Browse Health
Back, Neck, and Spine
9 years of experience
Video profile
Accepting new patients

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Temple University Physicians (2001)
  • Currently 3 of 4 apples
Top 50%
Residency
Temple University Hospital (2006) *
Fellowship
San Diego Center for Spinal Disorders (2007) *
* This information was reported to Vitals by the doctor or doctor's office.

Affiliations ?

Dr. Hsu is affiliated with 3 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Doylestown Hospital
    Orthopaedic Surgery
    595 W State St, Doylestown, PA 18901
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Central Montgomery Medical Center
    Orthopaedic Surgery
    100 Medical Campus Dr, Lansdale, PA 19446
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Abington Memorial Hospital
    Orthopaedic Surgery
    1200 Old York Rd, Abington, PA 19001
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Hsu has contributed to 37 publications.
    Title Integrins Traffic Rapidly Via Circular Dorsal Ruffles and Macropinocytosis During Stimulated Cell Migration.
    Date June 2011
    Journal The Journal of Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    During cell migration, integrins are redistributed from focal adhesions undergoing disassembly at the cell's trailing edges to new focal adhesions assembling at leading edges. The initial step of integrin redistribution is thought to require clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, whether clathrin-mediated endocytosis functions in different contexts, such as basal versus stimulated migration, has not been determined. In this paper, we examine the spatial and temporal redistribution of integrins from focal adhesions upon stimulation by growth factors. Four-dimensional confocal live-cell imaging along with functional analysis reveals that surface integrins do not undergo significant endocytosis at ventral focal adhesions upon cell stimulation with the platelet-derived growth factor. Rather, they abruptly redistribute to dorsal circular ruffles, where they are internalized through macropinocytosis. The internalized integrins then transit through recycling endosomal compartments to repopulate newly formed focal adhesions on the ventral surface. These findings explain why integrins have long been observed to redistribute through both surface-based and internal routes and identify a new function for macropinocytosis during growth factor-induced cell migration.

    Title Transport at the Recycling Endosome.
    Date October 2010
    Journal Current Opinion in Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    The recycling endosome (RE) has long been considered as a sub-compartment of the early endosome that recycles internalized cargoes to the plasma membrane. The RE is now appreciated to participate in a more complex set of intracellular itineraries. Key cargo molecules and transport factors that act in these pathways are being identified. These advancements are beginning to reveal complexities in pathways involving the RE, and also suggest ways of further delineating functional domains of this compartment.

    Title Mechanisms of Copi Vesicle Formation.
    Date December 2009
    Journal Febs Letters
    Excerpt

    Coat Protein I (COPI) is one of the most intensely investigated coat complexes. Numerous studies have contributed to a general understanding of how coat proteins act to initiate intracellular vesicular transport. This review highlights key recent findings that have shaped our current understanding of how COPI vesicles are formed.

    Title The Evolving Understanding of Copi Vesicle Formation.
    Date May 2009
    Journal Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    The coat protein I (COPI) complex is considered to be one of the best-characterized coat complexes. Studies on how it functions in vesicle formation have provided seminal contributions to the general paradigm in vesicular transport that the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) small GTPases are key regulators of coat complexes. Here, we discuss emerging evidence that suggests the need to revise some long-held views on how COPI vesicle formation is achieved.

    Title A Role for the Host Coatomer and Kdel Receptor in Early Vaccinia Biogenesis.
    Date February 2009
    Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Excerpt

    Members of the poxvirus family have been investigated for their applications as vaccines and expression vectors and, more recently, because of concern for their potential as biological weapons. Vaccinia virus, the prototypic member, evolves through multiple forms during its replication. Here, we show a surprising way by which vaccinia hijacks coatomer for early viral biogenesis. Whereas coatomer forms COPI vesicles in the host early secretory system, vaccinia formation bypasses this role of coatomer, but instead, depends on coatomer interacting with the host KDEL receptor. To gain insight into the viral roles of these two host proteins, we have detected them on the earliest recognized viral forms. These findings not only suggest insights into early vaccinia biogenesis but also reveal an alternate mechanism by which coatomer acts.

    Title A Role for Phosphatidic Acid in Copi Vesicle Fission Yields Insights into Golgi Maintenance.
    Date October 2008
    Journal Nature Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    Proteins essential for vesicle formation by the Coat Protein I (COPI) complex are being identified, but less is known about the role of specific lipids. Brefeldin-A ADP-ribosylated substrate (BARS) functions in the fission step of COPI vesicle formation. Here, we show that BARS induces membrane curvature in cooperation with phosphatidic acid. This finding has allowed us to further delineate COPI vesicle fission into two sub-stages: 1) an earlier stage of bud-neck constriction, in which BARS and other COPI components are required, and 2) a later stage of bud-neck scission, in which phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is also required. Moreover, in contrast to the disruption of the Golgi seen on perturbing the core COPI components (such as coatomer), inhibition of PLD2 causes milder disruptions, suggesting that such COPI components have additional roles in maintaining Golgi structure other than through COPI vesicle formation.

