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Education ?

Medical School Score
Wayne State University (1956)

Awards & Distinctions ?

American Board of Otolaryngology

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Dr. Rice is affiliated with 1 hospitals.

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  • St. John Hospital & Medical Center
    22101 Moross Rd, Detroit, MI 48236
    Top 25%
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Rice has contributed to 32 publications.
    Title Structure of Gamma-secretase and Its Trimeric Pre-activation Intermediate by Single-particle Electron Microscopy.
    Date August 2011
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    The γ-secretase membrane protein complex is responsible for proteolytic maturation of signaling precursors and catalyzes the final step in the production of the amyloid β-peptides implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. The incorporation of PEN-2 (presenilin enhancer 2) into a pre-activation intermediate, composed of the catalytic subunit presenilin and the accessory proteins APH-1 (anterior pharynx-defective 1) and nicastrin, triggers the endoproteolysis of presenilin and results in an active tetrameric γ-secretase. We have determined the three-dimensional reconstruction of a mature and catalytically active γ-secretase using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. γ-Secretase has a cup-like shape with a lateral belt of ∼40-50 Å in height that encloses a water-accessible internal chamber. Active site labeling with a gold-coupled transition state analog inhibitor suggested that the γ-secretase active site faces this chamber. Comparison with the structure of a trimeric pre-activation intermediate suggested that the incorporation of PEN-2 might contribute to the maturation of the active site architecture.

    Title Toroidal Surface Complexes of Bacteriophage ϕ12 Are Responsible for Host-cell Attachment.
    Date July 2011
    Journal Virology

    Cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging are utilized to determine that the bacteriophage ϕ12, a member of the Cystoviridae family, contains surface complexes that are toroidal in shape, are composed of six globular domains with six-fold symmetry, and have a discrete density connecting them to the virus membrane-envelope surface. The lack of this kind of spike in a reassortant of ϕ12 demonstrates that the gene for the hexameric spike is located in ϕ12's medium length genome segment, likely to the P3 open reading frames which are the proteins involved in viral-host cell attachment. Based on this and on protein mass estimates derived from the obtained averaged structure, it is suggested that each of the globular domains is most likely composed of a total of four copies of P3a and/or P3c proteins. Our findings may have implications in the study of the evolution of the cystovirus species in regard to their host specificity.

    Title Fourier-bessel Reconstruction of Helical Assemblies.
    Date January 2011
    Journal Methods in Enzymology

    Helical symmetry is commonly used for building macromolecular assemblies. Helical symmetry is naturally present in viruses and cytoskeletal filaments and also occurs during crystallization of isolated proteins, such as Ca-ATPase and the nicotinic acetyl choline receptor. Structure determination of helical assemblies by electron microscopy has a long history dating back to the original work on three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. A helix offers distinct advantages for structure determination. Not only can one improve resolution by averaging across the constituent subunits, but each helical assembly provides multiple views of these subunits and thus provides a complete 3D data set. This review focuses on Fourier methods of helical reconstruction, covering the theoretical background, a step-by-step guide to the process, and a practical example based on previous work with Ca-ATPase. Given recent results from helical reconstructions at atomic resolution and the development of graphical user interfaces to aid in the process, these methods are likely to continue to make an important contribution to the field of structural biology.

    Title Two-dimensional Crystallization of Integral Membrane Proteins for Electron Crystallography.
    Date November 2010
    Journal Methods in Molecular Biology (clifton, N.j.)

    Although membrane proteins make up 30% of the proteome and are a common target for therapeutic drugs, determination of their atomic structure remains a technical challenge. Electron crystallography represents an alternative to the conventional methods of X-ray diffraction and NMR and relies on the formation of two-dimensional crystals. These crystals are produced by reconstituting purified, detergent-solubilized membrane proteins back into the native environment of a lipid bilayer. This chapter reviews methods for producing two-dimensional crystals and for screening them by negative stain electron microscopy. In addition, we show examples of the different morphologies that are commonly obtained and describe basic image analysis procedures that can be used to evaluate their promise for structure determination by cryoelectron microscopy.

    Title Three-dimensional Structure of the Enveloped Bacteriophage Phi12: an Incomplete T = 13 Lattice is Superposed on an Enclosed T = 1 Shell.
    Date January 2010
    Journal Plos One

    Bacteriophage phi12 is a member of the Cystoviridae, a unique group of lipid containing membrane enveloped bacteriophages that infect the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. The genomes of the virus species contain three double-stranded (dsRNA) segments, and the virus capsid itself is organized in multiple protein shells. The segmented dsRNA genome, the multi-layered arrangement of the capsid and the overall viral replication scheme make the Cystoviridae similar to the Reoviridae.

