Internists, Neurological Surgeon, Orthopaedic Surgeon, Neurologist (brain, nervous system)
11 years of experience

Accepting new patients
Neurosurgery Maine
417 State St
Ste 221
Bangor, ME 04401
207-973-9949
Locations and availability (2)

Education ?

Medical School Score
Midwestern University (1999)
  • Currently 1 of 4 apples

Awards & Distinctions ?

Associations
Depuymitek.com (normal Pressure Hydrocephalus)- (lifenph.com)

Affiliations ?

Dr. Waterman is affiliated with 7 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • St Joseph Hospital
    Orthopaedic Surgery
    360 Broadway, Bangor, ME 04401
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Eastern Maine Medical Center
    Orthopaedic Surgery
    489 State St, Bangor, ME 04401
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Mercy Hospital of Philadelphia
    Orthopaedic Surgery
    1503 Lansdowne Ave, Darby, PA 19023
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital
    Orthopaedic Surgery
    1400 Lansdowne Ave, Darby, PA 19023
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • HttpWww.Mercyhealth.OrgMercyphiladelphia
  • Mercy Philadelphia Hospital
  • HttpWww.Mercyhealth.OrgFitzgerald
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Waterman has contributed to 7 publications.
    Title Phosphorylation of Irf8 in a Pre-associated Complex with Spi-1/pu.1 and Non-phosphorylated Stat1 is Critical for Lps Induction of the Il1b Gene.
    Date July 2007
    Journal Molecular Immunology
    Excerpt

    Rapid induction of transcription is known to be mediated by factors which bind DNA following post-translational modification. We report here that non-tyrosine phosphorylated (NTP)-Stat1 is involved in a cooperative interaction with Spi-1/PU.1 and IRF8 to form a pre-associated, poised complex for IL1B gene induction. A double point mutation at a putative STAT binding site, which overlaps this composite Spi-1 x IRF8 site located in the LPS and IL-1 response element (LILRE), inhibited human IL1B LPS-dependent reporter activity to about 10 percent of the control wild type vector. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed stimulation-independent constitutive binding of IRF8, Spi-1 and NTP-Stat1 at the LILRE, while binding of C/EBP beta was activated at an adjacent C/EBP beta site after LPS stimulation. In contrast to Stat1, IRF8 was tyrosine phosphorylated following LPS treatment. Supporting the involvement of NTP-Stat1, LPS-induced IL1B reporter activity in monocytes was enhanced by ectopic expression of NTP-Stat1 Y701F. In contrast, co-expression of a Y211F IRF8 mutein functioned as a dominant-negative inhibitor of LPS-induced IL1B reporter activity. In vitro DNA binding using extracts from LPS-treated monocytes confirmed that the LILRE enhancer constitutively binds a trimolecular complex containing IRF8, Spi-1 and NTP-Stat1. Binding studies using in vitro-expressed proteins revealed that NTP-Stat1 enhanced the binding of Spi-1 and IRF8 to the LILRE. Co-expression of TRAF6, an LPS surrogate, with Spi-1 and IRF8 enhanced IL1B reporter activity in HEK293R cells, which was dramatically reduced when Y211F IRF8 was co-expressed. These results suggest that the rapid transcriptional induction of an important inflammatory gene is dependent upon constitutive cooperative binding of a Spi-1 x IRF8 x NTP-Stat1 complex to the LILRE, which primes the gene for immediate induction following IRF8 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of chromatin pre-associated factors like IRF8 may be an important strategy for the rapid transcriptional activation of genes involved in innate immunity.