    Title A Traffic-activated Golgi-based Signalling Circuit Coordinates the Secretory Pathway.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Nature Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    As with other complex cellular functions, intracellular membrane transport involves the coordinated engagement of a series of organelles and machineries; however, the molecular basis of this coordination is unknown. Here we describe a Golgi-based signalling system that is activated by traffic and is involved in monitoring and balancing trafficking rates into and out of the Golgi complex. We provide evidence that the traffic signal is due to protein chaperones that leave the endoplasmic reticulum and reach the Golgi complex where they bind to the KDEL receptor. This initiates a signalling reaction that includes the activation of a Golgi pool of Src kinases and a phosphorylation cascade that in turn activates intra-Golgi trafficking, thereby maintaining the dynamic equilibrium of the Golgi complex. The concepts emerging from this study should help to understand the control circuits that coordinate high-order cellular functions.

    Title An Acap1-containing Clathrin Coat Complex for Endocytic Recycling.
    Date December 2007
    Journal The Journal of Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    Whether coat proteins play a widespread role in endocytic recycling remains unclear. We find that ACAP1, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 6, is part of a novel clathrin coat complex that is regulated by ARF6 for endocytic recycling in two key physiological settings, stimulation-dependent recycling of integrin that is critical for cell migration and insulin-stimulated recycling of glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4), which is required for glucose homeostasis. These findings not only advance a basic understanding of an early mechanistic step in endocytic recycling but also shed key mechanistic insights into major physiological events for which this transport plays a critical role.

    Title Key Components of the Fission Machinery Are Interchangeable.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Nature Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    Brefeldin-A ADP-ribosylated substrate (BARS) and dynamin function in membrane fission in distinct intracellular transport pathways, but whether their functions are mechanistically similar is unclear. Here, we show that ARFGAP1, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1), couples to either BARS or endophilin B for vesicle formation by the coat protein I (COPI) complex - a finding that reveals an unanticipated mechanistic flexibility in mammalian COPI transport. Because dynamin is coupled to endophilin A in vesicle formation by the clathrin-coat complex, our finding also predicts that dynamin and ARF GAPs are likely to be functional counterparts in membrane fission among different transport pathways that connect intracellular membrane compartments.

    Title Group V Secretory Phospholipase A2 Translocates to the Phagosome After Zymosan Stimulation of Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages and Regulates Phagocytosis.
    Date May 2006
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    We have previously reported that group V secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) amplifies the action of cytosolic phospholipase A2(cPLA2) alpha in regulating eicosanoid biosynthesis by mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with zymosan (Satake, Y., Diaz, B. L., Balestrieri, B., Lam, B. K., Kanaoka, Y., Grusby, M. J., and Arm, J. P. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 16488-16494). To further understand the role of group V sPLA2, we studied its localization in resting mouse peritoneal macrophages before and after stimulation with zymosan and the effect of deletion of the gene encoding group V sPLA2 on phagocytosis of zymosan. We report that group V sPLA2 is present in the Golgi apparatus and recycling endosome in the juxtanuclear region of resting peritoneal macrophages. Upon ingestion of zymosan by mouse peritoneal macrophages, group V sPLA2 is recruited to the phagosome. There it co-localizes with cPLA2alpha, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein, and leukotriene C4 synthase. Using immunostaining for the cysteinyl leukotrienes in carbodiimide-fixed cells, we show, for the first time, that the phagosome is a site of cysteinyl leukotriene formation. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages from group V sPLA2-null mice demonstrated a >50% attenuation in phagocytosis of zymosan particles, which was restored by adenoviral expression of group V sPLA2 but IIA not group sPLA2. These data demonstrate that group V sPLA2 contributes to the innate immune response both through regulation of eicosanoid generation in response to a phagocytic stimulus and also as a component of the phagocytic machinery.

    Title Phosphorylation of Acap1 by Akt Regulates the Stimulation-dependent Recycling of Integrin Beta1 to Control Cell Migration.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Developmental Cell
    Excerpt

    Components of intracellular signaling that mediate the stimulation-dependent recycling of integrins are being identified, but key transport effectors that are the ultimate downstream targets remain unknown. ACAP1 has been shown recently to function as a transport effector in the cargo sorting of transferrin receptor (TfR) that undergoes constitutive recycling. We now show that ACAP1 also participates in the regulated recycling of integrin beta1 to control cell migration. However, in contrast to TfR recycling, the role of ACAP1 in beta1 recycling requires its phosphorylation by Akt, which is, in turn, regulated by a canonical signaling pathway. Disrupting the activities of either ACAP1 or Akt, or their assembly with endosomal beta1, inhibits beta1 recycling and cell migration. These findings advance an understanding of how integrin recycling is achieved during cell migration, and also address a basic issue of how intracellular signaling can interface with transport to achieve regulated recycling.

