase Ii Trial.
    Date January 2005
    Journal Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Gemcitabine remains the standard therapy for metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (ACA), but has limited activity. ISIS-2503 is an antisense compound directed against H-ras with preclinical activity against pancreatic ACA in tumor models. The combination of ISIS-2503 and gemcitabine has been evaluated in a prior phase I study. METHODS: Patients with metastatic or locally advanced pancreatic ACA not amenable to surgery or local radiation received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) intravenously over 30 minutes on days 1 and 8 and ISIS-2503 6 mg/kg/d as a continuous intravenous infusion over 14 days of an every-3-weeks cycle. Responses were monitored by radiologic imaging every 6 weeks. RESULTS: Forty-eight eligible patients were enrolled, 43 with metastatic disease. Median follow-up was 12.6 months (range, 2.2 to 16.8 months) for living patients. A median of four cycles of treatment was given (range, 1 to 18 cycles). All patients were assessable for response and toxicity. The 6-month survival percentage was 57.5% (95% CI, 44.9% to 73.5%) and the median survival was 6.6 months. The response rate was 10.4% (one complete response, four partial responses). Clinically significant toxicity was limited except for one fatal pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSION: This study shows a promising response rate to the combination of gemcitabine and ISIS-2503 in patients with pancreatic ACA. The observed 6-month survival rate in these patients met our protocol-defined criteria for success. This regimen is tolerable, but is of unclear benefit. Additional studies evaluating the role of gemcitabine and ISIS-2503 in the treatment of pancreatic ACA should be considered.

    Title Randomized Phase Ii Study of Two Irinotecan Schedules for Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer Refractory to an Anthracycline, a Taxane, or Both.
    Date September 2004
    Journal Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: A pressing need exists for agents active against anthracycline- or taxane-refractory metastatic breast cancer (MBC), or both. Previous clinical trials suggested that irinotecan might have such activity. We conducted this multicenter phase II study to assess efficacy and tolerability of two irinotecan schedules. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MBC patients who experienced disease progression after one to three chemotherapy regimens, including at least one anthracycline- or taxane-based regimen, were randomly assigned to irinotecan in 6-week cycles comprising 100 mg/m(2) weekly for 4 weeks, then a 2-week rest (weekly) or 240 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks. RESULTS: The weekly arm had 52 assessable patients; the every-3-weeks arm had 51 assessable patients. In the weekly arm, the objective response (complete regression [CR] + partial regression [PR]) rate was 23% (one CR, 11 PR; 95% CI, 13% to 37%). Median response duration was 4.9 months (range, 1.9 to 15.9 months), and median overall survival was 9.7 months (95% CI, 8.0 to 14.2 months). In the every-3-weeks arm, the objective response rate was 14% (nine PR; 95% CI, 6% to 26%), median response duration was 4.2 months (range, 3.1 to 13.9 months), and median overall survival was 8.6 months (95% CI, 7.0 to 12.3 months). Treatment generally was well tolerated, especially in the weekly arm. Grade 3 to 4 adverse events with > or = 10% incidence included neutropenia (29%) and diarrhea (17%) in the weekly arm and neutropenia (36%), vomiting (20%), dyspnea (18%), nausea (16%), and diarrhea (12%) in the every-3-weeks arm. CONCLUSION: Irinotecan is active with good tolerability in refractory MBC. Irinotecan (especially weekly) warrants additional study as monotherapy and in combination regimens in this setting.

    Title Cancer Patients' Expectations of Experiencing Treatment-related Side Effects: a University of Rochester Cancer Center--community Clinical Oncology Program Study of 938 Patients from Community Practices.
    Date August 2004
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Adequate management of treatment-related side effects is important for patients and challenging for clinicians. Side effects generated by various treatments have been characterized reasonably well. However, to the authors' knowledge, less is known regarding what patients expect to experience regarding these side effects and how patient characteristics are related to these expectations. METHODS: Patients with cancer (n = 1015 patients) from 17 Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) institutions affiliated with the University of Rochester Cancer Center CCOP Research Base were surveyed regarding their expectations of experiencing side effects associated with cancer treatment, with 938 patients providing evaluable data. Patients responded to the item, "Indicate your expectations of having this side effect" for 12 common side effects. Patients rated their expectations using a 5-point Likert scale, from 1 ("I definitely will not have this") to 5 ("I definitely will have this"). RESULTS: The median number of symptoms expected (characterized by any value other than one) was nine. The six most expected symptoms were fatigue, nausea, sleep disturbance, weight loss, hair loss, and skin problems. Patients age > 60 years expected to have fewer symptoms than younger patients; female patients expected more side effects than male patients; and patients who had some college education expected more side effects than patients who were high school graduates or had not completed high school. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cancer clearly exhibit expectations regarding treatment-related side effects; and age, gender, and education level appear to influence these expectations. Further careful characterization of patient expectations and how expectations relate to experience may lead to earlier and more effective management of side effects.