    Title Dna Structure Modulates the Oligomerization Properties of the Aav Initiator Protein Rep68.
    Date September 2009
    Journal Plos Pathogens

    Rep68 is a multifunctional protein of the adeno-associated virus (AAV), a parvovirus that is mostly known for its promise as a gene therapy vector. In addition to its role as initiator in viral DNA replication, Rep68 is essential for site-specific integration of the AAV genome into human chromosome 19. Rep68 is a member of the superfamily 3 (SF3) helicases, along with the well-studied initiator proteins simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40-LTag) and bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E1. Structurally, SF3 helicases share two domains, a DNA origin interaction domain (OID) and an AAA(+) motor domain. The AAA(+) motor domain is also a structural feature of cellular initiators and it functions as a platform for initiator oligomerization. Here, we studied Rep68 oligomerization in vitro in the presence of different DNA substrates using a variety of biophysical techniques and cryo-EM. We found that a dsDNA region of the AAV origin promotes the formation of a complex containing five Rep68 subunits. Interestingly, non-specific ssDNA promotes the formation of a double-ring Rep68, a known structure formed by the LTag and E1 initiator proteins. The Rep68 ring symmetry is 8-fold, thus differing from the hexameric rings formed by the other SF3 helicases. However, similiar to LTag and E1, Rep68 rings are oriented head-to-head, suggesting that DNA unwinding by the complex proceeds bidirectionally. This novel Rep68 quaternary structure requires both the DNA binding and AAA(+) domains, indicating cooperativity between these regions during oligomerization in vitro. Our study clearly demonstrates that Rep68 can oligomerize through two distinct oligomerization pathways, which depend on both the DNA structure and cooperativity of Rep68 domains. These findings provide insight into the dynamics and oligomeric adaptability of Rep68 and serve as a step towards understanding the role of this multifunctional protein during AAV DNA replication and site-specific integration.

    Title Molecular Architecture of the Human Pre-mrna 3' Processing Complex.
    Date March 2009
    Journal Molecular Cell

    Pre-mRNA 3' end formation is an essential step in eukaryotic gene expression. Over half of human genes produce alternatively polyadenylated mRNAs, suggesting that regulated polyadenylation is an important mechanism for posttranscriptional gene control. Although a number of mammalian mRNA 3' processing factors have been identified, the full protein composition of the 3' processing machinery has not been determined, and its structure is unknown. Here we report the purification and subsequent proteomic and structural characterization of human mRNA 3' processing complexes. Remarkably, the purified 3' processing complex contains approximately 85 proteins, including known and new core 3' processing factors and over 50 proteins that may mediate crosstalk with other processes. Electron microscopic analyses show that the core 3' processing complex has a distinct "kidney" shape and is approximately 250 A in length. Together, our data has revealed the complexity and molecular architecture of the pre-mRNA 3' processing complex.

    Title Structure of the Kinesin13-microtubule Ring Complex.
    Date January 2009
    Journal Structure (london, England : 1993)

    To investigate the mechanism of kinesin13-induced microtubule depolymerization, we have calculated a three-dimensional (3D) map of the kinesin13-microtubule ring complex, using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image analysis. An atomic model of the complex was produced by docking the crystal structures of tubulin and a kinesin13 motor domain (MD) into the 3D map. The model reveals a snapshot of the depolymerization mechanism by providing a 3D view of the complex formed between the kinesin13 MD and a curved tubulin protofilament (pf). It suggests that contacts mediated by kinesin13 class-specific residues in the putative microtubule-binding site stabilize intra-dimer tubulin curvature. In addition, a tubulin-binding site on the kinesin13 MD was identified. Mutations at this class-conserved site selectively disrupt the formation of microtubule-associated ring complexes.

    Title Cryoelectron Tomography of Isolated Desmosomes.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Biochemical Society Transactions

    Desmosomes are a complex assembly of protein molecules that form at the cell surface and mediate cell-cell adhesion. Much is known about the composition of desmosomes and there is an established consensus for the location of and interactions between constituent proteins within the assembly. Furthermore, X-ray crystallography has determined atomic structures of isolated domains from several constituent proteins. Nevertheless, there is a lack of understanding about the architecture of the intact assembly and the physical principles behind the adhesive strength of desmosomes therefore remain vague. We have used electron tomography to address this problem. In previous work, we investigated the in situ structure of desmosomes from newborn mouse skin preserved by freeze-substitution and imaged in resin-embedded thin sections. In our present work, we have isolated desmosomes from cow snout and imaged them in the frozen unstained state. Although not definitive, the resulting images provide support for the irregular groupings of cadherin molecules seen previously in mouse skin.