    Title A Role for Bars at the Fission Step of Copi Vesicle Formation from Golgi Membrane.
    Date January 2006
    Journal The Embo Journal
    Excerpt

    The core complex of Coat Protein I (COPI), known as coatomer, is sufficient to induce coated vesicular-like structures from liposomal membrane. In the context of biological Golgi membrane, both palmitoyl-coenzyme A (p-coA) and ARFGAP1, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1, also participate in vesicle formation, but how their roles may be linked remains unknown. Moreover, whether COPI vesicle formation from Golgi membrane requires additional factors also remains unclear. We now show that Brefeldin-A ADP-Ribosylated Substrate (BARS) plays a critical role in the fission step of COPI vesicle formation from Golgi membrane. This role of BARS requires its interaction with ARFGAP1, which is in turn regulated oppositely by p-coA and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which act as cofactors of BARS. Our findings not only identify a new factor needed for COPI vesicle formation from Golgi membrane but also reveal a surprising mechanism by which the roles of p-coA and GAP are linked in this process.

    Title Ctbp3/bars Drives Membrane Fission in Dynamin-independent Transport Pathways.
    Date July 2005
    Journal Nature Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    Membrane fission is a fundamental step in membrane transport. So far, the only fission protein machinery that has been implicated in in vivo transport involves dynamin, and functions in several, but not all, transport pathways. Thus, other fission machineries may exist. Here, we report that carboxy-terminal binding protein 3/brefeldin A-ribosylated substrate (CtBP3/BARS) controls fission in basolateral transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane and in fluid-phase endocytosis, whereas dynamin is not involved in these steps. Conversely, CtBP3/BARS protein is inactive in apical transport to the plasma membrane and in receptor-mediated endocytosis, both steps being controlled by dynamin. This indicates that CtBP3/BARS controls membrane fission in endocytic and exocytic transport pathways, distinct from those that require dynamin.

    Title Arfgap1 Plays a Central Role in Coupling Copi Cargo Sorting with Vesicle Formation.
    Date May 2005
    Journal The Journal of Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    Examining how key components of coat protein I (COPI) transport participate in cargo sorting, we find that, instead of ADP ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1), its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) plays a direct role in promoting the binding of cargo proteins by coatomer (the core COPI complex). Activated ARF1 binds selectively to SNARE cargo proteins, with this binding likely to represent at least a mechanism by which activated ARF1 is stabilized on Golgi membrane to propagate its effector functions. We also find that the GAP catalytic activity plays a critical role in the formation of COPI vesicles from Golgi membrane, in contrast to the prevailing view that this activity antagonizes vesicle formation. Together, these findings indicate that GAP plays a central role in coupling cargo sorting and vesicle formation, with implications for simplifying models to describe how these two processes are coupled during COPI transport.

    Title Acap1 Promotes Endocytic Recycling by Recognizing Recycling Sorting Signals.
    Date December 2004
    Journal Developmental Cell
    Excerpt

    Cargo sorting that promotes the transport of cargo proteins from a membrane compartment has been predicted to be unlikely in the endocytic recycling pathways. We now show that ACAP1 binds specifically and directly to recycling cargo proteins. Reducing this interaction for TfR inhibits its recycling. Moreover, ACAP1 binds to two distinct phenylalanine-based sequences in the cytoplasmic domain of TfR that function as recycling sorting signals to promote its transport from the recycling endosome. Taken together, these findings indicate that ACAP1 promotes cargo sorting by recognizing recycling sorting signals.

    Title Stimulation-dependent Recycling of Integrin Beta1 Regulated by Arf6 and Rab11.
    Date September 2004
    Journal Traffic (copenhagen, Denmark)
    Excerpt

    In comparison to the internalization pathways of endocytosis, the recycling pathways are less understood. Even less defined is the process of regulated recycling, as few examples exist and their underlying mechanisms remain to be clarified. In this study, we examine the endocytic recycling of integrin beta1, a process that has been suggested to play an important role during cell motility by mediating the redistribution of integrins to the migrating front. External stimulation regulates the endocytic itinerary of beta1, mainly at an internal compartment that is likely to be a subset of the recycling endosomes. This stimulation-dependent recycling is regulated by ARF6 and Rab11, and also requires the actin cytoskeleton in an ARF6-dependent manner. Consistent with these observations being relevant for cell motility, mutant forms of ARF6 that affect either actin rearrangement or recycling inhibit the motility of a breast cancer cell line.