    Title Oral Vinorelbine for the Treatment of Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer in Elderly Patients: a Phase Ii Trial of Efficacy and Toxicity.
    Date June 2004
    Journal Lung Cancer (amsterdam, Netherlands)
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Before now oral vinorelbine has not yet been tested in a cohort of elderly, advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients, even though the intravenous form of this drug provides a reasonable therapeutic option for this group. This trial was conducted to determine the tumor response rate and toxicity profile of oral vinorelbine in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients > or = 65 years of age. PATIENT AND METHODS: Fifty-eight evaluable patients > or = 65 years of age with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled. Median age was 73 years (range: 65-87). The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score was 0, 1, or 2 in 29, 59, and 12% of patients, respectively. All patients had adequate organ function. Oral vinorelbine 60 mg/m2 per week was prescribed weekly as first-line therapy. RESULTS: Two patients manifested a confirmed tumor response, yielding a response rate of 3.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 11.9%). There were no complete responses. Median progression-free survival was 3.5 months (95% CI: 2.2, 5.4 months), and median overall survival was 7.5 months (95% CI: 5.0, 12 months). There were five deaths, one of which might have been treatment-related, and there were 10 grade 4 events. CONCLUSIONS: Oral vinorelbine, as prescribed in this trial, provides minimal activity in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer in patients > or = 65 years of age.

    Title A Phase Ii Study of the Dolastatin 15 Analogue Lu 103793 in the Treatment of Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer.
    Date January 2004
    Journal American Journal of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    A phase II study of the dolastatin 15 analog LU 103793 was conducted by the North Central Cancer Treatment Group in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Previously untreated patients received this agent at a dosage of 2.5 mg/m2 as a 5-minute intravenous infusion for 5 consecutive days every 3 weeks. Between September 1997 and July 1998, 17 patients were accrued in this study. Forty-two treatment cycles were administered with relatively modest toxicity. No responses were seen. This agent appears to be inactive in the treatment of advanced non-SCLC.

    Title Gemcitabine and Oxaliplatin for Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase Ii Study.
    Date July 2003
    Journal Annals of Oncology : Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / Esmo
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the efficacy of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (ACA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pancreatic ACA patients with previously untreated advanced or metastatic disease were enrolled in a phase II study of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin. Oxaliplatin was given i.v. on day 1 and gemcitabine i.v. on days 1 and 8 of a 3-week cycle. The primary end point of the trial was 6-month survival. Secondary end points included response rate, overall survival, median time to progression and toxicity. RESULTS: A total of 47 patients were enrolled, 46 of whom were evaluable. Of those patients assessed for the primary end point 50% lived for > or =6 months. The median time to progression was 4.53 months. Five confirmed responses were seen with a median duration of response of 2.7 months. Overall, the treatment was well tolerated. However, one patient died as a result of treatment-related hemolytic uremic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin, at doses of 1000 mg/m(2) and 100 mg/m(2), respectively, showed moderate activity in patients with pancreatic ACA. Based on the results of this study further evaluation of this combination is warranted.

