Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of arrhythmia, which is an irregular heart rate or rhythm. The heart's electrical signals become rapid and disorganized, causing the two upper chambers of the heart (called the atria) to contract very fast and irregularly. This abnormal rhythm is called fibrillation.
Atrial fibrillation is caused by damage to the heart’s electrical system, most often from conditions that affect heart health. When the atria fibrillate, they don’t pump all of the blood out and into the two lower chambers of the heart (called the ventricles). In addition, the atria and ventricles do not beat in a coordinated way. As a result, the amount of blood pumped out of the ventricles to the body is inconsistent. It may be rapid, small amounts of blood or sporadic large amounts of blood.
Atrial fibrillation may be temporary, occurring briefly and stopping on its own. Or, it may be ongoing and require medication or other treatments to restore a normal heart rhythm.
Symptoms of Atrial Fibrillation
The following symptoms of atrial fibrillation are the most common. However, many people have no symptoms at all. Whether or not a person has symptoms, atrial fibrillation increases the risk of having a stroke or heart failure.
- Irregular or rapid heartbeat
- Heart palpitations
- Lightheadedness or fainting
- Extreme fatigue
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Difficulty exercising
Risk Factors for Atrial Fibrillation
More than 2.5 million Americans have atrial fibrillation. The condition is more common in men than in women and in white Americans than in African Americans. Other risk factors include:
- High blood pressure
- Heart failure
- Advanced age
- Heart disease
- Structural heart defects
- Pericarditis (inflamed tissues around the heart)