    Title Structure of a Copper Pump Suggests a Regulatory Role for Its Metal-binding Domain.
    Date August 2008
    Journal Structure (london, England : 1993)

    P-type ATPases play an important role in Cu homeostasis, which provides sufficient Cu for metalloenzyme biosynthesis but prevents oxidative damage of free Cu to the cell. The P(IB) group of P-type ATPases includes ATP-dependent pumps of Cu and other transition metal ions, and it is distinguished from other family members by the presence of N-terminal metal-binding domains (MBD). We have determined structures of two constructs of a Cu pump from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (CopA) by cryoelectron microscopy of tubular crystals, which reveal the overall architecture and domain organization of the molecule. By comparing these structures, we localized its N-terminal MBD within the cytoplasmic domains that use ATP hydrolysis to drive the transport cycle. We have built a pseudoatomic model by fitting existing crystallographic structures into the cryoelectron microscopy maps for CopA, which suggest a Cu-dependent regulatory role for the MBD.

    Title Three-dimensional Structure of the Kdpfabc Complex of Escherichia Coli by Electron Tomography of Two-dimensional Crystals.
    Date May 2008
    Journal Journal of Structural Biology

    The KdpFABC complex (Kdp) functions as a K+ pump in Escherichia coli and is a member of the family of P-type ATPases. Unlike other family members, Kdp has a unique oligomeric composition and is notable for segregating K+ transport and ATP hydrolysis onto separate subunits (KdpA and KdpB, respectively). We have produced two-dimensional crystals of the KdpFABC complex within reconstituted lipid bilayers and determined its three-dimensional structure from negatively stained samples using a combination of electron tomography and real-space averaging. The resulting map is at a resolution of 2.4 nm and reveals a dimer of Kdp molecules as the asymmetric unit; however, only the cytoplasmic domains are visible due to the lack of stain penetration within the lipid bilayer. The sizes of these cytoplasmic domains are consistent with Kdp and, using a pseudo-atomic model, we have described the subunit interactions that stabilize the Kdp dimer within the larger crystallographic array. These results illustrate the utility of electron tomography in structure determination of ordered assemblies, especially when disorder is severe enough to hamper conventional crystallographic analysis.

    Title Electron Cryo-tomographic Structure of Cystovirus Phi 12.
    Date March 2008
    Journal Virology

    Bacteriophage phi 12 is a member of the Cystoviridae virus family and contains a genome consisting of three segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). This virus family contains eight identified members, of which four have been classified in regard to their complete genomic sequence and encoded viral proteins. A phospholipid envelope that contains the integral proteins P6, P9, P10, and P13 surrounds the viral particles. In species phi 6, host infection requires binding of a multimeric P3 complex to type IV pili. In species varphi8, phi 12, and phi 13, the attachment apparatus is a heteromeric protein assembly that utilizes the rough lipopolysaccharide (rlps) as a receptor. In phi 8 the protein components are designated P3a and P3b while in species phi 12 proteins P3a and P3c have been identified in the complex. The phospholipid envelope of the cystoviruses surrounds a nucleocapsid (NC) composed of two shells. The outer shell is composed of protein P8 with a T=13 icosahedral lattice while the primary component of the inner shell is a dodecahedral frame composed of dimeric protein P1. For the current study, the 3D architecture of the intact phi 12 virus was obtained by electron cryo-tomography. The nucleocapsid appears to be centered within the membrane envelope and possibly attached to it by bridging structures. Two types of densities were observed protruding from the membrane envelope. The densities of the first type were elongated, running parallel, and closely associated to the envelope outer surface. In contrast, the second density was positioned about 12 nm above the envelope connected to it by a flexible low-density stem. This second structure formed a torroidal structure termed "the donut" and appears to inhibit BHT-induced viral envelope fusion.

    Title Application of the Iterative Helical Real-space Reconstruction Method to Large Membranous Tubular Crystals of P-type Atpases.
    Date March 2007
    Journal Journal of Structural Biology

    Since the development of three-dimensional helical reconstruction methods in the 1960's, advances in Fourier-Bessel methods have facilitated structure determination to near-atomic resolution. A recently developed iterative helical real-space reconstruction (IHRSR) method provides an alternative that uses single-particle analysis in conjunction with the imposition of helical symmetry. In this work, we have adapted the IHRSR algorithm to work with frozen-hydrated tubular crystals of P-type ATPases. In particular, we have implemented layer-line filtering to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, Wiener-filtering to compensate for the contrast transfer function, solvent flattening to improve reference reconstructions, out-of-plane tilt compensation to deal with flexibility in three dimensions, systematic calculation of Fourier shell correlations to track the progress of the refinement, and tools to control parameters as the refinement progresses. We have tested this procedure on datasets from Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, rabbit skeletal Ca(2+)-ATPase and scallop Ca(2+)-ATPase in order to evaluate the potential for sub-nanometer resolution as well as the robustness in the presence of disorder. We found that Fourier-Bessel methods perform better for well-ordered samples of skeletal Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, although improvements to IHRSR are discussed that should reduce this disparity. On the other hand, IHRSR was very effective for scallop Ca(2+)-ATPase, which was too disordered to analyze by Fourier-Bessel methods.