    Title Nausea and Emesis Remain Significant Problems of Chemotherapy Despite Prophylaxis with 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 Antiemetics: a University of Rochester James P. Wilmot Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program Study of 360 Cancer Patients Treated in the Community.
    Date June 2003
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Clinical reports suggest that nausea remains a side effect of chemotherapy despite widespread use of serotonin receptor antagonists. This study summarized the frequency, timing, and intensity of postchemotherapy nausea for patients receiving doxorubicin, cisplatin, or carboplatin. METHODS: Three hundred sixty chemotherapy-naïve patients (73% female) were enrolled in a study testing the ability of an information intervention to reduce nausea. Of these, 322 subjects completed the Morrow Assessment of Nausea and Emesis (MANE), as well as a 5-day self-report diary, at Cycle 1 (300 subjects completed the MANE and self-report diary at Cycle 2). All patients received a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist (ondansetron) with dexamethasone on the day of treatment. RESULTS: Seventy-six percent of the patients developed nausea during the 5-day period, beginning with the Cycle 1 infusion, and 73% of patients reported delayed nausea (DN) during Days 2-5. The proportions were similar during Cycle 2. Fifty-five percent of patients described their DN as being of moderate or greater intensity compared with 28% of patients who described acute nausea. Carboplatin was less likely to cause DN than either of the other agents (56% of 106 patients compared with 75% of 47 receiving cisplatin and 83% of 169 taking doxorubicin). The mean peak DN severity was 4.34 (range, 1-7) for doxorubicin, which was significantly higher than the mean peak value for carboplatin (3.66) but was not significantly different from the mean peak value for cisplatin (4.26). Eighteen percent of patients did not experience nausea until Day 3 or later. CONCLUSIONS: Despite prophylaxis with ondansetron, the majority of patients receiving one of these common chemotherapy agents experienced nausea. The frequency of DN was nearly twice that of acute nausea. Results show the need for continued development of antiemetics that are effective against DN.

    Title A Phase I Study of Radiation Therapy and Twice-weekly Gemcitabine and Cisplatin in Patients with Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer.
    Date May 2003
    Journal International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: In vitro studies suggest that low-dose gemcitabine sensitizes cells to radiation therapy and that this effect persists for 48 h after drug exposure. Cisplatin is a radiation sensitizer and is also synergistic with gemcitabine in some in vitro tumor systems. Gemcitabine's radiosensitizing properties can theoretically be exploited by twice-weekly administration. This study assessed toxicity in patients with pancreatic cancer treated with radiation therapy, gemcitabine, and cisplatin. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with locally advanced pancreatic or gastric cancer were eligible. Gemcitabine and cisplatin were given twice weekly for 3 weeks during radiation therapy (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions). The starting dose of gemcitabine was 5 mg/m(2) i.v. The starting dose for cisplatin was 5 mg/m(2). Chemotherapy doses escalated every 3 to 6 patients according to a standard Phase I study design. RESULTS: Twenty-four evaluable patients, all with pancreatic cancer, were treated on this protocol. Grade 3 neutropenia occurred in 2 patients, Grade 3 thrombocytopenia occurred in 2, and Grade 4 lymphopenia occurred in 1. There was no clear relationship between chemotherapy dose and hematologic toxicity. The most common Grade 3-4 nonhematologic toxic responses were vomiting (7 patients) and nausea (7 patients). Dose-limiting toxicity consisting of Grade 4 nausea and vomiting occurred in 2 of 3 patients at dose Level 6 (gemcitabine 45 mg/m(2) i.v. and cisplatin 10 mg/m(2) i.v.). Six patients were treated at dose Level 5 (gemcitabine 30 mg/m(2) i.v. and cisplatin 10 mg/m(2) i.v.) without dose-limiting toxicity. CONCLUSION: Gemcitabine 30 mg/m(2) i.v. twice weekly and cisplatin 10 mg/m(2) i.v. twice weekly may be given concurrently with radiation therapy (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions) with acceptable toxicity.

    Title A Phase Ii Trial of Green Tea in the Treatment of Patients with Androgen Independent Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma.
    Date April 2003
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Recent laboratory and epidemiologic studies have suggested that green tea has antitumor effects in patients with prostate carcinoma. This Phase II trial explored green tea's antineoplastic effects in patients with androgen independent prostate carcinoma. METHODS: This study, which was conducted by the North Central Cancer Treatment Group, evaluated 42 patients who were asymptomatic and had manifested, progressive prostate specific antigen (PSA) elevation with hormone therapy. Continued use of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist was permitted; however, patients were ineligible if they had received other treatments for their disease in the preceding 4 weeks or if they had received a long-acting antiandrogen therapy in the preceding 6 weeks. Patients were instructed to take 6 grams of green tea per day orally in 6 divided doses. Each dose contained 100 calories and 46 mg of caffeine. Patients were monitored monthly for response and toxicity. RESULTS: Tumor response, defined as a decline >/= 50% in the baseline PSA value, occurred in a single patient, or 2% of the cohort (95% confidence interval, 1-14%). This one response was not sustained beyond 2 months. At the end of the first month, the median change in the PSA value from baseline for the cohort increased by 43%. Green tea toxicity, usually Grade 1 or 2, occurred in 69% of patients and included nausea, emesis, insomnia, fatigue, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and confusion. However, six episodes of Grade 3 toxicity and one episode of Grade 4 toxicity also occurred, with the latter manifesting as severe confusion. CONCLUSIONS: Green tea carries limited antineoplastic activity, as defined by a decline in PSA levels, among patients with androgen independent prostate carcinoma.

