Sports Medicine Specialist, Orthopedic Surgeons, Pediatric Surgeon
8 years of experience

Accepting new patients
Childrens Anesthesiology Assoc
34th St
University City, Philadelphia, PA 19104
215-590-1527
Locations and availability (7)

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
University of Pennsylvania (2002)
  • Currently 4 of 4 apples
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
Compassionate Doctor Recognition (2013)
Associations
Posna.org
Member

Affiliations ?

Dr. Sankar is affiliated with 2 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
    Pediatric Surgery
    324 S 34th St, Philadelphia, PA 19104
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Chop Clinical Associates
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Sankar has contributed to 21 publications.
    Title Instability of the Hip in Patients with Down Syndrome: Improved Results with Complete Redirectional Acetabular Osteotomy.
    Date December 2011
    Journal The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
    Excerpt

    The treatment of hip instability in patients with Down syndrome is challenging, and the literature provides little data to guide treatment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate our results with complete redirectional acetabular osteotomy and to compare these results with our experience with other procedures.

    Title The Unstable Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: Risk Factors for Osteonecrosis.
    Date December 2010
    Journal Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
    Excerpt

    The incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) after unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) varies widely in the literature (10% to 60%), and few studies have examined why certain unstable slips develop osteonecrosis whereas others do not. Our purpose was to determine risk factors for developing AVN after unstable SCFE.

    Title Predictors of the Need for Femoral Shortening Osteotomy During Open Treatment of Developmental Dislocation of the Hip.
    Date February 2010
    Journal Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
    Excerpt

    It is well accepted that femoral shortening osteotomy can reduce the risk of complications after open reduction of developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH), especially in older children and "high" dislocations. It remains unclear, however, at what age a child needs a femoral shortening osteotomy and what exactly constitutes a "high" dislocation. The purpose of our study was to evaluate age and femoral displacement as predictors of the need for a femoral shortening osteotomy during the open treatment of DDH.

    Title Weight Gain Following Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Ribs Surgery in Children with Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome.
    Date January 2010
    Journal Spine
    Excerpt

    Retrospective review of patients from a multicenter database.

    Title The Recurrent Clubfoot: Can Gait Analysis Help Us Make Better Preoperative Decisions?
    Date April 2009
    Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
    Excerpt

    Gait patterns in children with recurrent clubfoot are often associated with more or less subtle factors contributing to the patterns, such as tibial torsion that might not be detected by visual observation and therefore not considered in a treatment plan. We therefore used gait analysis to elucidate the contributions to recurrent clubfoot deformity and to determine whether gait analysis could be important in preoperative decision-making for these patients. We reviewed all 35 patients (56 feet) referred to our gait laboratory for recurrent deformity following treatment of idiopathic clubfoot. The average age of the children in our series was 6.7 years (range, 3.6-15.4 years). Data were acquired from computerized motion analysis, dynamic electromyography, and static measurements by a physical therapist. We found a high incidence of transverse plane deformities including intoeing in 45 of 56 feet (80%), internal tibial torsion in 40 of 56 feet (71%), and forefoot adductus in 40 of 56 feet (71%). Forty feet were supinated in stance; of these patients, 28 (70%) had overactive tibialis anterior muscle activity based on dynamic EMG. Dynamic compensatory hip external rotation was present in 28 of 56 (50%) of limbs. Thirty of the 35 patients underwent surgery following gait analysis; the most common procedures included split anterior tibial tendon transfers (34), tibial derotational osteotomies (34), and midfoot osteotomies (20). Quantitative gait analysis resulted in 28 changed procedures in 19 of 30 patients (63%) compared to prestudy surgical plans. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    Title Orthopaedic Conditions in the Newborn.
    Date March 2009
    Journal The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
    Excerpt

    The occasional consultation on a neonate can be unfamiliar territory for many orthopaedic surgeons. Just as children are not little adults, newborns are not just little children; rather, they have a unique physiology that affects the presentation of their orthopaedic concerns. Careful physical examination with appropriate understanding of neonatal development is essential to making the proper diagnosis. A flail extremity in the newborn is most commonly attributed to fracture or brachial plexus palsy; however, infection must also be considered and ruled out to prevent long-term morbidity. Metatarsus adductus is the most common foot abnormality, but clubfoot, calcaneovalgus deformity, and congenital vertical talus may also be encountered. Joint contractures that spontaneously improve are normal in the newborn, but it is important to identify and institute proper treatment for early developmental dysplasia of the hip, congenital knee dislocation, and torticollis. Clavicular pseudarthrosis and periosteal reactions may be discovered on radiographic examination. A basic understanding of the relevant conditions will help the orthopaedist with the initial diagnosis and management of orthopaedic issues in the newborn.