    Title Role of Metal-binding Domains of the Copper Pump from Archaeoglobus Fulgidus.
    Date November 2006
    Journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

    CopA from the extreme thermophile Archaeoglobus fulgidus is a P-type ATPase that transports Cu(+) and Ag(+) and has individual metal-binding domains (MBDs) at both N- and C-termini. We expressed and purified full-length CopA as well as constructs with MBDs deleted either individually or collectively. Cu(+) and Ag(+)-dependent ATPase assays showed that full-length CopA had submicromolar affinity for both ions, but was inhibited by concentrations above 1muM. Deletion of both MBDs had no effect on affinity but resulted in loss of this inhibition. Individual deletions implicated the N-terminal MBD in causing the inhibition at concentrations >1muM. Rates of phosphoenzyme decay indicated that neither the dephosphorylation step, nor the E1P-E2P equilibrium accounted for this inhibition, suggesting the involvement of a different catalytic step. Alternative hypotheses are discussed by which the N-terminal MBD could influence the catalytic activity of CopA.

    Title Interactions Between Ca2+-atpase and the Pentameric Form of Phospholamban in Two-dimensional Co-crystals.
    Date August 2006
    Journal Biophysical Journal

    Phospholamban (PLB) physically interacts with Ca(2+)-ATPase and regulates contractility of the heart. We have studied this interaction using electron microscopy of large two-dimensional co-crystals of Ca(2+)-ATPase and the I40A mutant of PLB. Crystallization conditions were derived from those previously used for thin, helical crystals, but the addition of a 10-fold higher concentration of magnesium had a dramatic effect on the crystal morphology and packing. Two types of crystals were observed, and were characterized both by standard crystallographic methods and by electron tomography. The two crystal types had the same underlying lattice, which comprised antiparallel dimer ribbons of Ca(2+)-ATPase molecules previously seen in thin, helical crystals, but packed into a novel lattice with p22(1)2(1) symmetry. One crystal type was single-layered, whereas the other was a flattened tube and therefore double-layered. Additional features were observed between the dimer ribbons, which were substantially farther apart than in previous helical crystals. We attributed these additional densities to PLB, and built a three-dimensional model to show potential interactions with Ca(2+)-ATPase. These densities are most consistent with the pentameric form of PLB, despite the use of the presumed monomeric I40A mutant. Furthermore, our results indicate that this pentameric form of PLB is capable of a direct interaction with Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    Title Structural Studies of a Stabilized Phosphoenzyme Intermediate of Ca2+-atpase.
    Date September 2005
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Ca(2+)-ATPase belongs to the family of P-type ATPases and maintains low concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+). Its reaction cycle consists of four main intermediates that alternate ion binding in the transmembrane domain with phosphorylation of an aspartate residue in a cytoplasmic domain. Previous work characterized an ultrastable phosphoenzyme produced first by labeling with fluorescein isothiocyanate, then by allowing this labeled enzyme to establish a maximal Ca(2+) gradient, and finally by removing Ca(2+) from the solution. This phosphoenzyme is characterized by very low fluorescence and has specific enzymatic properties suggesting the existence of a high energy phosphoryl bond. To study the structural properties of this phosphoenzyme, we used cryoelectron microscopy of two-dimensional crystals formed in the presence of decavanadate and determined the structure at 8-A resolution. To our surprise we found that at this resolution the low fluorescence phosphoenzyme had a structure similar to that of the native enzyme crystallized under equivalent conditions. We went on to use glutaraldehyde cross-linking and proteolysis for independent structural assessment and concluded that, like the unphosphorylated native enzyme, Ca(2+) and vanadate exert a strong influence over the global structure of this low fluorescence phosphoenzyme. Based on a structural model with fluorescein isothiocyanate bound at the ATP site, we suggest that the stability as well as the low fluorescence of this phosphoenzyme is due to a fluorescein-mediated cross-link between two cytoplasmic domains that prevents hydrolysis of the aspartyl phosphate. Finally, we consider the alternative possibility that phosphate transfer to fluorescein itself could explain the properties of this low fluorescence species.