    Title Efficacy and Quality-of-life Data Are Related in a Phase Ii Trial of Oral Chemotherapy in Previously Untreated Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma.
    Date December 2002
    Journal Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To evaluate quality of life (QOL) and tumor response after administration of an oral chemotherapy regimen in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight patients received a mean number of 5.8 cycles of therapy. QOL data were analyzed at baseline, after every two cycles of therapy, and at the time of treatment discontinuation. The Uniscale and the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 were both utilized. RESULTS: The confirmed response rate was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17% to 37%). Median survival was 11.3 months (95% CI, 9.6 to 15.1 months). Global QOL scores were unchanged over the course of therapy by either tool. Only the physical function subscale score had worsened at the end of therapy. In an analysis of responding patients, significant and durable improvements in both global QOL measures as well as select subscale scores were observed. Diarrhea and physical function QOL scores had declined at the time of treatment discontinuation. Patients who did not respond to therapy had preserved QOL scores when they were evaluated after two cycles of therapy. CONCLUSION: This oral treatment strategy preserved QOL in treated patients. Global QOL measures as well as several QOL subscale scores significantly improved in patients with a documented response to therapy. The profile of improved QOL components indicated that patient well-being was related to tumor response in specific and perceivable ways. Nonresponding patients reported preserved QOL during the first two cycles of therapy. QOL analysis was feasible and informative in this moderately sized multicenter phase II trial.

    Title Gemcitabine and Oxaliplatin for Patients with Advanced or Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group (ncctg) Phase I Study.
    Date December 2002
    Journal Annals of Oncology : Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / Esmo
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: The study was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (ACA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pancreatic ACA patients, with previously untreated advanced or metastatic disease, were enrolled in a dose escalation study of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin. Oxaliplatin was given intravenously on day 1 and gemcitabine intravenously on days 1 and 8 of a 3-week cycle. Doses of both drugs were increased with sequential cohorts of patients until dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients were enrolled to three dose levels. DLT of neutropenia and a severe infection was noted at a dose of gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2. Hematological toxicity and nausea and vomiting were the most common grade 3/4 toxicities. The MTD, gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 100 mg/m2, was well tolerated. Three confirmed responses were seen. CONCLUSIONS: The MTD of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with pancreatic ACA was determined. A phase II study of this combination is ongoing and will be reported separately at a later date.

    Title Phase Ii Trial of Kw2189 in Patients with Advanced Malignant Melanoma.
    Date June 2002
    Journal American Journal of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    KW-2189, a semisynthetic duocarmycine antibiotic has been shown to exert antiproliferative effects against human tumor cell lines in vitro and animal tumor models in vivo. Phase I studies identified myelosuppression as the most noteworthy adverse effect. Presented are two concurrent phase II studies assessing the antitumor and toxicity profile of KW-2189 in metastatic melanoma patients. One of the studies accrued patients with a history of prior melanoma therapy and the other accrued patients without a history of prior melanoma therapy. KW-2189 was administered at 0.4 mg/m2 to previously treated patients and 0.5 mg/m2 to the previously untreated. Treatment was administered intravenously on day 1 of a 6-week cycle. Thirty previously untreated and 15 previously treated patients were accrued. The toxicity profiles of the both groups of patients were similar. Of the 15 previously treated patients, 8 completed once cycle of treatment, 2 completed 2 cycles, and 5 completed 3 cycles. Dose modification for neutropenia/ thrombocytopenia was necessary in six patients. Among the previously untreated cohort (30 patients), 16 completed 1 cycle, 5 completed 2 cycles, 4 completed 3 cycles, 3 completed 4 cycles, and 2 completed 6 cycles. Doses were modified (neutropenia or thrombocytopenia) in 11 patients. None of the 15 previously treated patients responded to therapy. Four patients remained stable during two cycles. Five of the previously untreated patients achieved a partial remission/regression. Response duration ranged from 2.8 to 16.6 months. Overall objective response rate was 17%. Regarding survival, one previously treated patient is still alive 2.9 years after study entry, and three previously untreated patients are still alive 1.6, 2.3, and 2.9 years after study entry. The 1-year survival rate for previously treated patients is 27% and for the untreated patients is 23%. In summary, the lack of significant antitumor activity of KW-2189 and its associated toxicity suggest that further testing of this regimen in patients with stage IV melanoma is not warranted.

