Along with your medical and family history and the results of your physical examination, your doctor can use a variety of tests to arrive at a correct diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.

The following are some commonly used tests to help diagnose the condition:

  • HbA1c (A1C) test: This test determines a person’s average blood sugar (glucose) level during the previous 6 weeks to 3 months. An A1C level 6.5% or higher on two separate tests is diagnostic for diabetes. Blood is drawn from an arm vein for laboratory analysis. A finger stick test may also be used in a { physician or healthcare }provider's office.

If your A1C tests are inconsistent or not advised (for example, if you are pregnant), your doctor may order one or both of the following tests:

  • Random blood sugar test: This is a blood sampling for your sugar level irrespective of eating times or food intake. A random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter*) or higher on two consecutive testsmeans you may have diabetes. At any time and without previous fasting, blood is drawn from your arm vein for laboratory analysis.
  • Fasting blood sugar test: This test determines if higher-than-normal blood sugar levels are present in your blood. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL or above is diagnostic for diabetes. Blood is drawn from your arm vein for laboratory analysis after you fast for 8 hours.
  • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): This test assesses how well your body breaks down sugar. Following an overnight fast, a sample of your blood is drawn from your arm vein. You then drink a sweet liquid that contains a specific amount of glucose. Your blood is drawn at one hour, two hours and three hours after fluid intake.