    Title Arfgap1 Promotes the Formation of Copi Vesicles, Suggesting Function As a Component of the Coat.
    Date November 2002
    Journal The Journal of Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    The role of GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that deactivates ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) during the formation of coat protein I (COPI) vesicles has been unclear. GAP is originally thought to antagonize vesicle formation by triggering uncoating, but later studies suggest that GAP promotes cargo sorting, a process that occurs during vesicle formation. Recent models have attempted to reconcile these seemingly contradictory roles by suggesting that cargo proteins suppress GAP activity during vesicle formation, but whether GAP truly antagonizes coat recruitment in this process has not been assessed directly. We have reconstituted the formation of COPI vesicles by incubating Golgi membrane with purified soluble components, and find that ARFGAP1 in the presence of GTP promotes vesicle formation and cargo sorting. Moreover, the presence of GTPgammaS not only blocks vesicle uncoating but also vesicle formation by preventing the proper recruitment of GAP to nascent vesicles. Elucidating how GAP functions in vesicle formation, we find that the level of GAP on the reconstituted vesicles is at least as abundant as COPI and that GAP binds directly to the dilysine motif of cargo proteins. Collectively, these findings suggest that ARFGAP1 promotes vesicle formation by functioning as a component of the COPI coat.

    Title Characterization of Coated Vesicles That Participate in Endocytic Recycling.
    Date April 2002
    Journal Traffic (copenhagen, Denmark)
    Excerpt

    While the recycling pathway of endocytosis has been shown to participate in many cellular functions, little is known regarding the transport carriers that mediate this pathway. In this study, we overexpressed a point mutant of ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), that perturbs its GTPase cycle, to accumulate endosome-derived coated vesicles. Characterization by their purification revealed that, upon cell homogenization, these vesicles were mostly aggregated with larger noncoated membranes, and could be released with high-salt treatment. Equilibrium centrifugation revealed that these vesicles had buoyant density similar to the COP-coated vesicles. To purify the ARF6-regulated vesicles to homogeneity, enriched fractions from equilibrium centrifugation were subjected to immunoisolation through the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope of the mutant ARF6, by using a newly developed, high-affinity, anti-HA monoclonal antibody. Surface iodination of the purified vesicles revealed multiple prominent proteins. Immunoblotting with antibodies against subunits of the currently known coat proteins suggested that these vesicles have a novel coat complex. These vesicles are carriers for endocytic recycling, because they are enriched for transferrin receptor and also the v-SNARE cellubrevin that functions in transport from the recycling endosome to the plasma membrane. Thus, we have characterized transport vesicles that participate in endocytic recycling.

    Title Molecular Aspects of the Cellular Activities of Adp-ribosylation Factors.
    Date February 2002
    Journal Science's Stke : Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment
    Excerpt

    Adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation factor (Arf) proteins are members of the Arf arm of the Ras superfamily of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins. Arfs are named for their activity as cofactors for cholera toxin-catalyzed adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation of the heterotrimeric G protein Gs. Physiologically, Arfs regulate membrane traffic and the actin cytoskeleton. Arfs function both constitutively within the secretory pathway and as targets of signal transduction in the cell periphery. In each case, the controlled binding and hydrolysis of GTP is critical to Arf function. The activities of some guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-activating proteins (GAPs) are stimulated by phosphoinositides, including phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and phosphatidic acid (PA), likely providing both a means to respond to regulatory signals and a mechanism to coordinate GTP binding and hydrolysis. Arfs affect membrane traffic in part by recruiting coat proteins, including COPI and clathrin adaptor complexes, to membranes. However, Arf function likely involves many additional biochemical activities. Arf activates phospholipase D and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase with the consequent production of PA and PIP2, respectively. In addition to mediating Arf's effects on membrane traffic and the actin cytoskeleton, PA and PIP2 are involved in the regulation of Arf. Arf also works with Rho family proteins to affect the actin cytoskeleton. Several Arf-binding proteins suspected to be effectors have been identified in two-hybrid screens. Arf-dependent biochemical activities, actin cytoskeleton changes, and membrane trafficking may be integrally related. Understanding Arf's role in complex cellular functions such as protein secretion or cell movement will involve a description of the temporal and spatial coordination of these multiple Arf-dependent events.

    Title The Kdel Receptor Mediates a Retrieval Mechanism That Contributes to Quality Control at the Endoplasmic Reticulum.
    Date July 2001
    Journal The Embo Journal
    Excerpt

    Newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) must fold and assemble correctly before being transported to their final cellular destination. While some misfolded or partially assembled proteins have been shown to exit the ER, they fail to escape the early secretory system entirely, because they are retrieved from post-ER compartments to the ER. We elucidate a mechanistic basis for this retrieval and characterize its contribution to ER quality control by studying the fate of the unassembled T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) alpha chain. While the steady-state distribution of TCRalpha is in the ER, inhibition of retrograde transport by COPI induces the accumulation of TCRalpha in post-ER compartments, suggesting that TCRalpha is cycling between the ER and post-ER compartments. TCRalpha associates with BiP, a KDEL protein. Disruption of the ligand-binding function of the KDEL receptor releases TCRalpha from the early secretory system to the cell surface, so that TCRalpha is no longer subject to ER degradation. Thus, our findings suggest that retrieval by the KDEL receptor contributes to mechanisms by which the ER monitors newly synthesized proteins for their proper disposal.