    Title Dronabinol Versus Megestrol Acetate Versus Combination Therapy for Cancer-associated Anorexia: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study.
    Date March 2002
    Journal Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To determine whether dronabinol administered alone or with megestrol acetate was more, less, or equal in efficacy to single-agent megestrol acetate for palliating cancer-associated anorexia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four hundred sixty-nine assessable advanced cancer patients were randomized to (1) oral megestrol acetate 800 mg/d liquid suspension plus placebo, (2) oral dronabinol 2.5 mg twice a day plus placebo, or (3) both agents. Eligible patients acknowledged that loss of appetite or weight was a problem and reported the loss of 5 pounds or more during 2 months and/or a daily intake of less than 20 calories/kg of body weight. RESULTS: Groups were comparable at baseline in age, sex, tumor type, weight loss, and performance status. A greater percentage of megestrol acetate-treated patients reported appetite improvement and weight gain compared with dronabinol-treated patients: 75% versus 49% (P =.0001) for appetite and 11% versus 3% (P =.02) for > or = 10% baseline weight gain. Combination treatment resulted in no significant differences in appetite or weight compared with megestrol acetate alone. The Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy questionnaire, which emphasizes anorexia-related questions, demonstrated an improvement in quality of life (QOL) among megestrol acetate-treated and combination-treated patients. The single-item Uniscale, a global QOL instrument, found comparable scores. Toxicity was also comparable, with the exception of an increased incidence of impotence among men who received megestrol acetate. CONCLUSION: In the doses and schedules we studied, megestrol acetate provided superior anorexia palliation among advanced cancer patients compared with dronabinol alone. Combination therapy did not appear to confer additional benefit.

    Title A Phase Ii Study of Paclitaxel Plus Carboplatin As First-line Chemotherapy for Women with Metastatic Breast Carcinoma.
    Date January 2000
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: This Phase II multicenter study evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2) by 3-hour infusion) with carboplatin (area under the curve 6 mg/mL per minute) administered every 3 weeks as first-line therapy for women with metastatic breast carcinoma. METHODS: Eligible patients had measurable metastatic disease and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2. Prior adjuvant chemotherapy, including anthracycline-based therapy, was allowed, as was prior hormonal therapy as part of either adjuvant treatment or treatment for metastasis. Prior therapy with taxanes or platinum was not allowed. RESULTS: A total of 53 patients were enrolled in this study, with 50 patients evaluable for response and toxicity. The overall response rate was 62% (95% confidence interval ¿CI, 48-75%); 16% of patients had complete responses and 46% had partial responses. The median time to progression was 7.3 months (95% CI, 5.9-12.9), and the 12-month survival estimate was 72% (95% CI, 61-86%). Therapy was generally well tolerated. Grade 3-4 neutropenia was the predominant toxicity, observed in 82% of patients, but there were no episodes of febrile neutropenia or sepsis. Hematopoietic growth factors were not routinely necessary. Grade 3 peripheral neuropathy occurred in 16% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2)) with carboplatin (area under the curve 6 mg/mL per minute) demonstrated substantial efficacy in patients with metastatic breast carcinoma, and the 12-month survival rate of 72% was encouraging. This therapy represents a viable option for patients with metastatic disease.