    Title Incidence of Occult Fracture in Children with Acute Ankle Injuries.
    Date November 2008
    Journal Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: In skeletally immature children, it can often be difficult to differentiate occult Salter-Harris I fibula fractures from ankle sprains based on physical examination, and often, initial radiographs in both conditions are only notable for soft tissue swelling. The likelihood of a child having subsequent plain radiographic evidence of a fracture in this setting and the likelihood of subsequent fracture displacement have not been previously reported. The purpose of our study was to determine the incidence of occult fracture in these patients and the risk of fracture displacement. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all children seen for acute ankle injuries over a 14-month period at a large tertiary care children's hospital. To be included in the study, patients needed to have acute ankle trauma, an open distal fibula physis, normal radiographs, and localized distal fibular tenderness on examination. Thirty-seven consecutive children met the inclusion criteria, with 1 child having 2 isolated injuries, one of each ankle, 4 months apart. All patients were initially placed in a short leg walking cast and allowed to weight bear as tolerated. Anteroposterior, mortise, and lateral radiographs of the ankle taken 3 weeks after injury were evaluated for periosteal new bone formation and/or fracture displacement. RESULTS: By 3 weeks after injury, there was periosteal new bone formation about the distal fibula in 7 (18%) of 38 ankles. No fractures were displaced during treatment, and no radiographs had greater than 1 mm of new bone formation visible. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first investigation reporting the frequency of plain radiographic evidence of occult distal fibula fractures in children. This study finds that 7 (18%) of 38 acute ankle injuries in children presenting with distal fibula tenderness and normal radiographs show evidence of periosteal new bone formation on follow-up radiographs, implying the presence of an occult fracture. There was no evidence of fracture displacement during treatment, and no fracture demonstrated greater than 1 mm of periosteal new bone.

    Title The Development of Acetabular Retroversion in Children with Legg-calvé-perthes Disease.
    Date October 2008
    Journal Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Ezoe et al showed that the prevalence of acetabular retroversion in adults with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) was 42% versus 6% in normal controls. Our purpose was to study the development of acetabular retroversion in children with LCPD and perhaps draw conclusions regarding cause and effect. METHODS: We reviewed all 271 patients with LCPD seen at our institution to identify those patients with axial imaging before closure of the triradiate cartilage. Fifty-three hips (44 patients) formed our study population; the 35 normal hips in those patients with unilateral disease served as an internal control. Acetabular version was measured on the axial cut with the largest femoral head cross-section. Diseased versus control hips were compared using a paired t test. Two disease-severity subgroups, Herring A or B (42 hips) and B/C or C (11 hips), were compared using an independent-samples t test. In those patients followed past skeletal maturity (16 of 53 hips), we evaluated final AP pelvic radiographs for acetabular retroversion (presence of a crossover sign). RESULTS: Before skeletal maturity, all but 1 patient in our series demonstrated positive acetabular version (anteversion). We found no significant difference between the diseased and control hips: mean acetabular version in LCPD hips was 13.6 +/- 4.3 versus 15.4 +/- 5.4 degrees in unaffected hips. More severe cases (B/C or C) exhibited significantly more relative retroversion (10.8 degrees) than less severe cases (14.6 degrees, P = 0.047). Of the 16 hips followed past skeletal maturity, 5 demonstrated crossover signs on anteroposterior pelvic radiographs, indicating a 31% prevalence of acetabular retroversion. CONCLUSION: Early after diagnosis, the prevalence of acetabular retroversion in our skeletally immature children with LCPD was extremely rare (1.8%), and there was no significant difference in version between the normal hips and hips with LCPD. However, over time, a child with a more deformed femoral head is more likely to develop acetabular retroversion, suggesting a cause-and-effect relationship. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III (case-control).