    Title Acaps Are Arf6 Gtpase-activating Proteins That Function in the Cell Periphery.
    Date December 2000
    Journal The Journal of Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    The GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) regulates endosomal membrane trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton in the cell periphery. GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are critical regulators of Arf function, controlling the return of Arf to the inactive GDP-bound state. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two Arf6 GAPs, ACAP1 and ACAP2. Together with two previously described Arf GAPs, ASAP1 and PAP, they can be grouped into a protein family defined by several common structural motifs including coiled coil, pleckstrin homology, Arf GAP, and three complete ankyrin-repeat domains. All contain phosphoinositide-dependent GAP activity. ACAP1 and ACAP2 are widely expressed and occur together in the various cultured cell lines we examined. Similar to ASAP1, ACAP1 and ACAP2 were recruited to and, when overexpressed, inhibited the formation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced dorsal membrane ruffles in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. However, in contrast with ASAP1, ACAP1 and ACAP2 functioned as Arf6 GAPs. In vitro, ACAP1 and ACAP2 preferred Arf6 as a substrate, rather than Arf1 and Arf5, more so than did ASAP1. In HeLa cells, overexpression of either ACAP blocked the formation of Arf6-dependent protrusions. In addition, ACAP1 and ACAP2 were recruited to peripheral, tubular membranes, where activation of Arf6 occurs to allow membrane recycling back to the plasma membrane. ASAP1 did not inhibit Arf6-dependent protrusions and was not recruited by Arf6 to tubular membranes. The additional effects of ASAP1 on PDGF-induced ruffling in fibroblasts suggest that multiple Arf GAPs function coordinately in the cell periphery.

    Title Separate Pathways for Antigen Presentation by Cd1 Molecules.
    Date February 2000
    Journal Immunity
    Excerpt

    The ability to sample relevant intracellular compartments is necessary for effective antigen presentation. To detect peptide antigens, MHC class I and II molecules differentially sample cytosolic and endosomal compartments. CD1 constitutes another lineage of lipid antigen-presenting molecules. We show that CD1b traffics deeply into late endosomal compartments, while CD1a is excluded from these compartments and instead traffics independently in the recycling pathway of the early endocytic system. Further, CD1b but not CD1a antigen presentation is dependent upon vesicular acidification. Since lipids and various bacteria are known to traffic differentially, either penetrating deeply into the endocytic system or following the route of recycling endosomes, these findings elucidate efficient monitoring of distinct components of the endocytic compartment by CD1 lipid antigen-presenting molecules.

    Title The Evolutionarily Conserved N-terminal Region of Cbl is Sufficient to Enhance Down-regulation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.
    Date January 2000
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    The mammalian proto-oncoprotein Cbl and its homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila are evolutionarily conserved negative regulators of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). Overexpression of wild-type Cbl enhances down-regulation of activated EGF-R from the cell surface. We report that the Cbl tyrosine kinase-binding (TKB) domain is essential for this activity. Whereas wild-type Cbl enhanced ligand-dependent EGF-R ubiquitination, down-regulation from the cell surface, accumulation in intracellular vesicles, and degradation, a Cbl TKB domain-inactivated mutant (G306E) did not. Furthermore, the transforming truncation mutant Cbl-N (residues 1-357), comprising only the Cbl TKB domain, functioned as a dominant negative protein. It colocalized with EGF-R in intracellular vesicular structures, yet it suppressed down-regulation of EGF-R from the surface of cells expressing endogenous wild-type Cbl. Therefore, Cbl-mediated down-regulation of EGF-R requires the integrity of both the N-terminal TKB domain and additional C-terminal sequences. A Cbl truncation mutant comprising amino acids 1-440 functioned like wild-type Cbl in down-regulation assays. This mutant includes the evolutionarily conserved TKB and RING finger domains but lacks the less conserved C-terminal sequences. We conclude that the evolutionarily conserved N terminus of Cbl is sufficient to effect enhancement of EGF-R ubiquitination and down-regulation from the cell surface.

    Title The Kdel Receptor Regulates a Gtpase-activating Protein for Adp-ribosylation Factor 1 by Interacting with Its Non-catalytic Domain.
    Date August 1999
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is a key regulator of transport in the secretory system. Like all small GTPases, deactivation of ARF1 requires a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that promotes hydrolysis of GTP to GDP on ARF1. Structure-function analysis of a GAP for ARF1 revealed that its activity in vivo requires not only a domain that catalyzes hydrolysis of GTP on ARF1 but also a non-catalytic domain. In this study, we show that the non-catalytic domain of GAP is required for its recruitment from cytosol to membranes and that this domain mediates the interaction of GAP with the transmembrane KDEL receptor. Blocking its interaction with the KDEL receptor leaves the GAP cytosolic and prevents the deactivation in vivo of Golgi-localized ARF1. Thus, these findings suggest that the KDEL receptor plays a critical role in the function of GAP by regulating its recruitment from cytosol to membranes, where it can then act on its membrane-restricted target, the GTP-bound form of ARF1.