    Title Phase I and Pharmacological Trial of Fazarabine (ara-ac) with Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor.
    Date March 1999
    Journal Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
    Excerpt

    Fazarabine (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-aza-cytosine, or Ara-AC) is a nucleoside analogue that consists of the arabinoside ring of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and the pyrimidine base of 5-azacytidine. In Phase I and Phase II trials, neutropenia was dose limiting, with minimal nonhematological toxicity. The in vitro cytotoxic concentrations of Ara-AC could not be achieved in these studies; neutropenia precluded dose escalation. The objectives of this study were: to determine either the maximum tolerated dose of Ara-AC or to safely achieve target plasma levels of 2-5 microgram/ml when Ara-AC was administered as a 24-h infusion with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to patients with advanced refractory malignancies; to characterize the pharmacokinetic behavior of Ara-AC with G-CSF; and to define the relationship of Ara-AC pharmacokinetics to toxicity. Twenty-four patients received 67 courses of Ara-AC at doses of 54-112 mg/m2/h. Dose-limiting toxicity was approached but not reached. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia and nausea were the principle side effects. Steady-state plasma concentrations exceeded the minimum target concentration of 2 microgram/ml in all patients who received >/=78 mg/m2/h for 24 h. The maximum target concentration was approached during administration of 112 mg/m2/h for 24 h. The mean steady-state clearance was 475 +/- 103 ml/min/m2 and did not change with dose. One partial response was seen. One patient received 16 courses and another received 7 courses of therapy before progression. Ara-AC can be safely administered in doses that result in plasma concentrations of 2-5 microgram/ml, if it is given with G-CSF. Phase II trials of Ara-AC in selected malignancies are planned.

    Title Long-term Results of Laparoscopic Splenectomy for Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura.
    Date February 1999
    Journal Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Mayo Clinic
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the results of laparoscopic splenectomy as a treatment for immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of all patients who underwent laparoscopic splenectomy for ITP at our institution between August 1992 and May 1997. RESULTS: Of 27 patients who underwent attempted laparoscopic splenectomy for ITP at our institution during the study period, 26 had completion of the procedure without conversion to an open splenectomy. The median postoperative hospital stay was 1.5 days, and no postoperative deaths occurred. In one patient, pancreatitis developed postoperatively. In four patients, splenectomy failed--two initially and two subsequently--and reinstitution of medical therapy was necessary. The other patients have remained free of medication, and 19 patients have platelet counts greater than 100 x 10(9)/L. The 3-year actuarial success rate was 81.5%. Response to corticosteroid therapy preoperatively may be an indicator of success of splenectomy. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic splenectomy is safe and allows prompt recovery. Long-term response rates are similar to those achieved with open splenectomy.

    Title Combination Chemotherapy with Cisplatin, Carboplatin, and Etoposide in Advanced Malignancy: a Phase I Trial.
    Date November 1997
    Journal American Journal of Clinical Oncology
    Excerpt

    Cisplatin and carboplatin are platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents with broad antitumor activity and significantly different toxicity profiles. They are commonly used in combination with etoposide (VP-16) in chemotherapeutic regimens. We conducted a phase I trial using the combination of cisplatin, carboplatin, and etoposide in advanced malignancy, aimed at delivering a higher dose intensity of active platinum species while taking advantage of their nonoverlapping toxicities. Etoposide was added because of its synergistic action with platinum compounds. The initial chemotherapy regimen consisted of carboplatin 180 mg/m2 on day 1, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1, and etoposide 60 mg/m2 on days 1-3. Dose was escalated based on toxicity observed at each level and separately for patients with a previous history of chemotherapy and for those with no prior treatment. Thirty-six patients were entered in the study, and 33 were evaluable. Hematologic toxicity was dose limiting. Grade 3-4 leukopenia was noted in 22 of 33 (66%) patients and grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia was noted in 16 of 33 (48%). No serious bleeding complications occurred. There was one treatment-related death due to neutropenic sepsis. Nonhematologic toxicity was mild and not dose limiting. Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity were minimal. No complete responses (CR) occurred. Nine of 33 (27%) patients had objective responses, including 3 patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction who had failed prior chemotherapy. Fifteen of 33 (45%) patients had stable disease. The maximum tolerated dose varied for patients who had received prior chemotherapy and for those who were previously untreated. For further studies, the recommended dosing for previously untreated patients is carboplatin 300 mg/m2 on day 1, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1, and etoposide 105 mg/m2 on days 1-3. The recommended dosing for patients with a history of prior chemotherapy is carboplatin 220 mg/m2 on day 1, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1, and etoposide 75 mg/m2 on days 1-3. The combination of cisplatin, carboplatin, and etoposide merits further testing in phase II trials.