    Title Siting, Design and Operational Controls for Snow Disposal Sites.
    Date March 2004
    Journal Water Science and Technology : a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research

    The Municipality of Anchorage (MOA), at 61 degrees north latitude, ploughs and hauls snow from urban streets throughout the winter, incorporating grit and chloride applied to street surfaces for traffic safety. Hauled snow is stored at snow disposal facilities, where it melts at ambient spring temperatures. MOA studies performed from 1998 through 2001 show that disposal site melt processes can be manipulated, through site design and operation practices, to control chloride and turbidity in meltwater. An experimental passive "V-swale" pad configuration tested by MOA investigators reduced site meltwater turbidity by an order of magnitude (to about 50 NTU from the 500 NTU typical of more conventional planar pad geometry). The MOA has developed new siting, design and operational criteria for snow disposal facilities to conform to the tested V-swale pad configuration.

    Title Spatial and Dynamic Interactions Between Phospholamban and the Canine Cardiac Ca2+ Pump Revealed with Use of Heterobifunctional Cross-linking Agents.
    Date January 2004
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Heterobifunctional thiol to amine cross-linking agents were used to gain new insights on the dynamics and conformational factors governing the interaction between the cardiac Ca2+ pump (SERCA2a) and phospholamban (PLB). PLB is a small protein inhibitor of SERCA2a that reduces enzyme affinity for Ca2+ and thereby regulates cardiac contractility. We found that the PLB monomer with Asn27 or Asn30 changed to Cys (N27C-PLB or N30C-PLB) cross-linked to lysine of SERCA2a within seconds with > or =80% efficiency. Optimal cross-linking occurred at spacer chain lengths of 10 and 15 A for N27C and N30C, respectively. The rapid time course of cross-linking indicated that neither dissociation of PLB pentamers nor binding of PLB monomers to SERCA2a was rate-limiting. Cross-linking occurred only to the E2 (Ca2+-free) conformation of SERCA2a, was strongly favored by nucleotide binding to this state, and was completely inhibited by thapsigargin. Protein sequencing in combination with mutagenesis identified of Lys328 of SERCA2a as the target of cross-linking. A three-dimensional map of interacting residues indicated that the cross-linking distances were entirely compatible with the 10-A distance recently determined between N30C of PLB and Cys318 of SERCA2a. In contrast, Lys3 of PLB did not cross-link to any Lys (or Cys) of SERCA2a, suggesting that previous three-dimensional models that constrain Lys3 near residues 397-400 of thapsigargin-inhibited SERCA2a should be viewed with caution. Furthermore, although earlier models of PLB.SERCA2a are based on thapsigargin-bound SERCA, our results suggest that the nucleotide-bound, E2 conformation is substantially different and represents the key conformational state for interacting with PLB.

    Title Structure and Function of the Transcription Elongation Factor Greb Bound to Bacterial Rna Polymerase.
    Date September 2003
    Journal Cell

    Bacterial GreA and GreB promote transcription elongation by stimulating an endogenous, endonucleolytic transcript cleavage activity of the RNA polymerase. The structure of Escherichia coli core RNA polymerase bound to GreB was determined by cryo-electron microscopy and image processing of helical crystals to a nominal resolution of 15 A, allowing fitting of high-resolution RNA polymerase and GreB structures. In the resulting model, the GreB N-terminal coiled-coil domain extends 45 A through a channel directly to the RNA polymerase active site. The model leads to detailed insights into the mechanism of Gre factor activity that explains a wide range of experimental observations and points to a key role for conserved acidic residues at the tip of the Gre factor coiled coil in modifying the RNA polymerase active site to catalyze the cleavage reaction. Mutational studies confirm that these positions are critical for Gre factor function.

    Title Targeted Disruption of the Atp2a1 Gene Encoding the Sarco(endo)plasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Atpase Isoform 1 (serca1) Impairs Diaphragm Function and is Lethal in Neonatal Mice.
    Date July 2003
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Mutations in the ATP2A1 gene, encoding isoform 1 of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1), are one cause of Brody disease, characterized in humans by exercise-induced contraction of fast twitch (type II) skeletal muscle fibers. In an attempt to create a model for Brody disease, the mouse ATP2A1 gene was targeted to generate a SERCA1-null mutant mouse line. In contrast to humans, term SERCA1-null mice had progressive cyanosis and gasping respiration and succumbed from respiratory failure shortly after birth. The percentage of affected homozygote SERCA1(-/-) mice was consistent with predicted Mendelian inheritance. A survey of multiple organs from 10-, 15-, and 18-day embryos revealed no morphological abnormalities, but analysis of the lungs in term mice revealed diffuse congestion and epithelial hypercellularity and studies of the diaphragm muscle revealed prominent hypercontracted regions in scattered fibers and increased fiber size variability. The V(max) of Ca(2+) transport activity in mutant diaphragm and skeletal muscle was reduced by 80% compared with wild-type muscle, and the contractile response to electrical stimulation under physiological conditions was reduced dramatically in mutant diaphragm muscle. No compensatory responses were detected in analysis of mRNAs encoding other Ca(2+) handling proteins or of protein levels. Expression of ATP2A1 is largely restricted to type II fibers, which predominate in normal mouse diaphragm. The absence of SERCA1 in type II fibers, and the absence of compensatory increases in other Ca(2+) handling proteins, coupled with the marked increase in contractile function required of the diaphragm muscle to support postnatal respiration, can account for respiratory failure in term SERCA1-null mice.