    Title Distribution of Arf6 Between Membrane and Cytosol is Regulated by Its Gtpase Cycle.
    Date August 1999
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    The ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) subfamily of small GTPases regulates intracellular transport. Although much is known about how ARF1 regulates transport in the secretory pathways, regulation of the endocytic pathways by ARF6 remains less understood. In particular, whereas cycling of ARF1 between membrane and cytosol represents a major mechanism of regulating its function, this regulation has been questioned for ARF6. In this study, we found that ARF6 is distributed both on membranes and in the cytosol. Cytosolic ARF6 is recruited to membranes in a GTP-dependent manner that is fundamentally similar to ARF1. However, unlike ARF1, release of membrane-bound ARF6 to the cytosol requires hydrolysis of GTP that is sensitive to the level of magnesium. These findings suggest that the GTPase cycle of ARF6 also regulates its distribution between membrane and cytosol and that this form of regulation will also likely be important for the function of ARF6. Moreover, as ARF6 has little intrinsic ability to hydrolyze GTP, magnesium concentration most likely affects the release of membrane-bound ARF6 by altering the activity of its GTPase-activating protein.

    Title Current Views in Intracellular Transport: Insights from Studies in Immunology.
    Date November 1998
    Journal Advances in Immunology
    Title Requirement for Both the Amino-terminal Catalytic Domain and a Noncatalytic Domain for in Vivo Activity of Adp-ribosylation Factor Gtpase-activating Protein.
    Date October 1998
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    The small GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF1) regulates intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with the Golgi complex. Coat protein association with Golgi membranes requires activated, GTP-bound ARF1, whereas GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by an ARF1-directed GTPase-activating protein (GAP) deactivates ARF1 and results in coat protein dissociation. We have recently cloned a Golgi-associated ARF GAP. Overexpression of GAP was found to result in a phenotype that reflects ARF1 deactivation (Aoe, T., Cukierman, E., Lee, A., Cassel, D., Peters, P. J., and Hsu, V. W. (1997) EMBO J. 16, 7305-7316). In this study, we used this phenotype to define domains in GAP that are required for its function in vivo. As expected, mutations in the amino-terminal part of GAP that were previously found to abolish ARF GAP catalytic activity in vitro abrogated ARF1 deactivation in vivo. Significantly, truncations at the carboxyl-terminal part of GAP that did not affect GAP catalytic activity in vitro also diminished ARF1 deactivation. Thus, a noncatalytic domain is required for GAP activity in vivo. This domain may be involved in the targeting of GAP to the Golgi membrane.

    Title Modulation of Intracellular Transport by Transported Proteins: Insight from Regulation of Copi-mediated Transport.
    Date March 1998
    Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Excerpt

    Intracellular transport is best understood for how proteins are shuttled among different compartments of the secretory pathway by membrane-bound transport carriers. However, it remains unclear whether regulation of this transport is modulated by the transported (cargo) proteins in the lumen of transport pathways. In the early secretory pathways that connect the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex, the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) recruits a cytosolic coat protein complex named COPI onto membranes as a key step in the formation of transport vesicles. Transport of newly synthesized proteins that leave the ER includes a class of cargo proteins with a sequence motif of KDEL. When these KDEL proteins leave the ER to reach the Golgi complex, they are recognized by their receptor and transported retrograde in COPI-coated vesicles back to the ER. We now demonstrate that stimulation of the KDEL receptor by a KDEL protein enhances an interaction between the KDEL receptor and a GTPase-activating protein for ARF1. As a result, more cytosolic GTPase-activating protein is recruited to membranes to inactivate ARF1. Thus, the KDEL proteins are examples of luminal cargo proteins that regulate transport by activating their receptor. Most likely, this regulation affects retrograde transport from the Golgi complex to the ER, as activated KDEL receptor appears to reside only in retrograde COPI-coated vesicles.

    Title Arf6 Targets Recycling Vesicles to the Plasma Membrane: Insights from an Ultrastructural Investigation.
    Date March 1998
    Journal The Journal of Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    We have shown previously that the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-6 GTPase localizes to the plasma membrane and intracellular endosomal compartments. Expression of ARF6 mutants perturbs endosomal trafficking and the morphology of the peripheral membrane system. However, another study on the distribution of ARF6 in subcellular fractions of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells suggested that ARF6 did not localize to endosomes labeled after 10 min of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) uptake, but instead was uniquely localized to the plasma membrane, and that its reported endosomal localization may have been a result of overexpression. Here we demonstrate that at the lowest detectable levels of protein expression by cryoimmunogold electron microscopy, ARF6 localized predominantly to an intracellular compartment at the pericentriolar region of the cell. The ARF6-labeled vesicles were partially accessible to HRP only on prolonged exposure to the endocytic tracer but did not localize to early endocytic structures that labeled with HRP shortly after uptake. Furthermore, we have shown that the ARF6-containing intracellular compartment partially colocalized with transferrin receptors and cellubrevin and morphologically resembled the recycling endocytic compartment previously described in CHO cells. HRP labeling in cells expressing ARF6(Q67L), a GTP-bound mutant of ARF6, was restricted to small peripheral vesicles, whereas the mutant protein was enriched on plasma membrane invaginations. On the other hand, expression of ARF6(T27N), a mutant of ARF6 defective in GDP binding, resulted in an accumulation of perinuclear ARF6-positive vesicles that partially colocalized with HRP on prolonged exposure to the tracer. Taken together, our findings suggest that ARF activation is required for the targeted delivery of ARF6-positive, recycling endosomal vesicles to the plasma membrane.