    Title How Safe is the Operative Treatment of Gartland Type 2 Supracondylar Humerus Fractures in Children?
    Date May 2008
    Journal Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
    Excerpt

    Whereas operative treatment of supracondylar fractures is now standard of care for Gartland type 3 supracondylar humerus fractures in children, the treatment of type 2 fractures remains somewhat controversial. The purpose of this article was to examine the safety and efficacy of closed reduction and pinning of type 2 supracondylar humerus fractures in children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 189 type 2 supracondylar humerus fractures operatively treated at one tertiary care children's hospital from 2000 to 2006. Data were acquired from a review of radiographs and clinical notes. RESULTS: We found no intraoperative surgical or anesthetic complications in our series. None of our cases lost reduction after closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. There were 4 pin tract infections (2.1%) in our series: 3 were treated with antibiotics, and 1 needed irrigation and debridement in the operating room. This was the only patient who required reoperation for any reason. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the largest reported series of type 2 supracondylar humerus fractures in children, we found an extremely low rate of complications after closed reduction and percutaneous pinning; secondary operations were also uncommon (0.5%). Our series demonstrates a high probability of satisfactory outcome after operative treatment of type 2 supracondylar fractures compared with previous studies of children treated by closed reduction without pinning. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level 4 (case series [no or historical control group]).

    Title Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Adolescents: a Survivorship Analysis.
    Date March 2008
    Journal American Journal of Orthopedics (belle Mead, N.j.)
    Excerpt

    There are few reports on the longevity of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in adolescents. In the study reported here, we performed a survivorship analysis of our experience with ACL reconstructions in adolescents. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 276 consecutive patients (girls' bone age, > 13 years; boys' bone age, > 14 years; chronological age, < 18 years) who underwent primary ACL reconstruction. All patients underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction with Achilles tendon soft-tissue allograft using the same technique. Twenty-nine patients (10.5%) were excluded or lost to follow-up. Mean follow-up of the remaining 247 patients was 6.3 years (range, 2-10 years). Data were collected from charts and telephone interviews. Failure was defined as the report of symptomatic knee instability and/or revision ACL surgery. The Kaplan-Meier method showed that 1-year survivorship of ACL reconstruction was 96.4% and 5-year survivorship was 93.1%.

    Title Congenital Osseous Anomalies of the Upper Cervical Spine.
    Date February 2008
    Journal The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: The developmental anatomy and biomechanics of the upper cervical spine are unique in children. Congenital osseous anomalies in this region may be associated with an increased risk for subsequent neurological compromise from instability and/or spinal cord encroachment. We performed a double-cohort study evaluating congenital osseous anomalies of the upper cervical spine in children who presented with one or more clinical problems, and we attempted to outline the risk of possible neurological compromise. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and imaging studies of all children seen and treated for osseous anomalies of the upper cervical spine at our institution between 1988 and 2003. Patients were divided into two cohorts on the basis of the presence or absence of associated syndromes. Parameters reviewed included demographic data, clinical presentation, and imaging features. All anomalies involving the central nervous system, the occipitocervical junction, and the upper cervical osseous canal were included. Complicating sequelae such as canal stenosis, segmental instability, and other anomalies of the central nervous system and spine were identified. RESULTS: Sixty-eight consecutive children were identified. Twenty-one patients had an underlying described syndrome. There were 234 osseous anomalies (average, 3.4 per patient). Three or more anomalies were noted in 79% of the patients. There was no significant difference in the mean number of anomalies (p = 0.80) or in the frequency of any specific anomaly (p > 0.20 for all) between syndromic and nonsyndromic patients. The variety of clinical presentations included neck pain (twenty-six patients), neurological changes (twenty-one patients), and torticollis and/or stiffness (twenty-one patients). Twenty-three patients had more than one complaint. Six patients had isolated spinal instability, twenty-eight had isolated spinal cord encroachment, and six had a combination of both. Forty-four (65%) of the sixty-eight patients underwent surgical decompression and/or arthrodesis principally focused from the foramen magnum to the second cervical vertebra. CONCLUSIONS: As a result of these findings, we recommend a thorough evaluation and advanced imaging of the upper cervical spine in all children who present with symptoms related to the upper cervical spine, to identify associated anomalies and further define the nature of canal encroachment including any potential for neurologic compromise.