    Title A Structural Model for the Catalytic Cycle of Ca(2+)-atpase.
    Date March 2002
    Journal Journal of Molecular Biology

    Ca(2+)-ATPase is responsible for active transport of calcium ions across the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. This coupling involves an ordered sequence of reversible reactions occurring alternately at the ATP site within the cytoplasmic domains, or at the calcium transport sites within the transmembrane domain. These two sites are separated by a large distance and conformational changes have long been postulated to play an important role in their coordination. To characterize the nature of these conformational changes, we have built atomic models for two reaction intermediates and postulated the mechanisms governing the large structural changes. One model is based on fitting the X-ray crystallographic structure of Ca(2+)-ATPase in the E1 state to a new 6 A structure by cryoelectron microscopy in the E2 state. This fit indicates that calcium binding induces enormous movements of all three cytoplasmic domains as well as significant changes in several transmembrane helices. We found that fluorescein isothiocyanate displaced a decavanadate molecule normally located at the intersection of the three cytoplasmic domains, but did not affect their juxtaposition; this result indicates that our model likely reflects a native E2 conformation and not an artifact of decavanadate binding. To explain the dramatic structural effect of calcium binding, we propose that M4 and M5 transmembrane helices are responsive to calcium binding and directly induce rotation of the phosphorylation domain. Furthermore, we hypothesize that both the nucleotide-binding and beta-sheet domains are highly mobile and driven by Brownian motion to elicit phosphoenzyme formation and calcium transport, respectively. If so, the reaction cycle of Ca(2+)-ATPase would have elements of a Brownian ratchet, where the chemical reactions of ATP hydrolysis are used to direct the random thermal oscillations of an innately flexible molecule.

    Title Structure of Na+,k+-atpase at 11-a Resolution: Comparison with Ca2+-atpase in E1 and E2 States.
    Date July 2001
    Journal Biophysical Journal

    Na+,K+-ATPase is a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits and a member of the P-type ATPase family of ion pumps. Here we present an 11-A structure of the heterodimer determined from electron micrographs of unstained frozen-hydrated tubular crystals. For this reconstruction, the enzyme was isolated from supraorbital glands of salt-adapted ducks and was crystallized within the native membranes. Crystallization conditions fixed Na+,K+-ATPase in the vanadate-inhibited E2 conformation, and the crystals had p1 symmetry. A large number of helical symmetries were observed, so a three-dimensional structure was calculated by averaging both Fourier-Bessel coefficients and real-space structures of data from the different symmetries. The resulting structure clearly reveals cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and extracellular regions of the molecule with densities separately attributable to alpha and beta subunits. The overall shape bears a remarkable resemblance to the E2 structure of rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. After aligning these two structures, atomic coordinates for Ca2+-ATPase were fit to Na+,K+-ATPase, and several flexible surface loops, which fit the map poorly, were associated with sequences that differ in the two pumps. Nevertheless, cytoplasmic domains were very similarly arranged, suggesting that the E2-to-E1 conformational change postulated for Ca2+-ATPase probably applies to Na+,K+-ATPase as well as other P-type ATPases.

    Title Structure-function Relationships in the Ca(2+)-binding and Translocation Domain of Serca1: Physiological Correlates in Brody Disease.
    Date January 1999
    Journal Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. Supplementum

    Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of all amino acids in transmembrane helices M4, M5, M6 and M8, which contain known Ca2+ binding residues in the Ca(2+)-ATPase of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, revealed patches of mutation-sensitivity in M4, M5 and M6, but in M8. A six-residue motif, (E/D)GLPA(T/V), in M4 and M6 and its counterpart in M5 were highlighted by mutagenesis. Site-directed disulfide mapping of helices M4 and M6 demonstrated that these transmembrane helices associate as a right-handed coiled-coil. This structural information, combined with the earlier analysis of the association of each Ca2+ binding residue with either Ca2+ binding site I or site II, permitted the development of a "side-by-side" model for the two Ca2+ binding sites in the Ca(2+)-ATPase. In about half of Brody disease families, mutations create stop codons which delete all or part of the Ca2+ binding and translocation domain, resulting in loss of SERCA1 function and muscle disease.