    Title The Kdel Receptor, Erd2, Regulates Intracellular Traffic by Recruiting a Gtpase-activating Protein for Arf1.
    Date February 1998
    Journal The Embo Journal
    Excerpt

    The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is a key regulator of intracellular membrane traffic. Regulators of ARF1, its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor have been identified recently. However, it remains uncertain whether these regulators drive the GTPase cycle of ARF1 autonomously or whether their activities can be regulated by other proteins. Here, we demonstrate that the intracellular KDEL receptor, ERD2, self-oligomerizes and interacts with ARF1 GAP, and thereby regulates the recruitment of cytosolic ARF1 GAP to membranes. Because ERD2 overexpression enhances the recruitment of GAP to membranes and results in a phenotype that reflects ARF1 inactivation, our findings suggest that ERD2 regulates ARF1 GAP, and thus regulates ARF1-mediated transport.

    Title Overexpression of Wild-type and Mutant Arf1 and Arf6: Distinct Perturbations of Nonoverlapping Membrane Compartments.
    Date April 1995
    Journal The Journal of Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    The ARF GTP binding proteins are believed to function as regulators of membrane traffic in the secretory pathway. While the ARF1 protein has been shown in vitro to mediate the membrane interaction of the cytosolic coat proteins coatomer (COP1) and gamma-adaptin with the Golgi complex, the functions of the other ARF proteins have not been defined. Here, we show by transient transfection with epitope-tagged ARFs, that whereas ARF1 is localized to the Golgi complex and can be shown to affect predictably the assembly of COP1 and gamma-adaptin with Golgi membranes in cells, ARF6 is localized to the endosomal/plasma membrane system and has no effect on these Golgi-associated coat proteins. By immuno-electron microscopy, the wild-type ARF6 protein is observed along the plasma membrane and associated with endosomes, and overexpression of ARF6 does not appear to alter the morphology of the peripheral membrane system. In contrast, overexpression of ARF6 mutants predicted either to hydrolyze or bind GTP poorly shifts the distribution of ARF6 and affects the structure of the endocytic pathway. The GTP hydrolysis-defective mutant is localized to the plasma membrane and its overexpression results in a profound induction of extensive plasma membrane vaginations and a depletion of endosomes. Conversely, the GTP binding-defective ARF6 mutant is present exclusively in endosomal structures, and its overexpression results in a massive accumulation of coated endocytic structures.

    Title An Activating Mutation in Arf1 Stabilizes Coatomer Binding to Golgi Membranes.
    Date March 1994
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    The Ras-related protein ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is a low molecular weight GTP binding protein, which in its GTP state supports the binding of coatomer, a cytosolic coat protein complex, to Golgi membranes. To create an "active" ARF, we constructed a point mutation in ARF1, Q71I, which was predicted to slow the rate of GTP hydrolysis. We demonstrate that Q71I, in contrast to wild type ARF1, exhibits a 2-3-fold increase in the half-life of ARF-GTP and is able to promote stable coatomer binding to Golgi membranes in the presence of GTP in vitro. Additionally, Q71I is able to support the binding of a significant amount of coatomer to membranes in the absence of added nucleotides, effectively bypassing the brefeldin A (BFA)-sensitive exchange activity. Furthermore, transfection of cells with Q71I, but not ARF1, renders the Golgi association of coatomer resistant to the effects of BFA in vivo. These observations provide compelling evidence that ARF1 is a necessary GTP binding protein that regulates the reversible binding of coat proteins to Golgi membranes and that the effects of BFA on this process in living cells must be a consequence of BFA's inhibition of guanine nucleotide exchange onto ARF1.

    Title A Brefeldin A-like Phenotype is Induced by the Overexpression of a Human Erd-2-like Protein, Elp-1.
    Date June 1992
    Journal Cell
    Excerpt

    Brefeldin A (BFA) is a unique drug affecting the molecular mechanisms that regulate membrane traffic and organelle structure. BFA's ability to alter retrograde traffic from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) led us to ask whether the ERD-2 retrieval receptor, proposed to return escaped ER resident proteins from the Golgi, might either interfere with or mimic the effects of the drug. When either human ERD-2 or a novel human homolog (referred to as ELP-1) is overexpressed in a variety of cell types, the effects are phenotypically indistinguishable from the addition of BFA. These include the redistribution of the Golgi coat protein, beta-COP, to the cytosol, the loss of the Golgi apparatus as a distinct organelle, the mixing of this organelle with the ER, the addition of complex oligosaccharides to resident ER glycoproteins, and the block of anterograde traffic. Thus, these receptors may provide signals that regulate retrograde traffic between the Golgi and the ER.