    Title Loss of Pin Fixation in Displaced Supracondylar Humeral Fractures in Children: Causes and Prevention.
    Date June 2007
    Journal The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Although the results are generally good following pin fixation of supracondylar humeral fractures in children, occasionally there is postoperative displacement. The purposes of the present study were to identify the causes leading to loss of fixation after pin fixation and to present methods for prevention. METHODS: We evaluated 322 displaced supracondylar humeral fractures that had been treated with percutaneous pin fixation. We examined fracture classification, pin configuration, intraoperative alignment after fixation, change in alignment after fixation, details of additional procedures, and final radiographic and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Adequate radiographs were available for 279 of the 322 fractures. Eight (2.9%) of the 279 fractures were associated with postoperative loss of fixation; all eight were Gartland type-III fractures. Seven of these eight fractures initially had been treated with two lateral-entry pins, and one had been treated with two crossed pins. In patients with Gartland type-III fractures, loss of fixation was successfully avoided more often when three pins were used (with fixation being maintained in thirty-seven of thirty-seven patients) as opposed to when two lateral-entry pins were used (with fixation being maintained in thirty-five of forty-two patients) (p = 0.01). In all cases, loss of fixation was due to technical errors that were identifiable on the intraoperative fluoroscopic images and that could have been prevented with proper technique. We identified three types of pin-fixation errors: (1) failure to engage both fragments with two pins or more, (2) failure to achieve bicortical fixation with two pins or more, and (3) failure to achieve adequate pin separation (>2 mm) at the fracture site. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative displacement following pin fixation of supracondylar humeral fractures in children is uncommon. In the present series, loss of fixation was most likely to occur when Gartland type-III fractures were treated with two lateral-entry pins. There were no failures when three pins were used. In all cases of failure, there were identifiable technical errors in pin placement. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    Title Combined Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries in Adolescents.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
    Excerpt

    Although literature supports bracing of most medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries followed by arthroscopic repair of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears in adults with combined ACL-MCL injuries, little is published regarding the treatment of these injuries in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to present our outcomes after treatment of combined ACL-MCL injuries in a series of adolescents. All 180 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction at our children's hospital from January 1997 to January 2003 were reviewed to identify those patients with concomitant grade II or III MCL injuries. Clinical data were obtained from chart review. All patients were treated with a hinged brace for their MCL injury followed by delayed arthroscopic reconstruction of their ACL using a transphyseal technique with Achilles tendon soft tissue allograft. Patients were contacted by phone to complete Lysholm knee questionnaires and assess return to athletic competition. Data were compared with a control cohort of patients who underwent isolated ACL reconstruction using the same technique. Twelve (6.7%) of 180 patients had combined ACL-MCL injuries. There were 6 boys and 6 girls; the mean age was 15.6 years (range, 14-17 years). Follow-up averaged 5.3 years (range, 2.6-8.2 years), and no patients were lost to follow-up. At last examination, all patients had a stable knee on both Lachman and valgus stress tests; the mean Lysholm knee score was 96 (range, 94-100). All patients were able to return to their preinjury level of athletics. One patient required manipulation for arthrofibrosis. When compared with the control group of 19 isolated ACL reconstructions, there was no significant difference with regards to Lysholm scores or return to athletics.Bracing of grade 2 or 3 MCL injuries followed by ACL reconstruction was an effective means of treating combined ACL-MCL injuries in this small series of adolescent patients.

    Title Os Odontoideum Revisited: the Case for a Multifactorial Etiology.
    Date May 2006
    Journal Spine
    Excerpt

    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of our experience with os odontoideum at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. OBJECTIVE: To review the origin of os odontoideum and provide evidence for two separate etiologies. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of os odontoideum has been debated in the literature. Most authors support a post-traumatic etiology; however, some evidence exists to support a congenital origin. METHODS: We reviewed all 519 abnormal cervical spine radiographs performed from 1991 to 2004 to identify os odontoideum. Medical records and imaging studies were examined to determine: history of trauma, severity of injury, interval from injury to presentation, coexisting syndromes, and associated congenital cervical spine anomalies. RESULTS: Sixteen of 519 patients (3.1%) had os odontoideum. Only 8 of 16 patients reported previous trauma. Only 3 of these 8 injuries occurred with an interval remote enough to allow remodeling of the dens to an ossicle by the time of presentation. Six of 16 patients had associated congenital anomalies in the cervical spine. Three of 16 had a coexisting genetic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Our data supports two separate etiologies for the os odontoideum: post-traumatic and congenital. The data should raise awareness that some children with preexisting syndromes may develop os odontoideum without previous trauma.