    Title Site-directed Disulfide Mapping of Helices M4 and M6 in the Ca2+ Binding Domain of Serca1a, the Ca2+ Atpase of Fast Twitch Skeletal Muscle Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.
    Date January 1998
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    In an attempt to define the spatial relationships among SERCA1a transmembrane helices M4, M5, M6, and M8, involved in Ca2+ binding, all six cysteine residues were removed from predicted transmembrane sequences by substitution with Ser or Ala. The cysteine-depleted protein retained 44% of wild type Ca2+ transport activity. Pairs of cysteine residues were then reintroduced to determine whether their juxtaposition would result in the formation of disulfide cross-links between transmembrane helices. In initial studies designed to map the juxtaposition of Ca2+ binding residues, Cys was substituted for Glu309 or Gly310 in transmembrane sequence M4, in combination with the substitution of Cys for Glu771 in M5; for Asn796, Thr799, or Asp800 in M6; or for Glu908 in M8. These double mutants all retained the capacity to form a phosphoenzyme intermediate from Pi (but not from ATP in the presence of Ca2+), and in all but mutants E309C/N796C and G310C/N796C, phosphoenzyme formation was insensitive to 100 microM Ca2+. These results support the view that both Glu309 and Asn796 contribute to Ca2+ binding site II, which is not required for conversion of E2, the substrate for Pi phosphorylation, to E1. Cross-linking in mutants E309C/N796C and G310C/D800C established reference points for the orientation of M4 and M6 relative to each other and provided the basis for the prediction of potential additional cross-links. Strong links were formed with the pairs T317C/A804C and T317C/L807C near the cytoplasmic ends of the two helices and with A305C/L792C and A305C/L793C near the lumenal ends. These combined results support the conclusion that M4 and M6 form a right-handed coiled-coil structure that forms part of the pathway of Ca2+ translocation. In addition to providing a possible explanation for the mutation sensitivity of several pairs of residues in these helices, the proposed association of M4 and M6 supports a new model for the orientation of the two Ca2+ binding sites among transmembrane helices M4, M5, and M6.

    Title Structure/function Analysis of the Ca2+ Binding and Translocation Domain of Serca1 and the Role in Brody Disease of the Atp2a1 Gene Encoding Serca1.
    Date January 1998
    Journal Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
    Title The Mechanism of Ca2+ Transport by Sarco(endo)plasmic Reticulum Ca2+-atpases.
    Date December 1997
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Title Factorial Structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.
    Date August 1997
    Journal The British Journal of Clinical Psychology / the British Psychological Society

    This study examined the factorial structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in normal university students (N = 135) and a mixed clinical sample (N = 139). Two highly stable orthogonal factors were observed accounting for 70 and 21 per cent of the variance, respectively. Factor I was interpreted as reflecting undifferentiated executive function while Factor II may measure cognitive abilities associated with attentional function. This work can serve as the basis for further examination of the construct validity of the WCST and has implications for its use.

    Title Scanning Mutagenesis Reveals a Similar Pattern of Mutation Sensitivity in Transmembrane Sequences M4, M5, and M6, but Not in M8, of the Ca2+-atpase of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (serca1a).
    Date January 1997
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Scanning mutagenesis was performed on all amino acids in transmembrane sequences M5, M6, and M8, which, together with M4, make up the Ca2+ binding domain of the Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA1a). When these transmembrane sequences were displayed on a helical net, examination of the effects of 101 novel point mutations and 95 prior mutations carried out on 92 transmembrane amino acids revealed "patches" of sensitivity to mutation in M4, M5, and M6 but not in M8. The patches of mutation-sensitive residues spanned 6 of the 7 tiers of the helical net and covered about 240 degrees at their widest point in tiers 3 or 4 and 140 degrees in tiers 2 and 5. A contiguous column of mutation-insensitive hydrophobic amino acids was found in M4 and M6 and in tiers 4 to 7 of M5. A six-residue motif, (E/D)GLPA(T/V) in tiers 3 and 4 of M4 and M6 with Ca2+-binding residues Glu309 and Asp800 as the first residue, was highlighted by mutation sensitivity. Elements of the motif could also be discerned in M5, but reading in the C-terminal to N-terminal direction. Mutation sensitivity in tier 5 of M4 mirrored mutation sensitivity of tier 5 in M6, although the amino acid sequences were not similar. The motif or its counterpart was found in a region in M4, M5, and M6 that is made up of tiny or small amino acids but is bounded by tiers with a larger percentage of bulky amino acids. Tiers 3, 4, and 5 of M4, M5, and M6 contain Ca2+ binding and affinity mutations, E1P to E2P block mutations and E2P dephosphorylation mutations, indicating an important role for these central tiers in Ca2+ binding and in the conformational changes that accompany Ca2+ translocation. Analysis of M8 revealed only a single mutation-sensitive residue, the Ca2+-binding amino acid, Glu908. This residue and a mutation-insensitive residue, Ala912, were the only vestiges of the motif that was found in M4 and M6. Additional mutations to Glu908 provided further evidence for its role in Ca2+ binding. Since mutation of M8 failed to identify residues involved in blocking conformational changes or altering Ca2+ affinity, it is apparent that M8 plays a peripheral role in Ca2+ binding and translocation in comparison with M4, M5, and M6.