    Title Granulocyte-macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor. Preliminary Observations on the Influences of Dose, Schedule, and Route of Administration in Patients Receiving Cyclophosphamide and Carboplatin.
    Date November 1992
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND. In an attempt to learn how best to administer granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), the authors performed a Phase I study of this agent. They were interested in the influences of dose, schedule, and route of administration on the effects of GMCSF in patients receiving standardized 1-day regimens of cyclophosphamide (CYCLO) and carboplatin (CBDCA). METHODS. Between June 1988 and March 1991, 57 patients with advanced cancer received GMCSF in association with CYCLO 1 g/m2 plus CBDCA 225-700 mg/m2. After the first dose escalation to 300 mg/m2 of CBDCA, patients who had previously received chemotherapy or radiation therapy were excluded. GMCSF was administered in three different doses, five different schedules, and by two different routes. Altogether, 17 different treatment groups were observed. In addition, 24-hour GMCSF serum concentration curves were charted in four patients. RESULTS. Using four sequential groups of three patients each who had received myelosuppressive treatment, treatment with CYCLO 1 g/m2 and CBDCA 225 mg/m2, the apparent superiority of daily subcutaneous injection over 30-minute daily IV infusion of GMCSF was demonstrated graphically. Subsequently, the authors observed apparent enhancement of GMCSF effects beyond those produced by the initially selected 20-day basic 10 micrograms/kg daily SC regimen beginning 2 days after chemotherapy. When administered SC every 12 hours for 14 days beginning the day after chemotherapy, GMCSF appeared to ameliorate the severity of both leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. These effects permitted escalation of the CBDCA dose to 700 mg/m2 (with 1 g/m2 of CYCLO) before cytotoxic tolerance limits were reached. Graphic small group comparisons suggest that GMCSF given SC in doses of 5 micrograms/kg twice daily may produce comparable leukocyte and platelet support after chemotherapy with lower toxicity than occurs from higher doses. Prechemotherapy priming with GMCSF twice daily for an additional 4 days (days -6 to -3) seems to ameliorate postchemotherapy cytopenias further but at the cose of some increased risk of GMCSF toxicity. Although most of the toxic effects of moderate-dose GMCSF are controlled by antihistamines and ibuprofen, oral glucocorticoids (e.g., prednisone, 10 mg twice daily during the second week of GMCSF administration) may be required in patients with serositis, pulmonary infiltrates, or severe skin eruptions. CONCLUSIONS. Our observations suggest that GMCSF should be administered SC in doses of approximately 5 micrograms/kg every 12 hours for 10-14 days beginning the day after chemotherapy. Prechemotherapy priming with these same doses for four additional days (days -6 to -3) may additionally ameliorate postchemotherapy leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, but with increased risk of toxicity.

    Title Amelioration of Chemotherapy-induced Thrombocytopenia by Gm-csf: Apparent Dose and Schedule Dependency.
    Date October 1989
    Journal Journal of the National Cancer Institute
    Title Decision-making Role Preferences of Patients Receiving Adjuvant Cancer Treatment: a University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program.
    Date
    Journal Supportive Cancer Therapy
    Excerpt

    This study examined patients' preferences for involvement in treatment decision-making. This was a multisite survey study of 1014 patients diagnosed with a variety of cancers. Patients' treatment decisions, role preferences, and characteristics were assessed with a questionnaire administered at the time of their first visit with a medical or radiation oncologist. The data showed that 35.7% preferred passive roles, 43.7% preferred shared roles, and 20.3% preferred active roles in decision-making. Bivariate analyses indicated that patients with a college education or in professional or managerial occupations preferred more active roles in decisionmaking compared with other patients. Similarly, men with prostate cancer and women with breast cancer, compared with other patients, also preferred more involvement in decision-making. Age was not associated with decision-making role preferences. Avoidant and fatalistic coping were associated with a passive decision-making role. Multinomial logistic regression analysis found that patients in professional/managerial occupations preferred a shared role (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; CI, 1.2-2.4) or an active role (OR, 2.3; CI, 1.5-3.5) compared with patients in other occupations. Patients with prostate or breast cancer preferred shared (OR, 2.3; CI, 1.6-3.2) or active roles (OR, 1.8; CI, 1.2-2.8) compared with patients with other diagnoses. Patients who scored higher on the Mental Adjustment to Cancer fatalism scale were less likely to prefer shared (OR, 0.94; CI, 0.89-0.99) or active roles (OR, 0.90; CI, 0.84- 0.96) compared with patients with a less fatalistic orientation. Decision-making role preferences were influenced by multiple factors. Most patients wanted a shared or active role in treatment decision-making. Our results suggest that some patients may require encouragement to take a shared or active role in decision-making.