    Title Percutaneous Intramedullary Decompression, Curettage, and Grafting with Medical-grade Calcium Sulfate Pellets for Unicameral Bone Cysts in Children: a New Minimally Invasive Technique.
    Date March 2006
    Journal Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
    Excerpt

    Several treatment options exist for unicameral bone cysts (UBCs), including observation, steroid injection, bone marrow injection, and curettage and bone grafting. These are all associated with high recurrence rates, persistence, and occasional complications. Newer techniques have been described, most with variable success and only short follow-up reported. Because of these factors, a new minimally invasive percutaneous technique was developed for the treatment of UBCs in children. Twenty-eight children with UBCs who underwent percutaneous intramedullary decompression, curettage, and grafting with medical-grade calcium sulfate (MGCS) pellets by the senior author (J.P.D.) between April 2000 and April 2003 were analyzed as part of a pediatric musculoskeletal tumor registry at a large tertiary children's hospital. Four patients were lost to follow-up, and the remaining 24 patients had an average follow-up of 21.9 months (range 4-48 months). Twelve patients were followed for at least 24 months. Six of the 24 children had received previous treatment of their UBC, most often at an outside institution. Follow-up was performed through clinical evaluation and radiographic review. Postoperative radiographs at most recent follow-up showed complete healing, defined as more than 95% opacification, in 22 of 24 patients (91.7%). One patient (4.2%) demonstrated partial healing, defined as 80% to 95% opacification. One patient had less than 80% radiographic healing (4.2%). All 24 patients returned to full activities and were asymptomatic at most recent follow-up. The only complication noted was a superficial suture abscess that occurred in one patient; this resolved with local treatment measures. The new minimally invasive technique of percutaneous intramedullary decompression, curettage, and grafting with MGCS pellets demonstrates favorable results with low complication and recurrence rates compared with conventional techniques. The role of intramedullary decompression as a part of this percutaneous technique is discussed.

    Title Long-term Follow-up After One-stage Reconstruction of Dislocated Hips in Patients with Cerebral Palsy.
    Date February 2006
    Journal Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
    Excerpt

    Twelve consecutive patients (average age 10.6 years) with 14 dislocated hips underwent one-stage hip reconstruction between 1973 and 1981. The procedure consisted of (1) adductor myotomy and anterior obturator neurectomy, (2) circumferential capsulotomy, iliopsoas and external rotator tenotomies, and ligamentum teres and pulvinar excision, (3) shortening femoral varus derotational osteotomy, (4) acetabuloplasty, and (5) spica immobilization for 4 weeks. All patients were followed clinically and radiographically at an average of 16.7 (range 12.4-19.5) years. No patients were lost to follow-up. Long-term results revealed complete stability in 13 of 14 hips, with no redislocations or subluxations. The one patient with "instability" had undergone bilateral proximal femoral resections for severe arthritis 12 years after left hip reconstruction; at the time of resection, the left hip was stable and reduced. Pain was absent in 13 of 14 hips. There were no problems with perineal care, decubitus formation, or sitting tolerance. Extension and abduction improved an average of 23 degrees and 10 degrees, respectively. Two patients' ambulatory status improved; none deteriorated. The mean center-edge angle was 35 degrees (range 22-50 degrees), and the mean migration percentage was 10.6% (range 0-31%). Complications included one case of degenerative arthritis, one case of painless coxa vara, and three episodes of supracondylar femur fractures. None of these patients developed radiographic evidence of avascular necrosis. In the authors' experience, one-stage hip reconstruction consisting of soft tissue lengthening, open reduction, femoral osteotomy, and pericapsular acetabuloplasty results in a painless, mobile, and stable hip at long-term follow-up that greatly improves the patient's quality of life.