    Title Functional Consequences of Alterations to Hydrophobic Amino Acids Located in the M4 Transmembrane Sector of the Ca(2+)-atpase of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.
    Date September 1993
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Those hydrophobic residues between Ile298 and Ile315 in transmembrane segment M4 of the Ca(2+)-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum, not previously mutated, were mutated systematically in ways that would alter their size or polarity, and functional consequences were measured. Fourteen residues in this sequence are organized as juxtapositions of large, hydrophobic (Val, Leu, Ile) and small (Ala, Gly) residues, and these were altered so that large residues were substituted for small and vice versa. Several mutants exhibited diminished Ca2+ transport, but mutants A305V and A306V lost all Ca2+ transport function. In both cases, the mutants were phosphorylated with ATP in the presence of Ca2+ and with inorganic phosphate only in the absence of Ca2+, indicating that the Ca(2+)-binding sites were intact. Reduced Ca2+ affinity, as measured by Ca2+ dependence of phosphorylation from ATP, was observed for mutant A305V. In both mutants, the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme intermediate (E2P) decayed slowly relative to the wild-type enzyme, suggesting that the E2P to E2 conformational transition was impaired, slowing the rate of the phosphatase reaction. Double mutants which reversed the order of Val304 and Ala305 and Ala306 and Ile307, resulted in the same phenotype as the single Ala mutations. These results, combined with our previous demonstration that Glu309 is a Ca2+ binding residue, that Pro312 is involved in E1P to E2P conformational changes, and that Gly310 is involved in E2P to E2 conformational changes, support the hypothesis that transmembrane segment M4 plays a key role in the Ca2+ transport function of the Ca(2+)-ATPase through its involvement in both the binding of Ca2+ and the subsequent conformational changes which bring about the translocation of Ca2+ to the lumen of the membrane.

    Title Expandable Intraluminal Graft: a Preliminary Study. Work in Progress.
    Date July 1985
    Journal Radiology

    To overcome the problem of recurrence of stenosis after vascular balloon dilatations, we developed an expandable, intraluminal graft that allows dilatation of the lesion and simultaneous placement of a supportive endoprosthesis to prevent recoil of the arterial wall. The graft is made of continuous, woven, stainless steel wire. The resulting tubular mesh has a wall thickness of 200-450 micron and 80% open surface. The grafts, mounted on angioplasty catheters, are introduced through 8-12-F Teflon sheaths. Eleven grafts of 6, 8, and 10 mm in diameter by 20 mm long were placed in the aorta, common carotid, superior mesenteric, iliac, and renal arteries of dogs. Six grafts showed no stenosis in follow-up studies of up to 8 weeks. Two grafts had moderate stenosis as a result of neointimal hyperplasia. Two partial and one complete graft thrombosis occurred in nonheparinized animals in which the graft outflow was restricted. Anticoagulant was not used on a long-term basis. Light and electron microscopy studies showed complete covering of the graft's inner surface by endothelium at 3 weeks.

    Title Linear Discriminant Function Analysis in Neuropsychological Research: Some Uses and Abuses.
    Date April 1979
    Journal Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior

    The present paper addressed the continued misinterpretation and misapplication of linear discriminant function analysis in neuropsychological research. Methodological problems concerning the influence of shrinkage and stepwise selection procedures on LDFA are virtually ignored and affect both the classification and inferential application of LDFA. Throughout the paper examples of potential abuses of LDFA were cited and data from a familiar research problem was employed to demonstrate procedures which enable more accurate interpretation of LDFA results. Linear discriminant function analysis and its multivariate equivalents are powerful and flexible tools for exploring group differences provided appropriate applications and interpretations of results are made.

    Title Congenital Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea Via a Defect in the Stapes Footplate.
    Date June 1967
    Journal The Laryngoscope

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