    Title Changes in the Methylation Pattern of the Tcr Zeta-chain Gene Correlate with Its Expression in T Cells and Developing Thymocytes.
    Date May 1992
    Journal The New Biologist
    Excerpt

    The tight regulation of T-cell gene expression during thymic ontogeny is essential to the development of a normal immune system. One set of developmentally regulated genes encodes the multicomponent T-cell antigen receptor (TCR). The zeta chain, a component of the TCR, has been shown to play important roles in signal transduction from antigen binding to T-cell activation and in transport of the TCR complex to the cell surface. In this study, we examine the regulation of zeta gene expression in murine T-cell hybridomas. In these cells, zeta expression is correlated with complex, but predictable, changes in the pattern of cytosine methylation of its gene. Some of these structural changes are identical to those observed in murine fetal thymocytes and correlate with the rapid alteration of zeta message seen in the thymus between days 15 and 18 of gestation.

    Title A Recycling Pathway Between the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi Apparatus for Retention of Unassembled Mhc Class I Molecules.
    Date September 1991
    Journal Nature
    Excerpt

    Assembly of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules involves the interaction of two distinct polypeptides (the heavy and light chains) with peptide antigen. Cell lines synthesizing both chains but expressing low levels of MHC class I molecules on their surface as a result of a failure in assembly and transport have been identified. We now report that although the apparent steady-state distribution in these cells of class I molecules is in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the molecules in fact are recycled between the ER and Golgi, rather than retained in the ER. This explains the failure of class I molecules to negotiate the secretory pathway. Class I molecules do not seem to be modified by Golgi enzymes, suggesting that the proteins do not reach the Golgi apparatus during recycling. But morphological and subcellular fractionation evidence indicates that they pass through the cis Golgi or a Golgi-associated organelle, which we postulate to be the recycling organelle. This compartment, which we call the 'cis-Golgi network', would thereby be a sorting organelle that selects proteins for return to the ER.

    Title The Isolation and Characterization of the Murine T Cell Antigen Receptor Zeta Chain Gene.
    Date September 1989
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    The T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is a multisubunit complex which has a dual function of antigen recognition and signal transduction. One of its invariant subunits, the zeta chain, has been shown to have a significant role in the expression and function of the TCR on the cell surface. The mouse and human zeta cDNAs share significant homologies to each other but are distinct from all of the previously characterized TCR components. We now report the isolation and structural analysis of the complete murine zeta gene. This gene spans at least 31 kilobases and divides into eight exons. The first exon, which is located at least 20 kilobases upstream from the second exon, codes for the 5'-untranslated region and most of the signal peptide. The second exon codes for the remainder of the signal peptide, the extracellular domain, the transmembrane domain, and the first three amino acids of the intracytoplasmic domain. Exons 3-7 encode the majority of the intracytoplasmic domain. The eight exon encodes the carboxyl-terminal 21 amino acids and the 3'-untranslated region. Four groups of mRNA initiation sites have been identified at approximately 140 base pairs upstream to the AUG codon. No TATA-like box has been detected. The gene is localized to the distal part of chromosome 1 in a linkage group highly conserved between man and mouse.

    Title Pyomyositis and Polyarticular Septic Arthritis from Hemophilus Influenzae in a Nonimmunocompromised Adult.
    Date March 1988
    Journal The Journal of Rheumatology
    Excerpt

    We describe a healthy woman in whom pyomyositis of the left buttock, polyarticular septic arthritis, and meningitis due to Hemophilus influenzae type B developed after pneumonia. Systemic antibiotic therapy and local drainage provided a good result. This is the first case of pyomyositis and the 30th case of septic arthritis from Hemophilus influenzae described in an adult.

    Similar doctors nearby

    Dr. Shyam Brahmabhatt

    Orthopaedic Surgery
    11 years experience
    Willow Grove, PA

    Dr. Moody Kwok

    Orthopaedic Surgery
    16 years experience
    Willow Grove, PA

    Dr. Jeffrey Vakil

    Orthopaedic Surgery
    7 years experience
    Willow Grove, PA

    Dr. Guy Lee

    Orthopaedic Surgery
    17 years experience
    Willow Grove, PA

    Dr. Michael Gratch

    Orthopaedic Surgery
    34 years experience
    Willow Grove, PA

    Dr. David Junkin

    Orthopaedic Surgery
    8 years experience
    Willow Grove, PA
    Search All Similar Doctors