    Title Left Hip Pain in a 7-year-old Girl.
    Date November 2002
    Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
    Title Sciatic Nerve Blockade in Infant, Adolescent, and Adult Rats: a Comparison of Ropivacaine with Bupivacaine.
    Date November 1998
    Journal Anesthesiology
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine is a newly introduced local anesthetic. No data are available regarding its safety, efficacy, or sensory-selectivity in children. The sciatic block duration and systemic toxicity of bupivacaine and ropivacaine were compared among infant, adolescent, and adult rats. METHODS: Infant, adolescent, and adult rats received blocks with ropivacaine or bupivacaine. Nociceptive, proprioceptive, and motor blockade were assessed. Systemic effects (contralateral leg analgesia, seizures, respiratory distress, apnea) were quantified. Plasma local anesthetic concentrations were measured at terminal apnea. RESULTS: Nerve blockade for a given absolute dose lasted longer in infants than in older rats for both drugs. Block duration from ropivacaine generally was the same as or slightly shorter than bupivacaine. There was no difference in sensory-selectivity between the drugs. Doses required to induce all systemic toxicity indices were inversely related to age (e.g., the lethal dose in 50% of animals [LD50] of ropivacaine in infants is 155 mg/kg; in adults it is 54 mg/kg). All indices of toxicity occurred at higher doses per kilogram for ropivacaine than bupivacaine, at all ages (e.g., the LD50 of bupivacaine in infants is 92 mg/kg; in adults it is 30 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations at terminal apnea were higher for ropivacaine than for bupivacaine at all ages, and were higher in infants than in older rats. CONCLUSIONS: Ropivacaine resembles bupivacaine in its local anesthetic effects but has a greater margin of safety. For a given absolute dose, sciatic blockade in infant rats lasts longer than in adolescents or adults. Although the doses (in milligrams per kilogram) causing toxicity were much higher in infants than in adults, this probably does not correspond to a wider therapeutic index.

    Title Aprotinin in Pediatric Neuromuscular Scoliosis Surgery.
    Date
    Journal European Spine Journal : Official Publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
    Excerpt

    Reduction of blood transfusions in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis can decrease potential complications such as immune suppression, infection, hemolytic reaction and viral transmission. Aprotinin (Trasylol), Bayer), an antifibrinolytic, has proven to be effective in reducing blood loss in cardiac and liver surgery, but little data exists in patients undergoing spinal fusion for neuromuscular scoliosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of aprotinin in pediatric neuromuscular scoliosis patients undergoing spinal fusion. The medical records of all patients undergoing initial spinal fusions for neuromuscular scoliosis between January 1999 and March 2003 were reviewed to determine demographic data, perioperative data, wound drainage and number of transfusion required. Cases were compared to a matched group of historical controls. We had 14 patients in the aprotinin group and 17 in the control group. Total blood loss in the aprotinin group was significantly lower compared to the control group (715 vs. 2,110 ml; P = 0.007). Significantly less blood loss occurred in the aprotinin group when blood loss per kilogram was evaluated as well (23 vs. 60 ml/kg, respectively; P = 0.002). Intra-operative packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions were also significantly lower in the aprotinin group (1.25 vs. 3.16 units; P = 0.001). No clinical evidence of anaphylaxis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or renal failure was observed in the aprotinin group. After considering the price of drug therapy, operating room time, and the cost of blood products, the use of aprotinin saved an average of $8,577 per patient. In our series, the use of aprotinin resulted in decreased blood loss and a decreased rate of transfusions in children with neuromuscular scoliosis undergoing extensive spinal fusion. At out institution, the use of aprotinin is safe and cost effective for patients with neuromuscular scoliosis.

    Title Shortening of Growing-rod Spinal Instrumentation Reverses Cardiac Failure in Child with Marfan Syndrome and Scoliosis. A Case Report.
    Date
    Journal The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
    Title Conservative Versus Surgical Treatment of Late-onset Legg-calve-perthes Disease: a Radiographic Comparison at Skeletal Maturity.
    Date
    Journal Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
    Excerpt

    Late-onset Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD; i.e., disease onset after 8 years) has been associated with a more aggressive course and poorer long-term outcomes. The optimal treatment method of LCPD is still controversial, especially in this late-onset patient population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic outcomes at the end of skeletal maturity in a cohort of patients with late-onset LCPD, comparing the results between conservative and surgical treatment.

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