    Title Glucocorticoid Inhibits the Human Pro-interleukin Lbeta Gene (ilib) by Decreasing Dna Binding of Transactivators to the Signal-responsive Enhancer.
    Date March 2006
    Journal Molecular Immunology
    Excerpt

    Elucidating the role of glucocorticoid in regulating gene expression is crucial to developing effective strategies against inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. In this report we demonstrate that glucocorticoid inhibits transcription directed by the IL-lbeta gene (IL1B) upstream induction sequence (UIS) enhancer, and to a much lesser extent by the tissue-specific basal promoter. Within the enhancer, three transcription factor binding sites, previously demonstrated by us to be important for the induction of IL1B by lipopolysaccharide, are now shown to be directly inhibited by the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone. We also previously showed that one of these sites could bind a novel STAT-like factor, while the other two bound heterodimers containing NF-IL6(C/EBPbeta). Although it has been reported by others that NF-IL6 homodimers can interact with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to enhance transcription of the alpha1-acid glycoprotein gene, it now appears that glucocorticoid represses DNA binding of NF-IL6 heterodimers as well as the novel STAT-like factor to the critical sites within the IL1B UIS. Thus, GR likely disrupts the DNA binding capability of critical IL1B factors via transrepression.

    Title Cytomegalovirus Ie2 Protein Stimulates Interleukin 1beta Gene Transcription Via Tethering to Spi-1/pu.1.
    Date February 2000
    Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology
    Excerpt

    Potent induction of the gene coding for human prointerleukin 1beta (il1b) normally requires a far-upstream inducible enhancer in addition to a minimal promoter located between positions -131 and +12. The transcription factor Spi-1 (also called PU.1) is necessary for expression and binds to the minimal promoter, thus providing an essential transcription activation domain (TAD). In contrast, infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can strongly activate il1b via the expression of immediate early (IE) viral proteins and eliminates the requirement for the upstream enhancer. Spi-1 has been circumstantially implicated as a host factor in this process. We report here the molecular basis for the direct involvement of Spi-1 in HCMV activation of il1b. Transfection of Spi-1-deficient HeLa cells demonstrated both the requirement of Spi-1 for IE activity and the need for a shorter promoter (-59 to +12) than that required in the absence of IE proteins. Furthermore, in contrast to normal, enhancer-dependent il1b expression, which absolutely requires both the Spi-1 winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) DNA-binding domain and the majority of the Spi-1 TAD, il1b expression in the presence of IE proteins does not require the Spi-1 TAD, which plays a synergistic role. In addition, we demonstrate that a single IE protein, IE2, is critical for the induction of il1b. Protein-protein interaction experiments revealed that the wing motif within the Spi-1 wHTH domain directly recruits IE2. In turn, IE2 physically associates with the Spi-1 wing and requires the integrity of at least one region of IE2. Functional analysis demonstrates that both this region and a carboxy-terminal acidic TAD are required for IE2 function. Therefore, we propose a protein-tethered transactivation mechanism in which the il1b promoter-bound Spi-1 wHTH tethers IE2, which provides a TAD, resulting in the transactivation of il1b.

    Title Transcriptional Repression of the Prointerleukin 1beta Gene by Heat Shock Factor 1.
    Date November 1996
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    Heat shock factor 1 activates the promoters of heat shock genes at elevated temperatures through its interaction with heat shock elements. We have examined a new role for heat shock factor 1 in the repression of the prointerleukin 1beta gene in human monocytes responding to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Both exposure to elevated temperatures and heat-independent heat shock factor 1 expression repressed the transcription of the prointerleukin 1beta gene, and repression was strictly dependent on an intact consensus heat shock element in the prointerleukin 1beta promoter to which heat shock factor 1 bound. This is the first demonstration of heat shock factor 1 as a transcriptional repressor and suggests a role for the factor in the counter-regulation of cytokine gene transcription.

    Title A Novel Stat-like Factor Mediates Lipopolysaccharide, Interleukin 1 (il-1), and Il-6 Signaling and Recognizes a Gamma Interferon Activation Site-like Element in the Il1b Gene.
    Date June 1996
    Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology
    Excerpt