    Title Chod/bvam Chemotherapy and Whole-brain Radiotherapy for Newly Diagnosed Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.
    Date
    Journal International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine, and dexamethasone (CHOD) plus bis-chloronitrosourea (BCNU), cytosine arabinoside, and methotrexate (BVAM) followed by whole-brain irradiation (WBRT) for patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients 70 years old and younger with newly diagnosed, biopsy-proven PCNSL received one cycle of CHOD followed by two cycles of BVAM. Patients then received WBRT, 30.6 Gy, if a complete response was evoked, or 50.4 Gy if the response was less than complete; both doses were given in 1.8-Gy daily fractions. The primary efficacy endpoint was 1-year survival. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (19 men, 17 women) enrolled between 1995 and 2000. Median age was 60.5 years (range, 34 to 69 years). Thirty (83%) patients had baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance scores of 0 to 1. All 36 patients were eligible for survival and response evaluations. Median time to progression was 12.3 months, and median survival was 18.5 months. The percentages of patients alive at 1, 2, and 3 years were 64%, 36%, and 33%, respectively. The best response was complete response in 10 patients and immediate progression in 7 patients. Ten (28%) patients had at least one grade 3 or higher neurologic toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: This regimen did improve the survival of PCNSL patients but also caused substantial toxicity. The improvement in survival is less than that reported with high-dose methotrexate-based therapies.

    Title Phase Ii Study of Preoperative Pemetrexed, Carboplatin, and Radiation Followed by Surgery for Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer and Gastroesophageal Junction Tumors.
    Date
    Journal Journal of Thoracic Oncology : Official Publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
    Excerpt

    Based on favorable preliminary clinical data and the need to identify effective, well-tolerated neoadjuvant regimens for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer, this clinical trial was undertaken.

    Title A Phase Ii Trial of Nab-paclitaxel (abi-007) and Carboplatin in Patients with Unresectable Stage Iv Melanoma : a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study, N057e1.
    Date
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND:: There is increasing evidence that paclitaxel and carboplatin are clinically active in the treatment of metastatic melanoma (MM). ABI-007 is an albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel that has demonstrated single-agent activity against metastatic melanoma. METHODS:: A parallel phase II trial was conducted in patients with unresectable stage IV melanoma who were either chemotherapy naive (CN) or previously treated (PT). The treatment regimen consisted of ABI-007 (100 mg/m(2)) and carboplatin area under the curve (AUC2) administered on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days. The primary aim of this study was objective response rate (RECIST). RESULTS:: Seventy-six patients (41 CN and 35 PT) were enrolled between November 2006 and July 2007. Three patients withdrew consent prior to starting treatment. The median number of treatment cycles was 4. There were 10 (25.6%) responses (1 complete response [CR] and 9 partial responses [PRs]) in the CN cohort (90% CI, 16.7%-42.3%) and 3 (8.8%) responses (3 PRs) in the PT cohort (90% CI, 2.5%-21.3%). Median progression-free survival was 4.5 months in the CN cohort and 4.1 months in the PT cohort. Median overall survival (OS) was 11.1 months in the CN group and 10.9 months in the PT group. Severe toxicities in both groups (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects v.3.0 ≥grade 3) included neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, neurosensory problems, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. CONCLUSIONS:: The weekly combination of ABI-007 and carboplatin appears to be moderately well tolerated, with promising clinical activity as therapy in patients who are chemotherapy naive and with modest antitumor activity in those previously treated. Cancer 2010;. © 2010 American Cancer Society.


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