    Binding of many cytokines to their cognate receptors immediately activates Jak tyrosine kinases and their substrates, STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) DNA-binding proteins. The DNA binding targets of STATs are sequence elements related to the archetypal gamma interferon activation site, GAS. However, association of interleukin 1 (IL-1) with Jak-STAT signaling has remained unresolved. We now report an element termed LILRE (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] and IL-1-responsive element) in the human prointerleukin 1beta gene (IL1B) which can be immediately induced by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or IL-1 protein to bind a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein. This LPS- and IL-1-induced factor (LIL factor) is recognized by an antibody raised against the N terminus of Stat1, but not by those specific for either the C terminus of Stat1 or any other GAS-binding STAT. Phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) specifically inhibits formation of the LIL factor-DNA complex, suggesting the importance of P-Tyr for the DNA-binding activity, as has been found for all STAT dimers. Analysis of DNA-binding specificity demonstrates that the LIL factor possesses a novel GAS-like binding activity that contrasts with those of other STATs in a requirement for a G residue at position 8 (TTCCTGAGA). Further investigation has revealed that IL-6, but neither IL-4 nor gamma interferon, activates the LIL factor. Thus, the existence of such a STAT-like factor (LIL-Stat) relates the LPS and IL-1 signaling pathway to other cytokine receptor signaling pathways via the activation of STATs. Moreover, the unique DNA-binding specificity and antigenicity of this factor suggest that LPS, IL-1, and IL-6 may use a common signaling pathway.

    Title Monocyte Expression of the Human Prointerleukin 1 Beta Gene (il1b) is Dependent on Promoter Sequences Which Bind the Hematopoietic Transcription Factor Spi-1/pu.1.
    Date January 1995
    Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology
    Excerpt

    Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is produced primarily by stimulated monocytes, suggesting that the IL1B gene, which codes for this protein, depends upon at least one cell-type-specific factor. Our previous characterization of the IL1B promoter indicated that the region between -131 and +12 is sufficient to direct cell-type-specific expression of a reporter gene (F. Shirakawa, K. Saito, C.A. Bonagura, D.L. Galson, M.J. Fenton, A.C. Webb, and P. E. Auron, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:1332-1344, 1993). We now show that a sequence located between positions -50 and -39 of the IL1B promoter binds the tissue-restricted Ets domain transcription factor Spi-1/PU.1 (Spi-1). Mutation of this site abrogates binding of this factor and reduces the ability of the IL1B promoter to function in macrophages. A second Spi-1 binding site located between positions -115 and -97 also is required for maximal IL1B promoter activity in the presence of the proximal Spi-1 binding site. In addition, an activation domain-deficient Spi-1 expression vector acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of reporter gene expression in a monocyte cell line. Finally, the IL1B promoter, which is inactive in Spi-1-deficient HeLa cells, is activated in these cells by cotransfection with a Spi-1 expression vector. Thus, the cell-type-specific expression of the IL1B promoter appears to be dependent on the binding of Spi-1.

    Title Transcription Factors Nf-il6 and Creb Recognize a Common Essential Site in the Human Prointerleukin 1 Beta Gene.
    Date November 1994
    Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology
    Excerpt

    A site located between -2782 and -2729 of the human prointerleukin-1 beta (IL1B) gene functions as a strong lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive enhancer independent of the previously identified enhancer located between -2896 and -2846 (F. Shirakawa, K. Saito, C.A. Bonagura, D.L. Galson, M. J. Fenton, A. C. Webb, and P. E. Auron, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:1332-1344, 1993). Although these two enhancers appear to function cooperatively in the native sequence context, they function independently as LPS-responsive elements upon removal of an interposed silencer sequence. The new enhancer is not induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) alone but is superinduced by costimulation with LPS-dbcAMP. This pattern of induction depends upon the nature of the sequence, a composite NF-IL6-cAMP response element (CRE) binding site. This pseudosymmetrical sequence is shown to contrast with a classical symmetric CRE which responds to dbcAMP but not LPS. DNA binding studies using in vivo nuclear extract, recombinant proteins, and specific antibodies show that LPS induces the formation of two different complexes at the enhancer: (i) an NF-IL6-CREB heterodimer and (ii) a heterodimer consisting of NF-IL6 and a non-CREB, CRE-binding protein. Cotransfection studies using NF-IL6 and CREB expression vectors show that NF-IL6 transactivates the enhancer in the presence of LPS, whereas CREB acts either positively or negatively, depending upon its cAMP-regulated phosphorylation state. Our data demonstrate that the newly identified enhancer is a specialized LPS-responsive sequence which can be modulated by cAMP as a result of the involvement of NF-IL6-CRE-binding protein heterodimers.


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